Early Brain Damage V1 - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780120529018, 9780323152716

Early Brain Damage V1

1st Edition

Research Orientations and Clinical Observations

Editors: C.R. Almli
eBook ISBN: 9780323152716
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 13th August 1984
Page Count: 388
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Description

Early Brain Damage, Volume 1: Research Orientations and Clinical Observations, is the first of two volumes that provide a comprehensive overview of the many facets of research on the topic of brain damage sustained early in life. The present volume features a collection of chapters oriented toward early brain damage in human clinical populations. It is organized into four parts. Part I presents research strategies and theoretical issues, such as intermodal compensation and evolutionary considerations, relating to early brain-damage phenomena. Part II presents research on animal models of infant neuropathological conditions such as hypoxia, fetal radiation, locomotor hyperactivity, and attentional disorders. Part III is concerned with short-term and long-term neurological effects of brain damage in children, including chapters on perinatal asphyxia, behavioral consequences of cerebral insult sustained during infancy, and correlates of early generalized brain dysfunction in children. Part IV presents chapters on cerebral lateralization and higher-order functions as they are altered by early brain damage. This book was written for researchers and professionals interested in the topic of brain damage, and especially those interested in the developmental brain-damage issues emanating from laboratory animal studies and human case reports.

Table of Contents


Contributors

Preface

Contents of Volume 2

I. Research Strategies and Theoretical Issues

1. Intermodal Compensation following Damage or Deprivation: A Review of Behavioral and Neural Evidence

Introduction

Intermodal Compensation

Compensatory Hypertrophy in the CNS

CNS Evidence for Functional Reallocation

Prosthetic Facilitation of Compensatory Processes

Possible Neural Bases for Active Reorganization

Summary and Conclusions

References

2. Evolutionary Advantages and Limitations of Early Plasticity

Prologue

Introduction: Evolution of Restricted Areas of Ontogenetic Flexibility in Higher Organisms

Conservativeness in the Origins and Maintenance of Information

Subsystems and Hierarchical Structure

Least Underlying Change: Resemblances between Ontogeny and Phylogeny

Biasing Subsystems Costs Less Than Organizing Them

Conservation of Neurons and the Crowding Hypothesis

References

3. Lesion-Induced Neuroplasticity and the Sparing or Recovery of Function following Early Brain Damage

Introduction

Evolution of the Hypothesis

Functional Significance of Lesion-Induced Reorganization of Circuitry

Strategies for Evaluating the Functional Consequences of Lesion-Induced Growth

Conclusions

References

II. Animal Models of Pathological States

4. Early Brain Damage due to Hypoxia

Survival during Hypoxia

Chronic Effects of Hypoxia

Relevance to Human Pathology

References

5. The Ontogeny of Locomotor Behavior following Lesions of Brain Dopamine Neuronal Projections in the Neonatal Rat

Introduction

Brain Dopamine and Locomotion

The Effect of Neonatal Brain Dopamine Depletion on Locomotor Activity

Pharmacological Studies in Dopamine-Depleted Neonatal Rats

The Effect of Neonatal Brain Dopamine Depletion on the Acquisition of Operant Behavior

Summary

References

6. Early Brain Damage and Attentional Deficit Disorder: An Animal Model

Background

Animal Research

Directions for Future Research

References

7. Recovery or Malformation after Fetal Radiation and Other Injuries

Introduction

Regulation, Morphogenetic Fields, and Recovery from Injury

Cell Contacts and Junctions in the Neural Plate and Tube

Interactions between the Epithelium (Neuroepithelium) and the Extracellular Matrix, including the Basement Membrane

Radiation as an Experimental Tool in Studying Mammalian Regulation and Malformation

Current Studies of Successful and Failed Regulation in Developing Rats

Concluding Remarks

References

III. Short- and Long-Term Neurological Effects of Brain Damage in Children

8. The Neurological Outcome of Perinatal Asphyxia

Introduction

Neuropathological Features

Clinical Aspects

Diagnosis

Clinicopathological Correlations

Conclusions

References

9 Obstetrics, Neonatal Neurology, and Later Outcome

Introduction

The Perinatal Project Groningen

Conclusion

References

10 Behavioral Consequences of Cerebral Insult in Infancy

Introduction

Neural Plasticity and Equipotentiality

Other Insults to the Infant Brain

Conclusions

References

11 Neuropsychological Correlates of Early Generalized Brain Dysfunction in Children

Introduction

Effects of Early Generalized Damage

Areas in Need of Further Research

Summary and Conclusions

References

IV Cerebral Lateralization and Higher-Order Functions

12 Functional and Neuronal Plasticity: The Evidence from Callosal Agenesis

Introduction

Background

Behavioral and Cognitive Consequences of Callosal Agenesis

Compensatory Mechanisms: Neurological, Functional, and Behavioral

Effects of Postnatal-Prematurity Callosal Lesions

General Conclusions

References

13. Early Brain Damage and the Ontogenesis of Functional Asymmetry

Introduction

Brain Damage and Manual Dominance

Brain Damage and Trophic Changes

Brain Damage and Higher Cognitive Functions

Summary and General Conclusions

References

14. The Effects of Cortical Lesions in Children: Language and Visual Functions

Introduction

Acquired Aphasia in Children with Early Left-Hemisphere Lesions

Visual Functions following Early Visual-Cortex Damage

General Conclusion

References

15. Early and Long-Term Recovery from Brain Damage in Children and Adults: Evolution of Concepts of Localization; Plasticity, and Recovery

Evolution of Current Concepts

Emerging Sources of Ambiguity in Lesion Experiments

Time and Other Interacting Factors

Mechanisms of Recovery Indicated after Hemispherectomy and Commissurotomy

Early Recovery and Later Degeneration

Long-Term Recovery or Development of Functions

Diaschisis

Discharging Lesions: Epilepsy

Principles of Organization, Disorganization, and Reorganization

Conclusions

References

16. Early Brain Injury and Cognitive Development

Introduction

Early Plasticity

Early Vulnerability

A Reformulation

Conclusion

References

Author Index

Subject Index






Details

No. of pages:
388
Language:
English
Copyright:
© Academic Press 1984
Published:
Imprint:
Academic Press
eBook ISBN:
9780323152716

About the Editor

C.R. Almli