Digital Modeling of Material Appearance

Digital Modeling of Material Appearance

1st Edition - December 6, 2007

Write a review

  • Authors: Julie Dorsey, Holly Rushmeier, François Sillion
  • eBook ISBN: 9780080556710
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9780122211812

Purchase options

Purchase options
DRM-free (PDF)
Sales tax will be calculated at check-out

Institutional Subscription

Free Global Shipping
No minimum order


Computer graphics systems are capable of generating stunningly realistic images of objects that have never physically existed. In order for computers to create these accurately detailed images, digital models of appearance must include robust data to give viewers a credible visual impression of the depicted materials. In particular, digital models demonstrating the nuances of how materials interact with light are essential to this capability. Digital Modeling of Material Appearance is the first comprehensive work on the digital modeling of material appearance: it explains how models from physics and engineering are combined with keen observation skills for use in computer graphics rendering. Written by the foremost experts in appearance modeling and rendering, this book is for practitioners who want a general framework for understanding material modeling tools, and also for researchers pursuing the development of new modeling techniques. The text is not a "how to" guide for a particular software system. Instead, it provides a thorough discussion of foundations and detailed coverage of key advances. Practitioners and researchers in applications such as architecture, theater, product development, cultural heritage documentation, visual simulation and training, as well as traditional digital application areas such as feature film, television, and computer games, will benefit from this much needed resource. ABOUT THE AUTHORSJulie Dorsey and Holly Rushmeier are professors in the Computer Science Department at Yale University and co-directors of the Yale Computer Graphics Group. François Sillion is a senior researcher with INRIA (Institut National de Recherche en Informatique et Automatique), and director of its Grenoble Rhône-Alpes research center.

Key Features

  • First comprehensive treatment of the digital modeling of material appearance
  • Provides a foundation for modeling appearance, based on the physics of how light interacts with materials, how people perceive appearance, and the implications of rendering appearance on a digital computer
  • An invaluable, one-stop resource for practitioners and researchers in a variety of fields dealing with the digital modeling of material appearance


Researchers, engineers, and software developers in computer graphics and game development. Those creating special effects in movies and games (lighting designers, technical directors, researchers, software developers) and those to design work in industries such as automotive, paint, metal, and product design.

Table of Contents

  • Contents
    Chapter 1 Introduction
    Chapter 2 Background
    Human Perception and Judgments
    Luminance and Brightness
    Directional Effects
    Textures and Patterns
    Image Synthesis
    Incident Light
    Summary and Further Reading
    Chapter 3 Observation and Classification
    A Tour of Materials
    Examples of Modeling Classes of Materials
    Chapter 4 Mathematical Terms
    Energy as a Function of Time, Position, and Direction
    Reflectance and the BRDF
    Distribution Functions
    Energy Conservation and the BRDF
    Reciprocity and the BRDF
    Chapter 5 General Material Models
    Reflection and Refraction from a Smooth Surface
    Empirical Models
    Lambertian Reflectance
    Phong Reflectance
    Ward Reflectance
    Lafortune Reflectance
    Ashikhmin-Shirley Anisotropic Phong Reflectance
    Analytical First Principles Models
    Micro-facet Distributions
    Models Based on Geometric Optics
    Blinn and Cook-Torrance Reflectance
    Oren-Nayar Reflectance
    Models Based on Wave Optics
    Simulation from First Principles
    Spectral Effects
    Other Effects
    Phosphorescence and Fluorescence
    Scattering in Volumes
    Measured Properties
    Solid Volumetric Media: Subsurface Scattering
    Spatial Variations
    Chapter 6 Specialized Material Models
    Natural Organic Materials
    Humans and Other Mammals
    Birds, Reptiles, Amphibians, Fish and Insects
    Natural: Inorganic
    Porous Materials
    Water in Other Materials: Wet/Dry Appearance
    Materials in Manufactured Goods
    Paints, Coatings and Artistic Media
    Chapter 7 Measurement
    Traditional Measurement
    Gonio reflectometers
    Industrial Measurement Devices
    Image-Based BRDF Measurements of Sample Materials
    Cameras as Sensors
    Measuring Prepared Homogeneous Material Samples
    Measurement of Existing Objects
    Large Objects and Buildings
    Simultaneous Shape and Reflectance Capture
    Small Scale Geometric Structures
    Normal and Bump Maps
    Bidirectional Texture Functions
    Alternative Representations
    Subsurface Scattering and Volumetric Media
    Additional Dimensions
    Chapter 8 Aging and Weathering
    Weathering Taxonomy
    Combined Processes
    Simulation of Weathering Effects
    Flow and Deposition
    Dust Accumulation
    Weathering Systems
    Replication of Aged Appearance
    Manual Application
    Accessibility Shading/Ambient Occlusion
    Capture, Analysis, and Transfer of Effects
    Chapter 9 Specifying and encoding appearance descriptions
    Practical techniques for appearance specification
    Visual interfaces for analytic models
    Textual and programming interfaces
    Composition from basic building blocks
    Encoding local appearance attributes
    Parameterized models
    Tabular data
    Basis functions
    Association of material and shape
    Discussion of surface parameterization
    Representation of light and view-dependence
    Chapter 10 Rendering appearance
    An overview of image creation techniques
    Object projection techniques
    Image sampling techniques
    Local and global calculations
    Simulating global illumination
    Monte Carlo evaluation of the rendering equation
    Caching mechanisms
    Finite elements methods
    Rendering local appearance
    Texture mapping and detail management
    BRDF and BTF sampling
    Subsurface scattering and participating media
    Color and tone
    Spectral rendering
    Dynamic range and tone mapping
    Precomputed rendering elements

Product details

  • No. of pages: 336
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Morgan Kaufmann 2007
  • Published: December 6, 2007
  • Imprint: Morgan Kaufmann
  • eBook ISBN: 9780080556710
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9780122211812

About the Authors

Julie Dorsey

Affiliations and Expertise

Yale University, New Haven, CT, U.S.A.

Holly Rushmeier

Affiliations and Expertise

Yale University, New Haven, CT, U.S.A.

François Sillion

Affiliations and Expertise

INRIA Rhône-Alpes, Montbonnot, France

Ratings and Reviews

Write a review

There are currently no reviews for "Digital Modeling of Material Appearance"