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Early Influences - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780126093049, 9780323153393

Early Influences

1st Edition

Editor: Gilbert Gottfried
Paperback ISBN: 9780124315372
Hardcover ISBN: 9780126093049
eBook ISBN: 9780323153393
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 1st January 1978
Page Count: 376
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Studies on the Development of Behavior and the Nervous Systems, Volume 4: Early Influences discusses the effect of various exogenous factors on the early development of behavior and the nervous system. This volume is divided into three sections encompassing nine chapters that specifically consider the prenatal and postnatal effects of drugs, radiation, hormones, nutrition, sensory experience, trauma, and environmental enrichment. Section 1 initially describes the principles of teratology as they apply to functional or behavioral manifestations of prenatally administered drugs. This topic is followed by discussions on the radiation effects on developing mammals; the mechanisms of malformation involved; the use of malformed animals to find correlations between developing brain and behavior; and radiation hazard prevention in humans. This section also deals with the influence of hormones early in life upon sex differences in the behavior of adults and the effects of prenatal stress on offspring behavior. Section 2 examines the significance of proper maternal nutrition in early brain development and the evidence for long-term effects of undernutrition during the brain growth spurt. This section also looks into the behavioral implications of the various methods for producing early undernutrition in experimental animals and their possible relevance to the human condition. Section 3 describes the manipulation of early sensory experience, from total removal of sensory input to modification of stimulus quality, and the effects of such manipulations on the auditory, gustatory, olfactory, tactile, and visual systems. This section also provides an overview of auditory maturation and the consequences of acoustic trauma in the adult. This book is of great value to neurodevelopmental biologists and researchers.

Table of Contents

List of Contributors


Dedication to Herbert G. Birch (1918-1973)

Section 1 Drugs, Radiation, Hormones


Behavioral Teratology: Embryopathic and Behavioral Effects of Drugs during Pregnancy

I. Introduction

II. Drugs and Prenatal Development: Principles of Teratology and Behavioral Effects

III. Teratogenic Agents

IV. Toxic Nonteratogenic Drugs in Animals and Humans

V. Summary


Effects of Ionizing Radiation on Developing Brain and Behavior

I. Introduction

II. Radiosensitivity of Developing Cells and Malformative Processes

III. Behavioral Development in Rats following Prenatal Irradiation: The Search for Correlations between Altered Structure and Function

IV. Effects of Radiation on Infant Rats

V. Effects of Radiation on Humans

VI. Summary and Conclusions


Hormonal Influences on Brain and Behavioral Development

I. Introduction

II. Sexual Differentiation

III. Sexual Differentiation in Primates

IV. Sexual Differentiation in Birds

V. Conclusions


Hormonal Mediation of the Effects of Prenatal Stress on Offspring Behavior

I. Introduction

II. Hormonal Mediation: Background

III. Hormonal Mediation of Prenatal Stress Effects: Hypotheses

IV. Evidence

V. Implications and Conclusions


Section 2 Nutrition


Nutritional Influences on Prenatal Brain Development

I. Introduction

II. Nutrients in Prenatal Brain Development

III. Regulatory Factors and Timing in Prenatal Brain Development

IV. Prenatal Malnutrition and Brain Development

V. "Supernutrition" and Optimal Brain Development

VI. Summary and Conclusions


Influence of Early Undernutrition on Behavioral Development and Learning in Rodents

I. Introduction

II. Undernutrition and Critical Periods during Growth

III. The Vulnerable Period Hypothesis

IV. Undernutrition and Physical Development of the Brain

V. Undernutrition and Behavioral Development

VI. Undernutrition and Later Behavior

VII. Conclusions


Section 3 Sensory Experience, Overload, Enrichment


Effect of Early Sensory Experience on Brain and Behavioral Development

I. Introduction

II. Early Auditory Experience

III. Early Gustatory Experience

IV. Early Olfactory Experience

V. Early Tactile Experience

VI. Early Visual Experience

VII. General Discussion

VIII. Summary


Influences of Early Auditory Trauma on Auditory Development

I. Introduction

II. Normal Functional and Anatomical Development of the Auditory System

III. The Effects of Intense Sound on Hearing

IV. Overstimulation Damage in Children and Young Animals

V. Conclusions


Experiential Influences on Brain Anatomy and Brain Chemistry in Rodents

I. Introduction and Scope

II. Cerebral and Behavioral Effects Induced by Experience in Differential Environments

III. Mechanisms Hypothesized to Mediate Production of Cerebral Effects of Differential Experience

IV. Extensions of This Research and Related Investigations

V. Roles of Experience

VI. Conclusions


Section 4 Epilogue

Author Index

Subject Index

Contents of Previous Volumes


No. of pages:
© Academic Press 1978
1st January 1978
Academic Press
Paperback ISBN:
Hardcover ISBN:
eBook ISBN:

About the Editor

Gilbert Gottfried

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