Doping, Performance-Enhancing Drugs, and Hormones in Sport

Doping, Performance-Enhancing Drugs, and Hormones in Sport

Mechanisms of Action and Methods of Detection

1st Edition - November 22, 2017
  • Author: Anthony Hackney
  • Paperback ISBN: 9780128134429
  • eBook ISBN: 9780128134436

Purchase options

Purchase options
Available
DRM-free (EPub, PDF, Mobi)
Sales tax will be calculated at check-out

Institutional Subscription

Free Global Shipping
No minimum order

Description

Doping, Performance-Enhancing Drugs, and Hormones in Sport: Mechanisms of Action and Methods of Detection examines the biochemistry and bioanalytical aspects of performance-enhancing drugs (PEDs) and other questionable procedures used by athletes to enhance performance.  The book informs the specialist of emerging knowledge and techniques and allows the non-specialist to grasp the underlying science and current practice of the discipline. With clear and compelling language appropriate for a broad spectrum of readers, this book provides background on prevalence, types of agents, their actual or supposed benefits, and their negative effects on health. The technical aspects of detection are discussed, followed by a discussion of why detection is a problematic and still-evolving science. To facilitate comprehension, each chapter is organized in a uniform way with six sections: (1) standard medical uses, (2) why the drugs are used by athletes, (3) biological mechanism of action, (4) what research says about efficacy in improving performance, (5) major health side effects from use and abuse in sport, and 6) concluding key points.

Key Features

  • Presents the scientific concepts of how performance enhancers work, how they are used, and how they are detected and masked from detection
  • Features language that is neither simplistic to scientists nor too sophisticated for a large, diverse global audience
  • Provides a short “close-up” in each chapter to illustrate key topics that engage, entertain, and create a novel synthesis of thought

Readership

Biochemists, pharmacologists, medical doctors, nurses, clinical trials specialists, specialty foods processors and distributors, legislators and their staffs, regulatory scientists and administrators, public health officials, kinesiologists, physical educators, and members of the general public with an interest in exercise and physical training

Table of Contents

  • 1. Overview:  Doping in Sport
    History and Current State of the Problem
    Prevalence by Sport, Country, Level of Competition
    World Anti-Doping Agency and Legal Problems
    Ethical Issues of Usage, Sportsmanship, Character
    Are There Situations in Which Athletes Can Use PEDs?—Therapeutic Use Exemption
    Close-Up:  Sports Doping in Ancient Civilization—Nothing New Under the Sun
    References
    2. Anabolic Androgenic Steroids
    Treatment of Endocrine Disruptions
    The Athletic Drive to Increase Muscle Mass
    Intracellular Biochemical and Nuclear Actions
    Early Paradoxes and Later Confirmations in Research Findings
    Effects of Abuse, Reversible and Nonreversible
    Other Anabolic Substances
    Close-Up:  The Victims of the East German Medal Machine 1970s to 1990s
    References
    3. Stimulants
    Losing Weight, Staying Awake, Gaining Focus
    Staying Athletically Lean and on Task
    Neurochemistry
    Performance Enhancement Evidence
    Speeding and Crashing
    Conclusion
    Close-Up:  Weight Loss and Body Composition—What’s the Difference Between Lean Body Mass, Fat-Free Mass, and Muscle Mass, and Why Do Athletes Care?
    4. Glucocorticoids
    Anti-Inflammatory and Pulmonary Actions
    Helping Athletes Recover Faster, Breathe Better, and Burn More Fat
    Endocrine and Immune Actions
    Do They work?  Yes, No, and Maybe
    Pseudo-Cushing’s Syndrome and Mineralocorticoid Actions?
    Conclusion
    Close-Up:  Primum non nocere—Glucocorticoids and an Ethical Dilemma in Sports Medicine
    References
    5. Peptide-Protein Hormones
    Offsetting Endocrine Defects and Dysfunctions
    Increasing Muscle Mass and Enhancing Oxygen Delivery
    Ramping Up Hormone Actions Within Cells
    It Works, Within Limits
    Acromegaly, Blood Hyperviscosity, and Death
    Conclusion
    Close-Up:  Can Altitude Training Alone Have the Same Effects as Taking EPO?
    References
    6. Beta-2 Agonists
    Asthma Prevention and Treatment
    Breathing More and Easier Building Muscle in Sport
    Bronchodilation Adrenergic Actions and Reactions
    Asthmatics, Yes.  ! Everyone Else?
    Tachycardia, Arrhythmias, Syncope
    Conclusion
    Close-Up:  Use of Inhalers by Asthmatic Athletes—Is This Really Doping?If My Child Uses an Inhaler for Asthma, Is That Doping?
    References
    7. Hormone and Metabolic Modulators
    Estrogen and Androgen Modulation in Health and Disease
    The Balance Between Gender-Based Hormones
    Selective Receptor Modulation Drugs
    Contradictions and Ambiguous Evidence
    Thrombosis, Embolisms, Hot Flashes, and Hyperandrogenism
    Conclusion
    Close-Up:  Selective Estrogen Receptor Modulators and Exercise as Treatments for Breast Cancer Survivors
    References
    8. Narcotics
    In the arms of Morpheus
    The Athletic Need to Push Through the Pain
    The Opioid System and Pain
    Substances that Work too Well
    Addiction, Addiction, and Addiction
    Close-Up:  Pain Management in Athletes—How do Physicians Deal with this Issue when Narcotics are WADA Banned Substances?
    References
    9. Beta Blockers
    Cardiovascular Modulation and Health
    Staying Calm, Cool, and Collected on the Battlefield of Sport
    Blocking the Actions of Neurotransmitters and Hormones
    Strong Evidence of Performance Enhancement
    From Lethargy to Impotence:  Undesirable Effects
    Close-Up:  Sometimes the Consequences of Doping Can Be Quite Severe
    References
    10. Athlete Testing, Analytical Procedures, and Adverse Analytical Findings
    WADA Testing Procedures
    Biospecimen Analysis Techniques
    Strengths and Weaknesses of the Bioanalytical Procedures
    Ways in Which Athletes Avoid Detection
    What Happens When an Athlete Gets a Positive Test Result?
    Close-Up:  Fox Guarding the Henhouse
    References
    11. The Future of Performance Enhancement in Sport
    Can Prevention and Detection Deter Doping?
    Education of Athletes:  Is That Enough?
    Staying Ahead of the Doping Athlete:  Is it Possible?
    Genetic Doping:  Is it the Future?
    Should Doping be Legalized and Regulated?
    Binary Gender Constructs and the Future
    What’s Next?
    Close-Up: Women Athletes—Taller, Faster, Stronger, and Hyperandrogenism
    References

Product details

  • No. of pages: 168
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Elsevier 2017
  • Published: November 22, 2017
  • Imprint: Elsevier
  • Paperback ISBN: 9780128134429
  • eBook ISBN: 9780128134436

About the Author

Anthony Hackney

Anthony Hackney
Dr. Anthony C. Hackney is a Professor of Exercise Physiology and Nutrition at the University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill. His research group studies how stress affects the hormonal responses of the endocrine system. In particular, his focus is on the dysfunctions and dysregulations that develop from stress exposures which can ultimately compromise physiological responses and adaptations. Dr. Hackney is an editor and author of the successful books Endocrinology of Physical Activity and Sport and Sex Hormones, Exercise and Women, as well as author of the Elsevier book Exercise, Sport, and Bioanalytical Chemistry: Principles and Practice. He has published over 200 peer-reviewed research papers and book chapters, given over 150 national and international scientific conference presentations, and has had current and previous research projects funded by the National Institutes of Health, Department of Defense, USAID, and the National Academy of Sciences. He is an Editorial Board member for five exercise science, sports medicine, and physiology journals; has done visiting professorships in Uruguay, Kosovo, Norway, New Zealand, Germany, and Estonia; and is on the Board of Directors of the Center for the Study of Retired Athletes, UNC-CH. A recipient of three Fulbright Scholar awards, he was named Fellow, American Academy of Kinesiology (2010), Montoye Research Scholar, the American College of Sports Medicine (2015), Fellow, Huffines Institute for Sports Medicine (2015), and Kean-Pogue Senior Research Scholar, University of North Carolina (2016), among other honors and awards.

Affiliations and Expertise

Schools of Public Health and Medicine, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC, USA