Dynamic Fracture - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780080443522, 9780080472553

Dynamic Fracture

1st Edition

Authors: K. Ravi-Chandar
eBook ISBN: 9780080472553
Hardcover ISBN: 9780080443522
Imprint: Elsevier Science
Published Date: 16th October 2004
Page Count: 264
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Dynamic fracture in solids has attracted much attention for over a century from engineers as well as physicists due both to its technological interest and to inherent scientific curiosity. Rapidly applied loads are encountered in a number of technical applications. In some cases such loads might be applied deliberately, as for example in problems of blasting, mining, and comminution or fragmentation; in other cases, such dynamic loads might arise from accidental conditions. Regardless of the origin of the rapid loading, it is necessary to understand the mechanisms and mechanics of fracture under dynamic loading conditions in order to design suitable procedures for assessing the susceptibility to fracture. Quite apart from its repercussions in the area of structural integrity, fundamental scientific curiosity has continued to play a large role in engendering interest in dynamic fracture problems

Key Features

  • In-depth coverage of the mechanics, experimental methods, practical applications
  • Summary of material response of different materials
  • Discussion of unresolved issues in dynamic fracture


Research and practising engineers in academia and industry in mechanical, structural and civil engineering

Table of Contents




1.1 Pressurized Thermal Shock in Nuclear Containment Vessels

1.2 Boiler and Pipeline Burst Problems

1.3 Dynamic Fracture in Airplane Structures

1.4 Notched Bar Impact Testing of Metallic Materials

2. Linear Elastodynamics

2.1 Fundamental Boundary-Initial Value Problems in Elastodynamics

2.2 Bulk Waves

2.3 Lame´ Solution

2.4 Plane Waves

2.5 Propagation of Discontinuities: Wavefronts and Rays

2.6 Two-Dimensional Problems in Elastodynamics

2.6.1 Anti-Plane Shear

2.6.2 Plane Strain

2.6.3 Plane Stress

2.7 Surface Waves

2.8 Half-Space Green’s Functions

2.9 Lamb’s Problem

3. Dynamic Crack Tip Fields

3.1 Dynamically Loaded Cracks

3.2 Asymptotic Analysis of Crack Tip Fields

3.2.1 Anti-Plane Shear

3.2.2 In-Plane Symmetric Deformation

3.2.3 In-Plane Antisymmetric Deformation

3.3 Asymptotic Analysis for Nonsteady Crack Growth

3.4 Intersonic Crack Growth

4. Determination of Dynamic Stress Intensity Factors

4.1 Analysis of Stationary Cracks Under Dynamic Loading

4.1.1 Semi-Infinite Crack Under Uniform Loading

4.1.2 Semi-Infinite Crack Under a Point Load

4.2 Analysis of Moving Crack Problems

4.2.1 The Yoffe Problem

4.2.2 Dynamic Stress Intensity Factors for Moving Cracks

5. Energy Balance and Fracture Criteria

5.1 Energy Balance Equation

5.2 Dynamic Failure Criterion

5.3 Dynamic Crack Initiation Toughness

5.4 Dynamic Crack Growth Toughness

5.5 Dynamic Crack Arrest Toughness

5.6 Application of Dynamic Failure Criteria

6. Methods of Generating Dynamic Loading

6.1 Static Loading of Cracks

6.2 Drop-Weight Tower and Instrumented Impact Testing

6.3 Projectile Impact

6.4 Hopkinson Bar Impact Test

6.5 Explosives

6.6 Electromagnetic Loading

7. Measurement of Crack Speed

7.1 Wallner Lines

7.2 Stress Wave Fractography

7.3 Electrical Resistance Methods

7.4 High-Speed Photography

8. Crack Tip Stress and Deformation Field Measurement

8.1 Jones Calculus

8.2 Photoelasticity

8.2.1 Evaluation of the Dynamic Stress Intensity Factor using Photoelasticity

8.3 Method of Caustics

8.3.2 Caustic in Reflection

8.3.3 Mixed-mode Caustics

8.3.4 Limitations on the Applicability of the Method of Caustics

8.4 Lateral Shearing Interferometry

8.4.1 Evaluation of the Dynamic Stress Intensity Factor using Shearing Interferometry

8.5 Strain Gages

8.6 Interferometry References

9. Dominance of the Asymptotic Field

9.1 Stationary Cracks

9.2 Propagating Cracks

9.3 Dominance of the Asymptotic Field for Propagating Cracks

10. Dynamic Fracture Criteria

10.1 Criteria for Crack Initiation

10.1.1 Initiation of Cracks Under Short Duration Stress Pulses

10.1.2 Loading Rate and Temperature Dependence of Crack Initiation Toughness

10.2 Dynamic Crack Arrest Criterion

10.2.1 Development of the Crack Arrest Criterion

10.2.2 ASTM Standard Method for Crack Arrest

10.2.3 Application of the Crack Arrest Criterion

10.3 Dynamic Crack Growth Criterion

10.3.1 Crack Growth Toughness in Nominally Brittle Materials

10.3.2 Crack Growth Toughness in Ductile Materials

11. Physical Aspects of Dynamic Fracture

11.1 Limiting Crack Speed

11.2 Fracture Surface Roughness

11.2.1 Real-Time Observations of Multiple Crack Fronts

11.2.2 Fast Fracture Surfaces in Polymethylmethacrylate

11.2.3 Origin of the Microcracks

11.2.4 Geometry of the Conic Markings

11.2.5 Statistics of Microcracks in PMMA

11.2.6 Growth of Microcracks

11.2.7 Solithane 113

11.2.8 Polycarbonate

11.2.9 Homalite-100

11.3 Crack Branching

12. Phenomenological Models of Dynamic Fracture

12.1 Discrete Models—Molecular Dynamics and Lattice Models

12.2 Cohesive Zone Models

12.3 Continuum Damage Models


Further Reading

Appendix A. Dynamic Crack Tip Asymptotic Fields

A1 Dynamic Crack Tip Stress Field for a Stationary Crack

A2 Steady-State Dynamic Crack Tip Stress Field: Singular Term

A3 Steady-State Crack Tip Displacement and Stress Field: N Terms

A4 Transient Crack Tip Displacement and Stress Field: Six Terms

Appendix B. Mechanical and Optical Properties of Selected Materials



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About the Author

K. Ravi-Chandar

Affiliations and Expertise

Department of Aerospace Engineering and Engineering Mechanics, University of Texas, USA

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