Distribution and Biological Role - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9781483229270, 9781483257648

Distribution and Biological Role

1st Edition

The Chemistry and Biology of Compounds Containing Amino Sugars

Editors: Endre A. Balazs Roger W. Jeanloz
eBook ISBN: 9781483257648
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 1st January 1965
Page Count: 620
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Description

The Amino Sugars: The Chemistry and Biology of Compounds Containing Amino Sugars, Volume IIA: Distribution and Biological Role focuses on the chemistry, physical chemistry, and biochemistry of naturally occurring and synthetically prepared amino sugars and amino sugar-containing molecules, as well as the biological and medical importance of these molecules. The selection first offers information on the distribution of amino sugars in microorganisms, plants, and invertebrates and amino sugars and macromolecules containing amino sugars in liver. Discussions focus on microorganisms, invertebrates, amino sugar composition, catabolism of amino sugars, and metabolic interrelationships between amino sugars and other sugars. The text then takes a look at amino sugars and macromolecules containing amino sugars in kidney and amino sugar-containing compounds in urine.
The publication takes a look at glycoproteins in salivary glands, saliva, and sputum; glycosaminoglycans and glycoproteins in skin; and amino sugar-containing compounds in tumors. The text also evaluates glycosaminoglycans in umbilical cord and glycosaminoglycans and glycoproteins in synovial fluid.
The selection is a dependable reference for readers interested in the study of amino sugars.

Table of Contents


List Of Contributors

Preface

Acknowledgments

A Guide To The Nomenclature

Contents Of Other Volumes

Chapter 18 Distribution Of Amino Sugars In Microorganisms, Plants, And Invertebrates

I. Microorganisms

A. Viruses

B. Bacteria

C. Actinomycetes

D. Myxobacteria

E. Fungi

II. Algae And Higher Plants

III. Invertebrates

A. Protozoa.

B. Mollusks

C. Worms

D. Arthropods

IV. Miscellaneous Sources

Addendum

Chapter 19 Amino Sugars And Macromolecules Containing Amino Sugars In Liver

I. Amino Sugar Composition

A. Hexosamines

B. Sialic Acids

C. Amino Sugar-Containing Nucleotides

II. Enzymes Involved In Amino Sugar Metabolism

A. Hexosamine Metabolism

B. Sialic Acid Metabolism

III. Catabolism Of Amino Sugars

IV. Metabolic Interrelationships Between Amino Sugars And Other Sugars

A. Competition Of Amino Sugars And Glucose For Liver Hexokinase

B. Conversion Of Glucose To Glucosamine

C. Utilization Of Glucosamine And Its Conversion To Other Sugars

V. Glycosaminoglycans

A. Heparin

B. Heparan Sulfate

C. Biosynthesis

VI. Liver As The Site Of Synthesis Of Plasma Glycoproteins

VII. Glycolipids

VIII. Glycosidases

IX. Pathological Conditions Involving Amino Sugar-Containing Compounds

A. Amyloidosis

B. Hurler's Syndrome (Gargoylism)

C. Hepatic Fibrosis

D. Tay-Sachs Disease (Juvenile Amaurotic Idiocy)

E. Cystic Fibrosis

Addendum

Chapter 20 Amino Sugars And Macromolecules Containing Amino Sugars In Kidney

I. Amino Sugar Composition

A. Hexosamines

B. Sialic Acids

C. Amino Sugar-Containing Nucleotides

II. Enzymes Involved In Amino Sugar Metabolism

A. Hexosamine Metabolism

B. Sialic Acid Metabolism

III. Catabolism Of Amino Sugars

IV. Amino Sugar Metabolism In Vivo

V. Glycosaminoglycans

VI. Glycoproteins

VII. Glycolipids

VIII. Glycosidases

IX. Connective-Tissue Elements That Contain Glycoproteins: Reticulin And Basement Membrane

X. Pathological Conditions Affecting Amino Sugar-Containing Compounds

A. Amyloidosis

B. Hurler's Syndrome (Gargoylism)

C. Diabetic Glomerulosclerosis (Kimmelstiel-Wilson Disease)

Addendum

Chapter 21 Amino Sugar-Containing Compounds In Urine

I. Total Amino Sugar Excretion Rates

II. Source Of Urinary Amino Sugars

III. Amino Sugar-Containing Compounds In Urine

A. Free Amino Sugars

B. Dialyzable Amino Sugar-Containing Compounds

C. Nondialyzable Amino Sugar-Containing Compounds

Addendum

Chapter 22 Amino Sugar-Containing Compounds In Mucuses And In Mucous Membranes

I. General Characteristics

II. Mucuses

A. Female Genital Tract

B. Intestinal Tract

C. Respiratory Tract

D. Urinary Tract

III. Mucous Membranes

A. Intestinal Tract

B. Bronchial Mucosa

C. Ovarian Tubes

Addendum

Chapter 23 Glycoproteins In Salivary Glands, Saliva, And Sputum

I. Salivary Glands

II. Saliva

III. Biological Role Of Salivary-Gland Glycoproteins

IV. Sputum

Addendum

Chapter 24 Glycosaminoglycans And Glycoproteins In Skin

I. Early Investigations

II. Spreading Factor And Hyaluronidase

III. Isolation And Characterization

A. Glycosaminoglycans

B. Glycoproteins

IV. Localization

V. Concentrations Of Hexosamine And Glycosaminoglycans In Normal Skin

VI. Variations With Age And Sex

VII. Effects Of Hormones

A. Gonadal Hormones

B. Thyroid Hormone

C. Adrenocortical Hormones

D. Pituitary Hormones

VIII. Response To Injury

A. Excision

B. Experimental Granulation Tissue

C. Chemical Injury

D. Immune Injury

IX. Primary Diseases Of The Skin

X. General Metabolic Diseases

XI. Effects Of Vitamins.

A. Ascorbic Acid

B. Other Vitamins

XII. The Subcutaneous Connective Tissue

Addendum

Chapter 25 Amino Sugar-Containing Compounds In Tumors

I. Chemical Data

A. Glucosaminoglycans

B. Galactosaminoglycans

C. Glycoproteins And Other Conjugated Compounds

II. Histochemical Observations

A. Materials Localized In Or Secreted By The Tumor Cells

B. Materials Mainly Localized In The Stromal Cells And Extracellular Compartment Of Tumors

Addendum

Chapter 20 Amino Sugar-Containing Compounds In Pathological Effusions

Text

Chapter 27 Glycosaminoglycans In Mast Cells And In Mast-Cell Tumors

I. Mast Cells

A. Connective-Tissue Mast Cells

B. Basophil Leukocytes

II. Mast-Cell Tumors

III. Physiological Aspects Of Mast-Cell Polysaccharides

A. Synthesis And Storage

B. Liberation Of Polysaccharides

Chapter 28 Glycosaminoglycans In Umbilical Cord

I. Human Umbilical Cord

II. Animal Umbilical Cord

III. Glycosaminoglycans And The Structure And Function Of The Umbilical Cord

Chapter 29 Glycosaminoglycans And Glycoproteins In Synovial Fluid Lars Sundblad

I. Hyaluronic Acid In Synovial Fluid

A. Concentration Of Hyaluronic Acid

B. Physical Properties Of Hyaluronic Acid

C. Nature And Significance Of Hyaluronic Acid Changes In Joint Disease

II. Glycoproteins In Synovial Fluid

A. Normal Synovial Fluid

B. Pathological Synovial Fluid

Addendum

Chapter 30 Glycosaminoglycans In The Connective Tissue Of The Electric Organ

I. Structure And Composition Of The Connective Tissue Of The Electric Organ

II. Possible Physiological Role Of Glycosaminoglycans In The Electric Organ

Chapter 31 Amino Sugar-Containing Compounds In Cartilage, Tendon, And Intervertébral Disc

I. Cartilage

A. Kinds Of Cartilage

B. Cartilage Components Containing Hexosamine

C. Metabolism In Cartilage

D. Effects Of Hormones, Vitamins, And Enzymes

E. Aging And Osteoarthritis

F. Pathological Conditions In Cartilage

II. Tendon

Addendum:

I. Cartilage

A. Kinds Of Cartilage

B. Cartilage Components Containing Hexosamine

C. Metabolism In Cartilage

D. Effects Of Hormones, Vitamins, And Enzymes

E. Aging And Osteoarthritis

F. Pathology

II. Tendon

Chapter 32 The Amino Sugar-Containing Compounds In Bones And Teeth

I. Bones

A. Glycosaminoglycans

B. Glycoproteins

C. Amino Sugar-Containing Macromolecules In Bone Development And Regeneration

D. Effects Of Hormones, Vitamins, And Minerals On Amino Sugar-Containing Macromolecules

E. Chondroitin Sulfate And The Process Of Calcification

II. Teeth

A. The Developing Tooth

B. Enamel

C. Dentine

D. Cement, Periodontium, And Pulp

E. Pathological Conditions

III. Gingiva

Chapter 33 Glycosaminoglycans And Glycoproteîns In Blood-Vessel Walls

I. Histochemistry Of The Aging Of Blood Vessels And Of Arteriosclerosis

A. Glycoproteîns

B. Glycosaminoglycans

II. Chemical Composition

A. Glycoproteîns

B. Heteropolysaccharides

III. Metabolism Of Glycosaminoglycans

A. Estrogens

B. Thyroid Hormones

C. Insulin

D. Corticotropin

E. Pyridoxine

F. Ascorbic Acid

G. Fat-Soluble Vitamins

H. Lathyrism

IV. Congenital Abnormalities

A. Marian's Syndrome

B. Hurler's Syndrome (Gargoylism)

Addendum

Chapter 34 Glycoproteîns And Glycosaminoglycans In Plasma And In Some Other Body Fluids

I. Glycoproteîns In Plasma

A. Sugar Components Of Glycoproteîns

B. Normal And Pathologic Levels Of Plasma Glycoproteîns

C. Carbohydrate Content Of Plasma Fractions Separated By Electrophoresis

D. Source And Physiological Significance Of Plasma Glycoproteîns

II. Glycosaminoglycans In Plasma

III. Glycoproteîns And Glycosaminoglycans In Body Fluids

A. Exudates And Transudates

B. Cerebrospinal Fluid

C. Ascites Fluid

D. Cyst Fluids

Addendum

Chapter 35 Substances Containing Amino Sugars In Blood Cells And In Hemopoietic Organs

I. Erythrocytes

A. Glycolipids

B. Glycoproteins

C. Organization Of Glycolipids And Glycoproteins In The Cell Membrane

D. Glycolipids And Glycoproteins In Pathological Conditions

II. Leukocytes

A. Histochemical Studies

B. Chemical Studies

C. Electrophoretic Properties

III. Thrombocytes And Megakaryocytes

A. Histochemical Studies

B. Chemical Studies

IV. Lymphocytes, Spleen, And Thymus

A. Lymphocytes

B. Spleen And Thymus

V. Bone Marrow

Chapter 36 Glycolipids And Other Amino Sugar-Containing Compounds In The Nervous System

I. Chemical Constitution

A. Glycolipids

B. Glycosaminoglycans, Glycoproteins, And Glycopeptides

II. Assay

A. Preparative Methods

B. Analytical Methods

C. Histochemical Methods

III. Distribution In Normal Nervous Tissue

A. Quantitative Aspects

B. Cytochemical Localization

IV. Distribution In Pathological Conditions

V. Biosynthesis And Physiological Role

Addendum

Chapter 37 Amino Sugar-Containing Macromolecules In The Tissues Of The Eye And The Ear

I. Glycosaminoglycans And Glycoproteins In The Vitreous

A. Chemical Composition

B. Concentration And Distribution

C. Development And Metabolism

D. Physical Structure

E. Hyaluronic Acid-Degrading Agents

F. Biological Role

II. Glycosaminoglycans And Glycoproteins In The Cornea

A. Chemical Structure

B. Distribution

C. Development, Metabolism, And Regeneration

D. Biological Role

III. Glycosaminoglycans In The Sclera

IV. Glycoproteins In The Lens

V. Amino Sugar-Containing Compounds In The Retina And The Subretinal Fluid

A. Retina

B. Subretinal Fluid

VI. Amino Sugar-Containing Compounds In The Aqueous Humor And The Angle Of The Anterior Chamber

A. Aqueous Humor

B. Angle Of The Anterior Chamber

VII. Amino Sugar-Containing Compounds In Orbital Connective Tissue

VIII. Amino Sugar-Containing Compounds In The Fluids And Tissues Of The Inner Ear

A. Endolymph And Perilymph

B. Tectorial Membrane And Cupula

Addendum

Bibliography And Author Index

Subject Index


Details

No. of pages:
620
Language:
English
Copyright:
© Academic Press 1965
Published:
Imprint:
Academic Press
eBook ISBN:
9781483257648

About the Editor

Endre A. Balazs

Roger W. Jeanloz