Digital Evidence and Computer Crime - 2nd Edition - ISBN: 9780080472508

Digital Evidence and Computer Crime

2nd Edition

Authors: Eoghan Casey
eBook ISBN: 9780080472508
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 23rd February 2004
Page Count: 688
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Digital Evidence and Computer Crime, Second Edition, is a hands-on resource that aims to educate students and professionals in the law enforcement, forensic science, computer security, and legal communities about digital evidence and computer crime. This textbook explains how computers and networks function, how they can be involved in crimes, and how they can be used as a source of evidence.

In addition to gaining a practical understanding of how computers and networks function and how they can be used as evidence of a crime, students will learn about relevant legal issues and will be introduced to deductive criminal profiling, a systematic approach to focusing an investigation and understanding criminal motivations. Readers will receive unlimited access to the author's accompanying website, which contains simulated cases that integrate many of the topics covered in the text.

This text is required reading for anyone involved in computer investigations or computer administration, including computer forensic consultants, law enforcement, computer security professionals, government agencies (IRS, FBI, CIA, Dept. of Justice), fraud examiners, system administrators, and lawyers.

Key Features

  • Provides a thorough explanation of how computers and networks function, how they can be involved in crimes, and how they can be used as a source of evidence
  • Offers readers information about relevant legal issues
  • Features coverage of the abuse of computer networks and privacy and security issues on computer networks


Computer forensic consultants, law enforcement, computer security professionals (INFOSEC), government agencies (IRS, FBI, CIA, Dept. of Justice), fraud examiners, system administrators, lawyers.

Table of Contents

Part 1

Chapter 1: Digital Evidence and Computer Crime 1.1) Digital Evidence 1.2) Increasing Awareness of Digital Evidence 1.3) Challenging Aspects of Digital Evidence 1.4) Following the Cybertrail 1.5) Challenging Aspects of the Cybertrail 1.6) Forensic Science and Digital Evidence 1.7) Summary

Chapter 2: History and Terminology of Computer Crime Investigation 2.1) Brief History of Computer Crime Investigation 2.2) Evolution of Investigative Tools 2.3) Language of Computer Crime Investigation 2.3.1) The Role of Computers in Crime 2.4) Summary

Chapter 3: Technology and Law Part A: Technology and Law - A United States Perspective Robert Dunne A.1) Jurisdiction A.2) Pornography and Obscenity A.3) Privacy A.4) Copyrights and the "Theft" of Digital Intellectual Property

Part B: Computer Misuse in America Eoghan Casey

Part C: Technology and Criminal Law - A European perspective Tessa Robinson C.1) Overview of Criminal Offenses C.2) Search and Seizure C.3) Jurisdiction and Extradition C.4) Penalties C.5) Privacy C.6) Summary

Chapter 4: The Investigative Process Eoghan Casey and Gary Palmer 4.1) The Role of Digital Evidence 4.2) Investigative Methodology 4.2.1) Accusation or Incident Alert 4.2.2) Assessment of Worth 4.2.3) Incident/Crime Scene Protocols 4.2.4) Identification or Seizure 4.2.5) Preservation 4.2.6) Recovery 4.2.7) Harvesting 4.2.8) Reduction 4.2.9) Organization and Search 4.2.10) Analysis 4.2.11) Reporting 4.2.12) Persuasion and Testimony 4.3) Summary

Chapter 5: Investigative Reconstruction Eoghan Casey and Brent Turvey 5.1) Equivocal Forensic Analysis 5.1.1) Reconstruction 5.1.2) Temporal Analysis 5.1.3) Relational Analysis 5.1.4) Functional Analysis 5.2) Victimology 5.2.1) Victimology 5.3) Crime Scene Characteristics 5.3.1) Method of Approach and Control 5.3.2) Offender Action, Inaction and Reaction 5.4) Evidence Dynamic and Introduction of Error 5.5) Reporting 5.6) Summary

Chapter 6: Modus Operandi, Motive & Technology Brent Turvey 6.1) Axes to Pathological Criminals, and Other Unintended Consequences 6.2) Modus Operandi 6.3) Technology and Modus Operandi 6.4) Motive and Technology 6.4.1) Power Reassurance (Compensatory) 6.4.2) Power Assertive (Entitlement) 6.4.3) Anger Retaliatory (Anger or Displaced) 6.4.4) Anger Excitation (Sadistic) 6.4.5) Profit Oriented 6.5) Current Technologies 6.5.1) A Computer Virus 6.5.2) A Public Email Discussion List 6.6) Summary

Chapter 7: Digital Evidence in the Courtroom 7.1) Admissibility - Warrants 7.2) Authenticity and Reliability 7.3) Casey's Certainty Scale 7.4) Best Evidence 7.5) Direct versus Circumstantial Evidence 7.6) Hearsay 7.6.1) Hearsay Exceptions 7.7) Scientific Evidence 7.8) Presenting Digital Evidence 7.9) Summary

Part 2: Computers

Chapter 8: Computer Basics for Digital Evidence Examiners 8.1) A Brief History of Computers 8.2) Basic Operation of Computers 8.2.1) Central Processing Unit (CPU) 8.2.2) Basic Input and Output System (BIOS) 8.2.3) Power-on Self Test and CMOS Configuration Tool 8.2.4) Disk Boot 8.3) Representation of Data 8.4) Storage Media and Data Hiding 8.5) File Systems and Location of Data 8.6) Overview of Encryption 8.6.1) Private Key Encryption 8.6.2) Public Key Encryption 8.6.3) Pretty Good Privacy 8.9) Summary

Chapter 9: Applying Forensic Science to Computers 9.1) Authorization and Preparation 9.2) Identification 9.2.1) Recognizing Hardware 9.2.2) Identifying Digital Evidence 9.3) Documentation 9.3.1) Message Digests and Digital Signatures 9.4) Collection and Preservation 9.4.1) Collecting and Preserving Hardware 9.4.2) Collecting and Preserving Digital Evidence 9.5) Examination and Analysis 9.5.1) Filtering/Reduction 9.5.2) Class/Individual Characteristics and Evaluation of Source 9.5.3) Data Recovery/Salvage 9.6) Reconstruction 9.6.1) Functional Analysis 9.6.2) Relational Analysis 9.6.3) Temporal Analysis 9.6.4) Digital Stratigraphy 9.7) Reporting 9.8) Summary

Chapter 10: Forensic Analysis of Windows Systems 10.1) Windows Evidence Acquisition Boot Disk 10.2) File Systems 10.3) Overview of Digital Evidence Processing Tools 10.4) Data Recovery 10.4.1) Windows-based Recovery Tools 10.4.2) Unix-based Recovery Tools 10.4.3) File Carving with Windows 10.4.4) Dealing with Password Protection and Encryption 10.5) Log Files 10.6) File System Traces 10.7) Registry 10.8) Internet Traces 10.8.1) Web Browsing 10.8.2) Usenet Access 10.8.3) E-mail 10.8.4) Other Applications 10.8.5) Network Storage 10.9) Program Analysis 10.10) Summary

Chapter 11: Forensic Analysis of Unix Systems 11.1) Unix Evidence Acquisition Boot Disk 11.2) File Systems 11.3) Overview of Digital Evidence Processing Tools 11.4) Data Recovery 11.4.1) Unix-based Tools 11.4.2) Windows-based Tools 11.4.3) File Carving with Unix 11.4.4) Dealing with Password Protection and Encryption 11.5) Log Files 11.6) File System Traces 11.7) Internet Traces 11.7.1) Web Browsing 11.7.2) E-mail 11.7.3) Network Traces 11.8) Summary

Chapter 12: Forensic Analysis of Macintosh Systems 12.1) File Systems 12.2) Overview of Digital Evidence Processing Tools 12.3) Data Recovery 12.4) File System Traces 12.5) Internet Traces 12.5.1) Web Activity 12.5.2) E-mail 12.5.3) Network Storage 12.6) Summary

Chapter 13: Forensic Analysis of Handheld Devices 13.1) Overview of Handheld Devices 13.1.1) Memory 13.1.2) Data Storage and Manipulation 13.1.3) Exploring Palm Memory 13.2) Collection and Examination of Handheld Devices 13.2.1) Palm OS 13.2.2) Windows CE Devices 13.2.3) RIM Blackberry 13.2.4) Mobile Phones 13.3) Dealing with Password Protection and Encryption 13.4) Related Sources of Digital Evidence 13.4.1) Removable Media 13.4.2) Neighborhood Data 13.5) Summary Part 3: Networks

Chapter 14: Network Basics for Digital Evidence Examiners 14.1) A Brief History of Computer Networks 14.2) Technical overview of networks 14.3) Network Technologies 14.3.1) Attached Resource Computer Network (ARCNET) 14.3.2) Ethernet 14.3.3) Fiber Distributed Data Interface (FDDI) 14.3.4) Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) 14.3.5) IEEE 802.11 (Wireless) 14.3.6) Cellular Networks 14.3.7) Satellite Networks 14.4) Connecting Networks Using Internet Protocols 14.4.1) Physical and Data-Link Layers (Layers 1 & 2) 14.4.2) Network and Transport Layers (Layers 3 & 4) 14.4.3) Session Layer (Layer 5) 14.4.4) Presentation Layer (Layer 6) 14.4.5) Application Layer (Layer 7) 14.4.6) Synopsis of the OSI Reference Model 14.5) Summary

Chapter 15: Applying Forensic Science to Networks 15.1) Preparation and Authorization 15.2) Identification 15.3) Documentation, Collection, and Preservation 15.4) Filtering and Data Reduction 15.5) Class/Individual Characteristics and Evaluation of Source 15.6) Evidence Recovery 15.7) Investigative Reconstruction 15.7.1) Behavioral Evidence Analysis 15.8) Summary

Chapter 16: Digital Evidence on Physical and Data-Link Layers 16.1) Ethernet 16.1.1) 10Base5 16.1.2) 10/100BaseT 16.1.3) CSMA/CD 16.2) Linking the Data-Link and Network Layers—Encapsulation 16.2.1) Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) 16.2.2) Point to Point Protocol and Serial Line Internet Protocol 16.3) Ethernet versus ATM Networks 16.4) Documentation, Collection, and Preservation 16.4.1) Sniffer Placement 16.4.2) Sniffer Configuration 16.4.3) Other Source of MAC Addresses 16.5) Analysis Tools and Techniques 16.5.1) Keyword Searches 16.5.2) Filtering and Classification 16.5.3) Reconstruction 16.6) Summary

Chapter 17: Digital Evidence on Network and Transport Layers 17.1) TCP/IP 17.1.1) Internet Protocol and Cellular Data Networks 17.1.2) IP Addresses 17.1.3) Domain Name System 17.1.4) IP Routing 17.1.5) Servers and Ports 17.1.6) Connection Management 17.1.7) Abuses of TCP/IP 17.2) Setting up A Network 17.2.1) Static versus Dynamic IP Address Assignment 17.2.2) Protocols for Assigning IP Addresses 17.3) TCP/IP Related Digital Evidence 17.3.1) Authentication Logs 17.3.2) Server Logs 17.3.3) Operating System Logs 17.3.4) Network Device Logs 17.3.5) State Tables 17.3.6) Random Access Memory Contents 17.4) Summary

Chapter 18: Digital Evidence on the Internet 18.1) Role of the Internet in Criminal Investigations 18.2) Internet Services: Legitimate versus Criminal Uses 18.2.1) The World Wide Web 18.2.2) E-mail 18.2.3) Newsgroups 18.2.4) Synchronous Chat Networks 18.2.5) Peer-To-Peer Networks and Instant Messaging 18.3) Using the Internet as an Investigative Tool 18.3.1) Search Engines 18.3.2) Online Databases (the Invisible Web) 18.3.3) Usenet Archive versus Actual Newgroups 18.4) Online Anonymity and Self-Protection 18.4.1) Overview of Exposure 18.4.2) Proxies 18.4.3) IRC "bots" 18.4.5) Encryption 18.4.5) Anonymous and Pseudonymous E-mail and Usenet 18.4.6) Freenet 18.4.7) Anonymous Cash 18.5) E-mail Forgery and Tracking 18.5.1) Interpreting E-mail Headers 18.6) Usenet Forgery and Tracking 18.6.1) Interpreting Usenet Headers 18.7) Searching and Tracking on IRC 18.8) Summary

Part 4: Investigating Computer Crime

Chapter 19: Investigating Computer Intrusions 19.1) How Computer Intruders Operate 19.2) Investigating Intrusions 19.2.1) Processes as a Source of Evidence (Windows) 19.2.2) Processes as a Source of Evidence (Unix) 19.2.3) Windows Registry 19.2.4) Acquisition over Network 19.2.5) Classification, Comparison, and Evaluation of Source 19.3) Investigative Reconstruction 19.3.1) Parallels between Arson and Intrusion Investigations 19.3.2) Crime Scene Characteristics 19.3.3) Automated and Dynamic Modus Operandi 19.3.4) Examining the Intruder's Computer 19.4) Detailed Case Example 19.5) Summary

Chapter 20: Sex Offenders on the Internet Eoghan Casey, Monique Mattei Ferraro, Michael McGrath 20.1) Window to the World 20.2) Legal Considerations 20.3) Identifying and Processing Digital Evidence 20.4) Investigating Online Sexual Offenders 20.4.1) Undercover Investigation 20.5) Investigative Reconstruction 20.5.1) Analyzing Sex Offenders 20.5.2) Analyzing Victim Behavior 20.5.3) Crime Scene Characteristics 20.5.4) Motivation 20.6) Summary

Chapter 21: Investigating Cyberstalking 21.1) How Cyberstalkers Operate 21.1.1) Acquiring Victims 21.1.2) Anonymity and Surreptitious Monitoring 21.1.3) Escalation and Violence 21.2) Investigating Cyberstalking 21.2.1) Interviews 21.2.2) Victimology 21.2.3) Risk Assessment 21.2.4) Search 21.2.5) Crime Scene Characteristics 21.2.6) Motivation 21.3) Cyberstalking Case Example 21.4) Summary

Chapter 22: Digital Evidence as Alibi 22.1) Investigating an Alibi 22.2) Time as Alibi 22.3) Location as Alibi 22.4) Summary

Part 4: Guidelines

Chapter 23: Handling the Digital Crime Scene 23.1) Identification or Seizure 23.1.1) When the Entire Computer is Required 23.2) Preservation 23.2.1) If Only a Portion of the Digital Evidence on a Computer is Required 23.2.2) Sample Preservation Form

Chapter 24: Digital Evidence Examination Guidelines Eoghan Casey and Troy Larson 24.1) Preparation 24.2) Processing 24.2.1) DOS/Windows Command Line - Maresware 24.2.2) Windows GUI - EnCase 24.2.3) Windows GUI - FTK 24.3) Identify and Process Special Files 24.4) Summary


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© Academic Press 2004
Academic Press
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About the Author

Eoghan Casey

Eoghan Casey is an internationally recognized expert in data breach investigations and information security forensics. He is founding partner of, and co-manages the Risk Prevention and Response business unit at DFLabs. Over the past decade, he has consulted with many attorneys, agencies, and police departments in the United States, South America, and Europe on a wide range of digital investigations, including fraud, violent crimes, identity theft, and on-line criminal activity. Eoghan has helped organizations investigate and manage security breaches, including network intrusions with international scope. He has delivered expert testimony in civil and criminal cases, and has submitted expert reports and prepared trial exhibits for computer forensic and cyber-crime cases.

In addition to his casework and writing the foundational book Digital Evidence and Computer Crime, Eoghan has worked as R&D Team Lead in the Defense Cyber Crime Institute (DCCI) at the Department of Defense Cyber Crime Center (DC3) helping enhance their operational capabilities and develop new techniques and tools. He also teaches graduate students at Johns Hopkins University Information Security Institute and created the Mobile Device Forensics course taught worldwide through the SANS Institute. He has delivered keynotes and taught workshops around the globe on various topics related to data breach investigation, digital forensics and cyber security.

Eoghan has performed thousands of forensic acquisitions and examinations, including Windows and UNIX systems, Enterprise servers, smart phones, cell phones, network logs, backup tapes, and database systems. He also has information security experience, as an Information Security Officer at Yale University and in subsequent consulting work. He has performed vulnerability assessments, deployed and maintained intrusion detection systems, firewalls and public key infrastructures, and developed policies, procedures, and educational programs for a variety of organizations. Eoghan has authored advanced technical books in his areas of expertise that are used by practitioners and universities around the world, and he is Editor-in-Chief of Elsevier's International Journal of Digital Investigation.

Affiliations and Expertise

Eoghan Casey, cmdLabs, Baltimore, MD, USA


Reviews for the previous edition:
"Digital Evidence and Computer Crime provides an introduction to many concepts from computer science about networks, and in particular the Internet. It details the application of forensic science principles to the location, recovery, and examination of digital evidence...Each chapter in the book is fully supported by case examples to clarify particular points made. It also contains many references to specialized literature and on-line resources as well as a helpful glossary of terms...this book can be recommended mainly for people looking to expand their general knowledge and awareness of computer crime and the process of computer crime investigation, particularly those just entering the field of digital forensics."
--Dr. L.W. Russell, Science & Justice

"Many, perhaps most, of the police, lawyers or systems administrators and forensic scientists involved in investigation or prosecution of computer-related crimes do not know the answer to these questions [of digital evidence handling]. This book will tell them. It should, of course, be equally interesting to lawyers with the task of defending alleged computer criminals."
--Robert L Dunne, JD, The Center for Internet Studies, Yale University, USA

" excellent book that details the elements of digital crime. Author Eoghan Casey does a superb job of applying forensic science to computers. The information presented here is critical to a diverse audience: law enforcement, attorneys, forensic scientists, and systems administrators, for instance...In all, the book and CD are an excellent introduction to an increasingly important area of law enforcement." -- Ben Rothke, SecurityManagement

I would very highly recommend this book to all those professionals who want to venture into the new and exciting branch of computer forensics. This book is good value for money, and should adorn the bookshelves of all computer experts, especially those who are in com

Ratings and Reviews