Early Brain Damage V1

Early Brain Damage V1

Research Orientations and Clinical Observations

1st Edition - August 13, 1984

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  • Editor: C.R. Almli
  • eBook ISBN: 9780323152716

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Early Brain Damage, Volume 1: Research Orientations and Clinical Observations, is the first of two volumes that provide a comprehensive overview of the many facets of research on the topic of brain damage sustained early in life. The present volume features a collection of chapters oriented toward early brain damage in human clinical populations. It is organized into four parts. Part I presents research strategies and theoretical issues, such as intermodal compensation and evolutionary considerations, relating to early brain-damage phenomena. Part II presents research on animal models of infant neuropathological conditions such as hypoxia, fetal radiation, locomotor hyperactivity, and attentional disorders. Part III is concerned with short-term and long-term neurological effects of brain damage in children, including chapters on perinatal asphyxia, behavioral consequences of cerebral insult sustained during infancy, and correlates of early generalized brain dysfunction in children. Part IV presents chapters on cerebral lateralization and higher-order functions as they are altered by early brain damage. This book was written for researchers and professionals interested in the topic of brain damage, and especially those interested in the developmental brain-damage issues emanating from laboratory animal studies and human case reports.

Table of Contents

  • Contributors


    Contents of Volume 2

    I. Research Strategies and Theoretical Issues

    1. Intermodal Compensation following Damage or Deprivation: A Review of Behavioral and Neural Evidence


    Intermodal Compensation

    Compensatory Hypertrophy in the CNS

    CNS Evidence for Functional Reallocation

    Prosthetic Facilitation of Compensatory Processes

    Possible Neural Bases for Active Reorganization

    Summary and Conclusions


    2. Evolutionary Advantages and Limitations of Early Plasticity


    Introduction: Evolution of Restricted Areas of Ontogenetic Flexibility in Higher Organisms

    Conservativeness in the Origins and Maintenance of Information

    Subsystems and Hierarchical Structure

    Least Underlying Change: Resemblances between Ontogeny and Phylogeny

    Biasing Subsystems Costs Less Than Organizing Them

    Conservation of Neurons and the Crowding Hypothesis


    3. Lesion-Induced Neuroplasticity and the Sparing or Recovery of Function following Early Brain Damage


    Evolution of the Hypothesis

    Functional Significance of Lesion-Induced Reorganization of Circuitry

    Strategies for Evaluating the Functional Consequences of Lesion-Induced Growth



    II. Animal Models of Pathological States

    4. Early Brain Damage due to Hypoxia

    Survival during Hypoxia

    Chronic Effects of Hypoxia

    Relevance to Human Pathology


    5. The Ontogeny of Locomotor Behavior following Lesions of Brain Dopamine Neuronal Projections in the Neonatal Rat


    Brain Dopamine and Locomotion

    The Effect of Neonatal Brain Dopamine Depletion on Locomotor Activity

    Pharmacological Studies in Dopamine-Depleted Neonatal Rats

    The Effect of Neonatal Brain Dopamine Depletion on the Acquisition of Operant Behavior



    6. Early Brain Damage and Attentional Deficit Disorder: An Animal Model


    Animal Research

    Directions for Future Research


    7. Recovery or Malformation after Fetal Radiation and Other Injuries


    Regulation, Morphogenetic Fields, and Recovery from Injury

    Cell Contacts and Junctions in the Neural Plate and Tube

    Interactions between the Epithelium (Neuroepithelium) and the Extracellular Matrix, including the Basement Membrane

    Radiation as an Experimental Tool in Studying Mammalian Regulation and Malformation

    Current Studies of Successful and Failed Regulation in Developing Rats

    Concluding Remarks


    III. Short- and Long-Term Neurological Effects of Brain Damage in Children

    8. The Neurological Outcome of Perinatal Asphyxia


    Neuropathological Features

    Clinical Aspects


    Clinicopathological Correlations



    9 Obstetrics, Neonatal Neurology, and Later Outcome


    The Perinatal Project Groningen



    10 Behavioral Consequences of Cerebral Insult in Infancy


    Neural Plasticity and Equipotentiality

    Other Insults to the Infant Brain



    11 Neuropsychological Correlates of Early Generalized Brain Dysfunction in Children


    Effects of Early Generalized Damage

    Areas in Need of Further Research

    Summary and Conclusions


    IV Cerebral Lateralization and Higher-Order Functions

    12 Functional and Neuronal Plasticity: The Evidence from Callosal Agenesis



    Behavioral and Cognitive Consequences of Callosal Agenesis

    Compensatory Mechanisms: Neurological, Functional, and Behavioral

    Effects of Postnatal-Prematurity Callosal Lesions

    General Conclusions


    13. Early Brain Damage and the Ontogenesis of Functional Asymmetry


    Brain Damage and Manual Dominance

    Brain Damage and Trophic Changes

    Brain Damage and Higher Cognitive Functions

    Summary and General Conclusions


    14. The Effects of Cortical Lesions in Children: Language and Visual Functions


    Acquired Aphasia in Children with Early Left-Hemisphere Lesions

    Visual Functions following Early Visual-Cortex Damage

    General Conclusion


    15. Early and Long-Term Recovery from Brain Damage in Children and Adults: Evolution of Concepts of Localization; Plasticity, and Recovery

    Evolution of Current Concepts

    Emerging Sources of Ambiguity in Lesion Experiments

    Time and Other Interacting Factors

    Mechanisms of Recovery Indicated after Hemispherectomy and Commissurotomy

    Early Recovery and Later Degeneration

    Long-Term Recovery or Development of Functions


    Discharging Lesions: Epilepsy

    Principles of Organization, Disorganization, and Reorganization



    16. Early Brain Injury and Cognitive Development


    Early Plasticity

    Early Vulnerability

    A Reformulation



    Author Index

    Subject Index

Product details

  • No. of pages: 388
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Academic Press 1984
  • Published: August 13, 1984
  • Imprint: Academic Press
  • eBook ISBN: 9780323152716

About the Editor

C.R. Almli

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