Early Influences

Early Influences

1st Edition - January 1, 1978

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  • Editor: Gilbert Gottfried
  • eBook ISBN: 9780323153393

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Studies on the Development of Behavior and the Nervous Systems, Volume 4: Early Influences discusses the effect of various exogenous factors on the early development of behavior and the nervous system. This volume is divided into three sections encompassing nine chapters that specifically consider the prenatal and postnatal effects of drugs, radiation, hormones, nutrition, sensory experience, trauma, and environmental enrichment. Section 1 initially describes the principles of teratology as they apply to functional or behavioral manifestations of prenatally administered drugs. This topic is followed by discussions on the radiation effects on developing mammals; the mechanisms of malformation involved; the use of malformed animals to find correlations between developing brain and behavior; and radiation hazard prevention in humans. This section also deals with the influence of hormones early in life upon sex differences in the behavior of adults and the effects of prenatal stress on offspring behavior. Section 2 examines the significance of proper maternal nutrition in early brain development and the evidence for long-term effects of undernutrition during the brain growth spurt. This section also looks into the behavioral implications of the various methods for producing early undernutrition in experimental animals and their possible relevance to the human condition. Section 3 describes the manipulation of early sensory experience, from total removal of sensory input to modification of stimulus quality, and the effects of such manipulations on the auditory, gustatory, olfactory, tactile, and visual systems. This section also provides an overview of auditory maturation and the consequences of acoustic trauma in the adult. This book is of great value to neurodevelopmental biologists and researchers.

Table of Contents

  • List of Contributors


    Dedication to Herbert G. Birch (1918-1973)

    Section 1 Drugs, Radiation, Hormones


    Behavioral Teratology: Embryopathic and Behavioral Effects of Drugs during Pregnancy

    I. Introduction

    II. Drugs and Prenatal Development: Principles of Teratology and Behavioral Effects

    III. Teratogenic Agents

    IV. Toxic Nonteratogenic Drugs in Animals and Humans

    V. Summary


    Effects of Ionizing Radiation on Developing Brain and Behavior

    I. Introduction

    II. Radiosensitivity of Developing Cells and Malformative Processes

    III. Behavioral Development in Rats following Prenatal Irradiation: The Search for Correlations between Altered Structure and Function

    IV. Effects of Radiation on Infant Rats

    V. Effects of Radiation on Humans

    VI. Summary and Conclusions


    Hormonal Influences on Brain and Behavioral Development

    I. Introduction

    II. Sexual Differentiation

    III. Sexual Differentiation in Primates

    IV. Sexual Differentiation in Birds

    V. Conclusions


    Hormonal Mediation of the Effects of Prenatal Stress on Offspring Behavior

    I. Introduction

    II. Hormonal Mediation: Background

    III. Hormonal Mediation of Prenatal Stress Effects: Hypotheses

    IV. Evidence

    V. Implications and Conclusions


    Section 2 Nutrition


    Nutritional Influences on Prenatal Brain Development

    I. Introduction

    II. Nutrients in Prenatal Brain Development

    III. Regulatory Factors and Timing in Prenatal Brain Development

    IV. Prenatal Malnutrition and Brain Development

    V. "Supernutrition" and Optimal Brain Development

    VI. Summary and Conclusions


    Influence of Early Undernutrition on Behavioral Development and Learning in Rodents

    I. Introduction

    II. Undernutrition and Critical Periods during Growth

    III. The Vulnerable Period Hypothesis

    IV. Undernutrition and Physical Development of the Brain

    V. Undernutrition and Behavioral Development

    VI. Undernutrition and Later Behavior

    VII. Conclusions


    Section 3 Sensory Experience, Overload, Enrichment


    Effect of Early Sensory Experience on Brain and Behavioral Development

    I. Introduction

    II. Early Auditory Experience

    III. Early Gustatory Experience

    IV. Early Olfactory Experience

    V. Early Tactile Experience

    VI. Early Visual Experience

    VII. General Discussion

    VIII. Summary


    Influences of Early Auditory Trauma on Auditory Development

    I. Introduction

    II. Normal Functional and Anatomical Development of the Auditory System

    III. The Effects of Intense Sound on Hearing

    IV. Overstimulation Damage in Children and Young Animals

    V. Conclusions


    Experiential Influences on Brain Anatomy and Brain Chemistry in Rodents

    I. Introduction and Scope

    II. Cerebral and Behavioral Effects Induced by Experience in Differential Environments

    III. Mechanisms Hypothesized to Mediate Production of Cerebral Effects of Differential Experience

    IV. Extensions of This Research and Related Investigations

    V. Roles of Experience

    VI. Conclusions


    Section 4 Epilogue

    Author Index

    Subject Index

    Contents of Previous Volumes

Product details

  • No. of pages: 376
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Academic Press 1978
  • Published: January 1, 1978
  • Imprint: Academic Press
  • eBook ISBN: 9780323153393

About the Editor

Gilbert Gottfried

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