Dilute Nitride Semiconductors - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780080445021, 9780080455990

Dilute Nitride Semiconductors

1st Edition

Authors: Mohamed Henini
eBook ISBN: 9780080455990
Hardcover ISBN: 9780080445021
Imprint: Elsevier Science
Published Date: 15th December 2004
Page Count: 640
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Description

  • This book contains full account of the advances made in the dilute nitrides, providing an excellent starting point for workers entering the field.
  • It gives the reader easier access and better evaluation of future trends, Conveying important results and current ideas.
  • Includes a generous list of references at the end of each chapter, providing a useful reference to the III-V-N based semiconductors research community.

The high speed lasers operating at wavelength of 1.3 µm and 1.55 µm are very important light sources in optical communications since the optical fiber used as a transport media of light has dispersion and attenuation minima, respectively, at these wavelengths. These long wavelengths are exclusively made of InP-based material InGaAsP/InP. However, there are several problems with this material system. Therefore, there has been considerable effort for many years to fabricate long wavelength laser structures on other substrates, especially GaAs. The manufacturing costs of GaAs-based components are lower and the processing techniques are well developed. In 1996 a novel quaternary material GaInAsN was proposed which could avoid several problems with the existing technology of long wavelength lasers.

In this book, several leaders in the field of dilute nitrides will cover the growth and processing, experimental characterization, theoretical understanding, and device design and fabrication of this recently developed class of semiconductor alloys. They will review their current status of research and development.

Dilute Nitrides (III-N-V) Semiconductors: Physics and Technology organises the most current available data, providing a ready source of information on a wide range of topics, making this book essential reading for all post graduate students, researchers and practitioners in the fields of Semiconductors and Optoelectronics

Key Features

  • Contains full account of the advances made in the dilute nitrides, providing an excellent starting point for workers entering the field
  • Gives the reader easier access and better evaluation of future trends, conveying important results and current ideas
  • Includes a generous list of references at the end of each chapter, providing a useful reference to the III-V-N based semiconductors research community

Readership

Post-graduate students, researchers in the field of semiconductors and Optoelectronics and electronic devices and semiconductor manufacturers,

Table of Contents

  • Preface
  • Chapter 1: MBE Growth and Characterization of Long Wavelength Dilute Nitride III–V Alloys
    • Publisher Summary
    • 1.1 INTRODUCTION
    • 1.2 MBE GROWTH OF DILUTE III-V NITRIDES
    • 1.3 DILUTE NITRIDE CHARACTERIZATION
    • 1.4 ENERGY BAND AND CARRIER TRANSPORT PROPERTIES
    • 1.5 ANNEALING AND N-In NEAREST NEIGHBOR EFFECTS
    • 1.6 SUMMARY
    • ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
  • Chapter 2: Epitaxial Growth of Dilute Nitrides by Metal-Organic Vapour Phase Epitaxy
    • Publisher Summary
    • 2.1 INTRODUCTION
    • 2.2 EPITAXIAL GROWTH OF GaInAsN-BASED STRUCTURES
    • 2.3 LONG WAVELENGTH GaAs-BASED LASER PERFORMANCES
    • 2.4 CONCLUSION
    • ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
  • Chapter 3: The Chemical Beam Epitaxy of Dilute Nitride Alloy Semiconductors
    • Publisher Summary
    • 3.1 INTRODUCTION TO DILUTE NITRIDE SEMICONDUCTORS
    • 3.2 THE CHEMICAL BEAM EPITAXIAL/METALORGANIC MOLECULAR BEAM EPITAXIAL (CBE/MOMBE) GROWTH PROCESS
    • 3.3 CBE OF DILUTE NITRIDE SEMICONDUCTORS
    • 3.4 FUNDAMENTAL STUDIES OF GaNxAs(1_x) BAND STRUCTURE
    • 3.5 THE COMPOSITIONS AND PROPERTIES OF DILUTE NITRIDES GROWN BY CBE
    • 3.6 CBE-GROWN DILUTE NITRIDE DEVICES
    • 3.7 THE POTENTIAL FOR PRODUCTION CBE OF DILUTE NITRIDES
    • 3.8 CONCLUSIONS
    • ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
  • Chapter 4: MOMBE Growth and Characterization of III–V-N Compounds and Application to InAs Quantum Dots
    • ABSTRACT
    • 4.1 INTRODUCTION
    • 4.2 MOMBE GROWTH AND CHARACTERIZATION OF GaAsN
    • 4.3 RELATION OF In AND N INCORPORATIONS IN THE GROWTH OF GaInNAs
    • 4.4 GROWTH AND CHARACTERIZATION OF GaAsNSe NEW ALLOY
    • 4.5 APPLICATION OF GaAsN TO InAs QUANTUM DOTS
    • 4.6 SUMMARY
    • ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
  • Chapter 5: Recent Progress in Dilute Nitride Quantum Dots
    • Publisher Summary
    • 5.1 SELF-ORGANIZED QUANTUM DOTS
    • 5.2 DILUTE NITRIDE QUANTUM DOTS
    • 5.3 RECENT EXPERIMENTAL PROGRESS IN GaInNAs QDs
    • 5.4 OTHER KINDS OF DILUTE NITRIDE QDs
    • 5.5 SUMMARY AND FUTURE CHALLENGES IN DILUTE NITRIDE QDs
    • ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
  • Chapter 6: Physics of Isoelectronic Dopants in GaAs
    • Publisher Summary
    • 6.1 NITROGEN ISOELECTRONIC IMPURITIES
    • 6.2 THE FAILURE OF THE VIRTUAL CRYSTAL APPROXIMATION
    • 6.3 PREVALENT THEORETICAL MODELS ON DILUTE NITRIDES
    • 6.4 ELECTROREFLECTANCE STUDY OF GaAsN
    • 6.5 RESONANT RAMAN SCATTERING STUDY OF CONDUCTION BAND STATES
    • 6.6 COMPATIBILITY WITH OTHER EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS
    • 6.7 A COMPLEMENTARY ALLOY: GaAsBi
    • 6.8 SUMMARY
    • 6.9 CONCLUSION
  • Chapter 7: Measurement of Carrier Localization Degree, Electron Effective Mass, and Excition Size in InxGa1−xAs1−yNy Alloys
    • ABSTRACT
    • 7.1 INTRODUCTION
    • 7.2 EXPERIMENTAL
    • 7.3 SINGLE CARRIER LOCALIZATION IN InxGa1-xAs1-yNy
    • 7.4 MEASUREMENT OF THE ELECTRON EFFECTIVE MASS AND EXCITON WAVE FUNCTION SIZE
    • 7.5 CONCLUSIONS
    • ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
  • Chapter 8: Probing the “Unusual” Band Structure of Dilute Ga(AsN) Quantum Wells by Magneto-Tunnelling Spectroscopy and Other Techniques
    • Publisher Summary
    • 8.1 INTRODUCTION
    • 8.2 RESONANT TUNNELLING DIODES BASED ON DILUTE NITRIDES
    • 8.3 MAGNETO-TUNNELLING SPECTROSCOPY TO PROBE THE CONDUCTION BAND STRUCTURE OF DILUTE NITRIDES
    • 8.4 ELECTRONIC PROPERTIES: FROM THE VERY DILUTE REGIME (~0.1%) TO THE DILUTE REGIME
    • 8.5 CONDUCTION IN DILUTE NITRIDES AND FUTURE PROSPECTS
    • 8.6 SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS
    • ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
  • Chapter 9: Photo- and Electro-reflectance of III–V-N Compounds and Low Dimensional Structures
    • Publisher Summary
    • 9.1 PRINCIPLES OF ELECTROMODULATION IN ELECTRO- AND PHOTO-REFLECTANCE SPECTROSCOPY
    • 9.2 BAND STRUCTURE OF (Ga,In)(As,Sb,N) BULK-LIKE LAYERS
    • 9.3 (Ga,In)(As,Sb,N)-BASED QUANTUM WELL STRUCTURES
    • 9.4 THE INFLUENCE OF POST-GROWN ANNEALING ON GaInNAs STRUCTURES
    • 9.5 PHOTOREFLECTANCE INVESTIGATION OF THE EXCITON BINDING ENERGY
    • 9.6 MANIFESTATION OF THE CARRIER LOCALIZATION EFFECT IN PHOTOREFLECTANCE SPECTROSCOPY
  • Chapter 10: Band Anticrossing and Related Electronic Structure in III-N-V Alloys
    • Publisher Summary
    • 10.1 INTRODUCTION
    • 10.2 BAND ANTICROSSING MODEL
    • 10.3 EXPERIMENTAL EVIDENCE OF BAND SPLITTING AND ANTICROSSING CHARACTERISTICS
    • 10.4 NOVEL ELECTRONIC AND TRANSPORT PROPERTIES OF III-N-V ALLOYS
    • 10.5 CONCLUSIONS
    • ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
  • Chapter 11: A Tight-Binding Based Analysis of the Band Anti-Crossing Model and Its Application in Ga(In)NAs Alloys
    • ABSTRACT
    • 11.1 INTRODUCTION
    • 11.2 NITROGEN RESONANT STATES IN ORDERED CaNxAs1-x STRUCTURES
    • 11.3 ANALYTICAL MODEL FOR QUANTUM WELL CONFINED STATE ENERGIES AND DISPERSION
    • 11.4 INFLUENCE OF DISORDER ON NITROGEN RESONANT STATES, E- AND E+ IN GaNxAs1-x
    • 11.5 CONDUCTION BAND STRUCTURE AND EFFECTIVE MASS IN DISORDERED GaNxAs1-x
    • 11.6 ALLOY SCATTERING AND MOBILITY IN DILUTE NITRIDE ALLOYS
    • 11.7 CONCLUSIONS
    • ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
  • Chapter 12: Electronic Structure Evolution of Dilute III–V Nitride Alloys
    • Publisher Summary
    • 12.1 INTRODUCTION
    • 12.2 PHENOMENOLOGY OF DILUTE III-V NITRIDES
    • 12.3 EMPIRICAL PSEUDOPOTENTIAL METHODOLOGY
    • 12.4 ELECTRONIC STRUCTURE EVOLUTION OF DILUTE NITRIDES
    • 12.5 SUMMARY OF ELECTRONIC STRUCTURE EVOLUTION
    • 12.6 PHENOMENOLOGY OF DILUTE NITRIDE QUATERNARIES
    • 12.7 FUTURE CHALLENGES OF NEW NITRIDE MATERIALS
    • 12.8 CONCLUSIONS
    • ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
  • Chapter 13: Theory of Nitrogen-Hydrogen Complexes in N-Containing III–V Alloys
    • Publisher Summary
    • 13.1 INTRODUCTION
    • 13.2 THEORETICAL METHODS
    • 13.3 N-H COMPLEXES IN GaAsN ALLOYS
    • 13.4 INTRINSIC N AND H IMPURITIES IN GaP AND GaAs
    • 13.5 N-H COMPLEXES IN InGaAsN
    • 13.6 N-H COMPLEXES IN GaPN
    • 13.7 CONCLUSIONS
  • Chapter 14: Dislocation-free III–V-N Alloy Layers on Si Substrates and Their Device Applications
    • ABSTRACT
    • 14.1 INTRODUCTION
    • 14.2 DISLOCATION GENERATION MECHANISMS IN LATTICE-MISMATCHED HETEROEPITAXY
    • 14.3 LATTICE-MATCHED HETEROEPITAXY OF III-V-N ALLOYS ON III-V COMPOUND SEMICONDUCTORS
    • 14.4 GROWTH OF DISLOCATION-FREE III-V-N ALLOY LAYERS ON Si SUBSTRATES
    • 14.5 DEVICE APPLICATIONS
    • 14.6 SUMMARY
    • ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
  • Chapter 15: GaNAsSb Alloy and its Potential for Device Applications
    • ABSTRACT
    • 15.1 INTRODUCTION
    • 15.2 MBE OF THE GaNAsSb ALLOY
    • 15.3 BANDS
    • 15.4 ANNEALING EFFECT
    • 15.5 QUINARY ALLOY
    • 15.6 LONG-WAVELENGTH GaAs-BASED LASER
    • 15.7 HBT
    • 15.8 CONCLUSIONS
    • ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
  • Chapter 16: A Comparative Look at 1.3 μm InGaAsN-based VCSELs for Fiber-optical Communication Systems
    • ABSTRACT
    • 16.1 INTRODUCTION: 0.85 μm VERSUS 1.3 μm VCSELs
    • 16.2 APPROACHES TO ACHIEVE 1.3 μm VCSELs
    • 16.4 OUTLOOK
    • 16.5 CONCLUSION
    • ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
  • Chapter 17: Long-wavelength Dilute Nitride—Antimonide Lasers
    • Publisher Summary
    • 17.1 INTRODUCTION
    • 17.2 EPITAXIAL GROWTH SYSTEMS: MOVPE AND MBE
    • 17.3 ION DAMAGE AND ANNEALING BEHAVIOR
    • 17.4 GaInNAsSb EDGE-EMITTING LASERS
    • 17.4.4.4 Above Threshold Parameters
    • 17.5 SPONTANEOUS EMISSION STUDIES
    • 17.6 GaInNAsSb VCSELs
    • 17.7 HIGH POWER LASERS BASED ON GaInNAs(Sb)
    • 17.8 RELATIVE INTENSITY NOISE
    • 17.9 GaInNAsSb ELECTROABSORPTION MODULATORS AND SATURABLE ABSORBERS
    • 17.10 LASER RELIABILITY
    • 17.11 SUMMARY
    • ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
  • Chapter 18: Application of Dilute Nitride Materials to Heterojunction Bipolar Transistors
    • ABSTRACT
    • 18.1 INTRODUCTION
    • 18.2 DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS FOR GaInNAs BASE HBTs
    • 18.3 MATERIAL GROWTH AND DEVICE PROCESSING
    • 18.4 GaInNAs HBT RESULTS
    • 18.5 CIRCUIT APPLICATIONS FOR GaInNAs HBTs
    • 18.6 FUTURE OUTLOOK
    • ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
  • Index

Details

No. of pages:
640
Language:
English
Copyright:
© Elsevier Science 2005
Published:
Imprint:
Elsevier Science
eBook ISBN:
9780080455990
Hardcover ISBN:
9780080445021

About the Author

Mohamed Henini

Dr M. Henini has over 20 years’ experience of Molecular Beam Epitaxy (MBE) growth and has published >700 papers. He has particular interests in the MBE growth and physics of self-assembled quantum dots using electronic, optical and structural techniques. Leaders in the field of self-organisation of nanostructures will give an account on the formation, properties, and self-organization of semiconductor nanostructures.

Affiliations and Expertise

The University of Nottingham, School of Physics and Astronomy, UK