Early Brain Damage V2 - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780120529025, 9780323151771

Early Brain Damage V2

1st Edition

Neurobiology and Behavior

Editors: Stanley Finger
eBook ISBN: 9780323151771
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 13th August 1984
Page Count: 408
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Description

Early Brain Damage, Volume 2: Neurobiology and Behavior, is the second of two volumes that provide a comprehensive overview of the many facets of research on the topic of brain damage sustained early in life. The present volume focuses on controlled experimentation on laboratory animals, and emphasizes the anatomical and physiological correlates of early brain-insult as well as the behavioral changes that may follow central nervous system damage early in life. This book is organized into three parts. Part I examines recent advances in anatomy and physiology, and covers topics such as axonal sprouting and changes in brain areas somewhat removed from the actual site of damage. Part II emphasizes current knowledge about the behavioral effects of specific lesions, such as those of the frontal or posterior cortical areas. Part III examines factors that can affect the response to early brain damage, including genetics, environmental conditions after early injury, and the differential effects resulting from sparing small fragments of a brain area.

This book was written for researchers and professional personnel interested in the topic of brain damage, and especially toward those interested in the many developmental brain-damage issues emanating from laboratory animal studies and human case reports.

Table of Contents


Contributors

Preface

Contents of Volume 1

I. Anatomy and Physiology

1. Neuronal Reaction to Injury during Development

Introduction to the Field

Cytological Maturation Related to Nature of Response to Injury

Considerations in Comparing Results and Drawing Conclusions

Summary Statements

References

2. Embryonic Dopaminergic Neurons in Culture and as Transplants

Introduction

Embryonic Dopaminergic Neurons in Primary Monolayer Cultures

Embryonic Dopaminergic Neurons in Three-Dimensional Aggregate Cultures

Transplantation of Embryonic Dopaminergic Neurons into Adult Rodent Brains

References

3. Lesion-Induced Sprouting in the Red Nucleus at the Early Developmental Stage

Introduction

Sprouting and Formation of New Synapses in Red Nucleus Neurons following Ipsilateral Cerebral Cortex Lesions

Effect of Ganglioside Application on Synaptic Plasticity

References

4. Multiple Effects of Lesions on Brain Structure in Young Rats

Introduction

Some Historical Background

Our Earlier Work on This Problem

Procedures

Results

Discussion

Conclusions

References

II. Behavioral Biology

5. A New Perspective for the Interpretation of Early Brain Damage

Introduction

Secondary Reactions after Brain Damage in Adult Animals

Sources of Potential Age-Related Differences in Secondary Reactions after Brain Damage

Needs and Behavioral Strategies of Young Animals

Assessing the Effects of Early Brain Damage

Summary and Conclusions

References

6. Early Brain Damage and Time Course of Behavioral Dysfunction: Parallels with Neural Maturation

Introduction

Age-Brain-Damage Relationship: The Lateral Hypothalamus

Relationship between Development of the Lateral Hypothalamus, Brain Damage, and Behavioral Dysfunction

Conclusions

References

7. Behavioral and Anatomical Studies of Rats with Complete or Partial Decortication in Infancy

Introduction

The Role of Subcortical Structures in Sparing

The Role of Cortical Structures in Sparing

Conclusions

References

8. Functional Development of the Prefrontal System

Introduction

The Prefrontal System: Anatomical Relationships

Immediate Effects of Early Damage

Long-Term Effects of Early Damage

Maturation of Prefrontal Connections

Summary and Conclusions

References

9. The Effects of Early Cerebellar Hemispherectomy in the Rat: Behavioral; Neuroanatomical, and Electrophysiological Sequelae

Introduction

The Effects of Cerebellar Hemispherectomy at Early and Later Ages on Locomotor Behavior

Quantitative Relations between Aberrant and Normal Cerebellorubral Connections

Electrical Activity in the Red Nuclei after Early Cerebellar Hemispherectomy

Conclusion

References

10. Neonatal Cerebral Hemispherectomy: A Model for Postlesion Reorganization of the Brain

Introduction

Neurological and Behavioral Studies

Anatomical Studies

Discussion

Conclusions

References

11. Bases of Recoveries from Perinatal Injuries to the Cerebral Cortex

Introduction

Our First Approaches to the Problem

Nature of the Spatial Vision of Decorticated Mammals

The Equipotential Function of the Cerebral Cortex

Effects of Early Injuries to the Holistic System

Reflections, Suggestions, and Conclusions

References

12. Consequences of Early Visual Cortex Damage in Cats

Introduction

Behavioral Consequences of Visual Cortex Damage

Neural Consequences of Visual Cortex Damage

Critical Periods

Relationships between Brain and Behavior

References

13. Olfactory Bulb Control of Sexual Function

Introduction

Olfactory Bulbectomy and Masculine Copulatory Behavior

Olfactory Bulbectomy and Feminine Copulatory Behavior

Effects of Olfactory Bulbectomy in Juveniles and Neonates

Conclusions

References

14. Organismic Set-Point System in Dorsomedial Hypothalamic Nuclei

Introduction

Food Intake

Intermediary Metabolism

Extra- and Intracellular Thirst Mechanisms

Hormones

Organismic Resetting Hypothesis

References

III. Variables Interacting with Early Brain Damage

15. Roots to the Future: Gene-Environment Coaction and Individual Vulnerability to Neural Insult

General Overview

Gene-Environment Interactions and Correlations

Vulnerability to Brain Insult

General Overview Revisited

References

16. Sex-Steroid-Induced Alterations in the Behavioral Effects of Brain Damage

Introduction

Psychoneuroendocrine Functions of the Septum

Interaction of Estrogen and Septal Lesions in Adult Male Rats

Interaction of Testosterone and Septal Lesions in Adult Female Rats

Implications and Directions for Future Research

References

17. Some Factors Affecting Behavior after Brain Damage Early in Life

The Kennard Principle

Factors Affecting the Results of Infant-Lesion Studies

Complete versus Subtotal Lesions Made in Infancy

Effect of Subtotal Lesions in Infancy and Adulthood

Compensation or Reorganization?

Summary and Conclusions

References

18. Early Brain Damage and Early Environment

Introduction

The Study of the Age Factor: Some Methodological Problems

Interactions between Environment, Lesion, and Age: Behavioral Studies

Interactions between Environment, Lesion, and Age: Brain Measures

Conclusion: The Kennard Principle Needs Qualification

References

Author Index

Subject Index






Details

No. of pages:
408
Language:
English
Copyright:
© Academic Press 1984
Published:
Imprint:
Academic Press
eBook ISBN:
9780323151771

About the Editor

Stanley Finger