Domino Effects in the Process Industries

Domino Effects in the Process Industries

Modelling, Prevention and Managing

1st Edition - July 8, 2013

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  • Editors: Genserik Reniers, Valerio Cozzani
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9780444543233
  • eBook ISBN: 9780444543240

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Domino Effects in the Process Industries discusses state-of-the-art theories, conceptual models, insights and practical issues surrounding large-scale knock-on accidents—so-called domino effects—in the chemical and process industries. The book treats such extremely low-frequency phenomena from a technological perspective, studying possible causes and introducing several approaches to assess and control the risks of these scenarios. The authors also examine these events from a managerial viewpoint, discussing single and multi-plant management insights and requirements to take pro-active measures to prevent such events. Academics, regulators, and industrialists who study and analyze domino effects in order to prevent such events will find the book unique and highly valuable.

Key Features

  • Outlines available methods in analyzing these events, aiding understanding of the accidents and their causes
  • Covers current modelling, control and management tactics of domino effects, -facilitating prevention
  • Identifies areas where new research is needed


Top- and line management within industrial sectors handling or storing hazardous substances, chemical engineers, bio-chemical engineers, environmental managers, safety and prevention managers, research centers on industrial safety and academic researchers.

Table of Contents

  • Preface

    List of Contributors

    1. Historical Background and State of the Art on Domino Effect Assessment

    1.1 Historical Background and Importance of Research on Domino Effects

    1.2 Safety and Security: Both Important for the Prevention of Domino Effects

    1.3 Domino Effects and Chemical Industrial Areas

    1.4 Contents of the Book


    Part I: Causes of Domino Effects

    2. Analysis of Past Accidents and Relevant Case-Histories

    2.1 Introduction

    2.2 The Analysis of Past Accidents

    2.3 Domino Effect Surveys

    2.4 Significance of Domino Effect in the Frame of all Accidents

    2.5 Characteristics of Accidents Involving Domino Effect

    2.6 Relevant Case Histories

    2.7 The Analysis of Past Accidents, a Useful Resource


    3. Features of Escalation Scenarios

    3.1 Elements of a Domino Accident

    3.2 Escalation as a Fundamental Feature of Relevant Domino Accidents

    3.3 Sources of Domino Accidents and Primary Scenarios

    3.4 Identification and Relative Ranking of Domino Targets and Secondary Scenarios

    3.5 Domino Accident Definition

    3.6 Categorization of Domino Accidents

    3.7 Conclusions


    4. Overpressure Effects

    4.1 Introduction

    4.2 Overview of the Basics

    4.3 Nonlinear Dynamic Response Analysis

    4.4 Domino Effects: Simplified Analysis

    4.5 Response Regimes

    4.6 Conclusions


    5. Heat Radiation Effects

    5.1 Introduction

    5.2 Mechanisms of Escalation Triggered by Fire

    5.3 Escalation Potential of Fire Scenarios

    5.4 Modeling the Behavior of Equipment Exposed to Fire

    5.5 Prevention of Escalation Caused by Fire

    5.6 Conclusions


    6. Missile Projection Effects

    6.1 Introduction

    6.2 Escalation Caused by Fragments

    6.3 Identification and Characterization of Fragment Sources

    6.4 Assessment of Fragment Characteristics

    6.5 Calculation of Impact Probability

    6.6 Calculation of Damage Probability

    6.7 Conclusions


    7. Other Causes of Escalation

    7.1 Introduction

    7.2 Indirect Causes of Escalation

    7.3 Natural Events

    7.4 Intentional Interferences

    7.5 Conclusions


    Part II: Prevention of Domino Effects from a Technological Perspective

    8. Approaches to Domino Effect Prevention and Mitigation

    8.1 Approach to Domino Effect Assessment

    8.2 Preliminary Analysis of Domino Hazard

    8.3 Quantitative Risk Assessment of Domino Scenarios

    8.4 Distributed Parameter Models for Worst-Case or Worst-Credible Accident Analysis

    8.5 Conclusions


    9. Threshold-Based Approach

    9.1 Introduction

    9.2 Escalation Vectors and Equipment Damage Mechanisms

    9.3 Damage State and Loss Intensity Criteria

    9.4 Damage and Escalation Thresholds

    9.5 Conclusions


    10. Quantitative Assessment of Risk Caused by Domino Accidents

    10.1 Introduction

    10.2 Quantitative Risk Assessment of Domino Accidents

    10.3 Domino Scenarios and Escalation Frequencies by Bayesian Analysis

    10.4 Other Approaches to the Quantitative Assessment of Domino Effect

    10.5 Conclusions


    11. Detailed Studies of Domino Scenarios

    11.1 Introduction

    11.2 CFD Codes for the Simulation of Accident Scenarios

    11.3 Application of Finite Element Models to Assess Escalation Triggered by Fire

    11.4 CFD and FEM for the Assessment of Escalation Triggered by Blast Waves

    11.5 Conclusions


    Part III: Prevention of Domino Effects from a Managerial Perspective

    12. Managing Domino Effects from a Design-Based Viewpoint

    12.1 Introduction

    12.2 Safety Distances for Escalation: Application to Layout Definition

    12.3 The Role of Safety Barriers

    12.4 Advanced Methods for Layout Definition

    12.5 Conclusions


    13. Managing Domino Effects in a Chemical Industrial Area

    13.1 Introduction

    13.2 Managing Internal Domino Effects

    13.3 Managing External Domino Effects

    13.4 Conclusions


    14. Decision Support Systems for Preventing Domino Effects

    14.1 Introduction

    14.2 Decision Support System

    14.3 DSS Application to the Prevention of Domino Effect

    14.4 Overview

    14.5 Perspectives in the Development and Application of DSS for Domino Assessment

    14.6 Conclusions




    Chapter 4

    Chapter 5

    Chapter 6

    Chapter 7

    Chapter 9

    Chapter 10

    Chapter 11

    Chapter 12

    Tutorial for Tools for the Quantitative Assessment of Domino Effect Presented in Part II

    1 Introduction

    2 Application of the Methodology

    3 Results of the Case Studies

    4 Conclusions


    Tutorial for the Main Methodologies in Part III

    1 Managing Internal Domino Effects

    2 Managing External Domino Effects



Product details

  • No. of pages: 384
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Elsevier 2013
  • Published: July 8, 2013
  • Imprint: Elsevier
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9780444543233
  • eBook ISBN: 9780444543240

About the Editors

Genserik Reniers

Genserik Reniers works at the Universita di Bologna, DICAM in the Laboratory for Industrial Safety and Environmental Sustainability, Bologna in Italy.

Affiliations and Expertise

Universita di Bologna, DICAM, Laboratory for Industrial Safety and Environmental Sustainability, Bologna, Italy

Valerio Cozzani

Valerio Cozzani (1968) received his Ph.D. in Chemical Engineering from the University of Pisa (Italy) in 1996. During the Ph.D. he spent an year at the Industrial Hazard Unit (IPSC) of the Ispra European Community Joint Research Centre. After the Ph.D. he joined the National Research Group on Chemical and Environmental Risk of the Italian National Council of Research. Formerly lecturer at the University of Pisa, he is now professor at the Department of Civil, Chemical, Environmental and Materials Engineering of Bologna University, where he leads the Laboratory on Industrial Safety and Environmental Sustainability. He is Director of the academic graduate and undergraduate programs in Chemical Engineering an lectures on unit operations, design, loss prevention and risk assessment. He coordinated several joint university-industry training projects. His main research experience is in the field of safety of chemical processes and of environmental and energy technologies. The specific subjects afforded in his research activity are, among others, the development of innovative methodologies and models for hazard and risk analysis, the development of models for equipment damage and the implementation of procedures for the quantitative assessment of accidental scenarios triggered by external hazard factors. He has a wide experience in leading national and international research projects funded either by public organizations or by private companies. He coordinates the Italian working party on safety in the chemical and process industry (CISAP) and is Member of the Working Party of Loss Prevention (EFCE). He received the Trevor Kletz Merit Award 2015 for outstanding contributions to the field of Process Safety. He serves as Associate Editor of Safety Science and is a member of the Editorial Boards of the Journal of Hazardous Materials and of the Journal of Loss Prevention in the Process Industry.

Affiliations and Expertise

Full Professor, University of Bologna, Bologna, Italy

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