Discovering Causal Structure - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780122869617, 9781483265797

Discovering Causal Structure

1st Edition

Artificial Intelligence, Philosophy of Science, and Statistical Modeling

Authors: Clark Glymour Richard Scheines Peter Spirtes
eBook ISBN: 9781483265797
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 24th August 1987
Page Count: 412
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Description

Discovering Causal Structure: Artificial Intelligence, Philosophy of Science, and Statistical Modeling provides information pertinent to the fundamental aspects of a computer program called TETRAD. This book discusses the version of the TETRAD program, which is designed to assist in the search for causal explanations of statistical data. or alternative models. This text then examines the notion of applying artificial intelligence methods to problems of statistical model specification. Other chapters consider how the TETRAD program can help to find god alternative models where they exist, and how it can help detect the existence of important neglected variables. This book discusses as well the procedures for specifying a model or models to account for non-experimental or quasi-experimental data. The final chapter presents a description of the format of input files and a description of each command.

This book is a valuable resource for social scientists and researchers.

Table of Contents


About This Book

Foreword

Acknowledgments

Part I : Artificial Intelligence and Nonexperimental Science

1. The Problems of Science without Experiments

1.1 The Limits of Experimentation

1.2 The Limits of Human Judgment

1.3 The Artificial Intelligence Solution

2. The Case against Causal Modeling

2.1 The Critical Reaction

2.2 Making Sense of Causality

2.3 Causes, Indicators, and the Interpretation of Latent Variables

2.4 The Importance of Experiment

2.5 Justifying Assumptions

2.6 Linear Theories Are Literally False

2.7 Conclusion

3. Objections to Discovery by Computer

3.1 Introduction

3.2 The General Objections

3.3 No Peeking

Part II : The TETRAD Program

4. Causal and Statistical Models

4.1 Introduction

4.2 Directed Graphs and Causal Models

4.3 Statistical Models from Causal Models

4.4 Treks and Coordinating Path Effects

4.5 Constraints on Correlations

4.6 Correlated Errors Are Not Equivalent to Direct Effects

4.7 Statistical Issues, Briefly Considered

5. The Structure and Method of TETRAD

5.1 The Methodological Principles That Underlie TETRAD

5.2 How the Methodological Principles Are Realized in TETRAD

5.3 Search Strategies for Finding Good Causal Models

5.4 A Sketch of the TETRAD Program

5.5 How to Use TETRAD'S Output

5.6 TETRAD and Other Search Procedures

5.7 Future Developments

6. What TETRAD Can Do

6.1 Alienation

6.2 A Problem Using Simulated Data

6.3 Causal Order from Correlations

6.4 Kohn's Study and Temporal Order among Interview Questions

7. Simulation Studies

7.1 A Simulated Case

7.2 Distinguishing Correlation from Causation

7.3 Locating Connected Variables

8. Case Studies

8.1 Introduction

8.2 Industrial and Political Development

8.3 Measuring the Authoritarian Personality

8.4 Alternatives to Regression Models

8.5 Introducing Latent Variables: Longitudinal Data with SAT Scores

8.6 Roll Call Voting

8.7 The Effects of Summer Head Start

8.8 Achievement, Ability, and Approval

8.9 The Stability of Alienation

9. A Brief History of Heuristic Search in Applied Statistics

10. Mathematical Foundations

10.1 The Algorithm

10.2 Proofs of Correctness of the Algorithms Employed by TETRAD

Part III : Using TETRAD, EQS, and LISREL

11. Using TETRAD with EQS and LISREL

11.1 LISREL and Its Restrictions

11.2 Overcoming the Restrictions

11.3 EQS

12. Running TETRAD

12.1 Installing TETRAD

12.2 Entering and Exiting TETRAD

12.3 Getting Help

12.4 Input Files

12.5 Output Files

12.6 View and Edit

12.7 The Run Command and Menus

12.8 User Interrupts

12.9 Errors

12.10 TETRAD Commands

12.11 Running TETRAD in Batch Mode

12.12 List of Commands

12.13 Command Summaries

Appendix: The Grammar of the Input

About the Authors

References

Index

Details

No. of pages:
412
Language:
English
Copyright:
© Academic Press 1987
Published:
Imprint:
Academic Press
eBook ISBN:
9781483265797

About the Author

Clark Glymour

Richard Scheines

Peter Spirtes