Disease Resistance in Plants - 2nd Edition - ISBN: 9780127114422, 9780323161985

Disease Resistance in Plants

2nd Edition

Authors: J.E. Vanderplank
eBook ISBN: 9780323161985
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 14th June 1984
Page Count: 208
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Description

Disease Resistance in Plants, Second Edition, looks at genetic, epidemiologic, biochemical, and biometric principles for developing new cultivars possessing genetic resistance to diseases. It examines the nature of disease resistance and resistance genes, and it highlights the importance of stabilizing selection, sugar, biotrophy, and necrotrophy to obtain the greatest possible yields. Organized into 17 chapters, this volume begins with an overview of disease resistance in plants and the ways to develop disease-resistant variants. It then discusses unspecific resistance; the resistance gene paradox; susceptibility and resistance within narrow host taxa; phenotypic variation and gene numbers in host plants; discontinuous variation and cytoplasmic inheritance; and experimental difficulties in partitioning variance. The reader is also introduced to epistasis and the structure of virulence in pathogens; the notion of physiological race; how the pathogen adapts to the host; mutation in the pathogen from avirulence to virulence; horizontal and vertical resistance to disease and its epidemiological effects; and the link between protein polymorphism and vertical resistance. In addition, the book discusses genes for susceptibility in the host versus genes for avirulence (or virulence) in the pathogen; sink-induced loss of resistance; high-sugar disease processes and biotrophy; slow rusting of cereal crops; plant resistance against endemic disease; and the accumulation of resistance genes in heterogeneous host populations. This book will be useful to plant pathologists and plant breeders.

Table of Contents


Preface

Preface to the First Edition

1 Introduction

Text

2 Unspecific Resistance

2.1 Introduction

2.2 Diagonal Check for Specificity in a Gene-for-Gene Relation

2.3 The Resistance Gene Paradox

2.4 The Potato-Phytophthora System

2.5 Hosts and Nonhosts

2.6 Host-Specific Toxins

2.7 Discussion

3 Host Plants: Phenotypic Variation and Gene Numbers

3.1 Introduction

3.2 Partition of Variance

3.3 Discontinuous Variation with Many Genes Involved: Pseudomonogenic Resistance

3.4 Discontinuous Variation with Few Genes Involved

3.5 Discontinuous Variation and Cytoplasmic Inheritance

3.6 Continuous Variation

3.7 Background to the Polygene Story

3.8 The Error of Expecting Safety in Numbers: Additive Variance

3.9 Experimental Difficulties in Partitioning Variance

4 The Pathogen: Epistasis and Virulence

4.1 Introduction

4.2 The ABC-XYZ Classification and Diallel Gene Pairing

4.3 Virulence Dissociation

4.4 Epistasis-Environment Interaction

4.5 Danger in Artifacts

4.6 Virulence Association

4.7 Definition of a Physiological Race

5 Adaptation of the Pathogen to the Host: Wheat Stem Rust in Australia

5.1 Introduction

5.2 Direct Adaptation of the Pathogen to the Host

5.3 Indirect Adaptation of the Pathogen to the Host

5.4 Discussion

6 Mutation in the Pathogen from Avirulence to Virulence

6.1 Variable Mutation Rates

6.2 Wild-Type Pathogen Populations

6.3 Viral Diseases

6.4 Bacterial Diseases

6.5 Fungal Diseases

6.6 Inoperative and Operative Mutation

6.7 Epidemiological Mutation

7 Horizontal and Vertical Resistance

7.1 Definitions in a Two-Variable System

7.2 The Geometric Illustration

7.3 Illustration by Analysis of Variance

7.4 Illustration by Ranking Order

7.5 Vertical Resistance Effective Only against Initial Inoculum

7.6 Interrupted or Uninterrupted Presence of Disease or Inoculum

7.7 Vertical Partial Resistance

7.8 Adult-Plant Resistance: Scheibe's Rule

7.9 Higher-Order Interactions

7.10 How Realistic Is the Definition of Horizontal Resistance?

7.11 A Third Variable

7.12 Qualitative and Quantitative Variation in Host and Pathogen

7.13 Unclassified Resistance

7.14 Pseudospecificity

7.15 Remnants of Horizontal Resistance

7.16 Horizontal Resistance and Stabilizing Selection

8 Remnants of Resistance

8.1 Three Questions

8.2 The Vertifolia Effect

8.3 Ghost Resistance

8.4 The Either/Or Avirulence/Virulence Error

8.5 The Horizontal Resistance Equivalent

9 Protein Polymorphism and Vertical Resistance

9.1 Introduction

9.2 Molecular Association in Specific Susceptibility

9.3 Molecular Storage of Massive Variation

9.4 Endothermic Susceptibility

9.5 Individuality in Temperature Responses

9.6 Vertical Resistance

9.7 Coping with Recessive Resistance

9.8 Test to Distinguish Vertical from Horizontal Partial Resistance

9.9 The Gene-for-Gene Hypothesis

10 Genes for Susceptibility

10.1 Introduction

10.2 Vavilov's Rule

10.3 The Corollary of Vavilov's Rule

10.4 Some Misinterpreted Evidence

10.5 Biotropic Semibenign Infection

10.6 Wounds and Infections: Role of Peroxidase

10.7 Ultrastructural Evidence

10.8 Protein Polymerization

10.9 The Pathogen's Protein

10.10 Theory of Reciprocal Mutation

11 Sink-Induced Loss of Resistance

11.1 Introduction

11.2 Stalk Rot of Maize

11.3 Sugar and Resistance to Maize Stalk Rot

11.4 Ecological Topics

11.5 The Vertifolia Effect Again

11.6 Low-Sugar Disease Processes

11.7 Theories about High-Sugar Resistance

11.8 Discussion

12 High-Sugar Disease Processes and Biotrophy

12.1 Introduction

12.2 High-Sugar Susceptibility

12.3 The Sugar Effect

12.4 Reversal of Resistance to Powdery Mildew

13 Epidemiological Effects of Vertical Resistance

13.1 Resistance in Relation to an Increase in the Population of the Pathogen

13.2 The Effect of Vertical Resistance: The General Rule

13.3 The Effect of Vertical Resistance: Some Illustrative Data

13.4 Vertical Resistance: The Price of Varietal Popularity

13.5 Vertical Resistance: The Enhancing Effect of Horizontal Resistance

13.6 Generalized Disease Progress Curves for the Study of the Effects of Resistance

13.7 The Compound Interest Equation: Logarithmic Increase of Disease

13.8 An Equation for the Effect of Vertical Resistance

13.9 An Analysis of Some Experimental Data

13.10 Graphical Representation of Equation (13.1)

13.11 Vertical Resistance: The Quantitative Effect of Varietal Popularity

13.12 The Effect of Vertical Resistance after the Logarithmic Phase of the Epidemic

13.13 Independence of Initial Inoculum and the Logarithmic Infection Rate: The Start of an Epidemic

13.14 Appendix: Vertical Resistance That Reduces the Infection Rate

14 Epidemiological Effects of Horizontal Resistance

14.1 Introduction

14.2 History of Blight Resistance in Three Potato Varieties

14.3 Horizontal Resistance and a Reduced Infection Rate

14.4 Components of Horizontal Resistance

14.5 Ontogenic Effects

15 Slow Rusting of Cereal Crops

15.1 Introduction

15.2 Late Rusting and Slow Rusting

15.3 Maize Rust

15.4 Resistance before and Susceptibility after Flowering

15.5 Sink-Associated and Sink-Induced Loss of Resistance

15.6 Breeding for Horizontal Slow-Rusting Resistance

16 Resistance against Endemic Disease

16.1 Introduction

16.2 The Progeny/Parent Ratio

16.3 Infection Rates and Disease Levels

16.4 The Progeny/Parent Ratio and Latent Period in the Strategy of Using Disease Resistance

16.5 Horizontal and Vertical Resistance in the Strategy of Using Disease Resistance

16.6 Endemic Disease in the Tropics

16.7 Appendix

17 Heterogeneous Host Populations and the Accumulation of Resistance Genes

17.1 Introduction

17.2 Mixed Varieties and Multilines

17.3 Heterogeneity versus Gene Accumulation

17.4 Essential Purpose of Mixed Varieties and Multilines

17.5 Role of the ABC-XYZ Groups: Stabilizing Selection versus Heterogeneity

Bibliography

Index






Details

No. of pages:
208
Language:
English
Copyright:
© Academic Press 1984
Published:
Imprint:
Academic Press
eBook ISBN:
9780323161985

About the Author

J.E. Vanderplank