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Diffusion MRI - 2nd Edition - ISBN: 9780123964601, 9780124055094

Diffusion MRI

2nd Edition

From Quantitative Measurement to In vivo Neuroanatomy

Editors: Heidi Johansen-Berg Timothy E.J. Behrens
Hardcover ISBN: 9780123964601
eBook ISBN: 9780124055094
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 4th November 2013
Page Count: 632
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Diffusion MRI remains the most comprehensive reference for understanding this rapidly evolving and powerful technology and is an essential handbook for designing, analyzing, and interpreting diffusion MR experiments.

Diffusion imaging provides a unique window on human brain anatomy. This non-invasive technique continues to grow in popularity as a way to study brain pathways that could never before be investigated in vivo.

This book covers the fundamental theory of diffusion imaging, discusses its most promising applications to basic and clinical neuroscience, and introduces cutting-edge methodological developments that will shape the field in coming years. Written by leading experts in the field, it places the exciting new results emerging from diffusion imaging in the context of classical anatomical techniques to show where diffusion studies might offer unique insights and where potential limitations lie.

Key Features

  • Fully revised and updated edition of the first comprehensive reference on a powerful technique in brain imaging
  • Covers all aspects of a diffusion MRI study from acquisition through analysis to interpretation, and from fundamental theory to cutting-edge developments
  • New chapters covering connectomics, advanced diffusion acquisition, artifact removal, and applications to the neonatal brain
  • Provides practical advice on running an experiment
  • Includes discussion of applications in psychiatry, neurology, neurosurgery, and basic neuroscience
  • Full color throughout


Neuroscientists interested in the study of connections in the brain, brain imaging, within Cognitive Neuroscience, Neuroscience, Radiology, Medical Physics and adjacent areas.

Table of Contents

Section I: Introduction to Diffusion MRI

Chapter 1. Introduction to Diffusion MR



1.1 What is Diffusion?

1.2 Magnetic Resonance and Diffusion

1.3 Diffusion in Neural Tissue

1.4 Concluding Remarks


Chapter 2. Pulse Sequences for Diffusion-Weighted MRI


2.1 MRI Pulse Sequence Primer

2.2 Adding Diffusion Weighting to a Pulse Sequence

2.3 Bulk Motion Sensitivity

2.4 Single-Shot Echo Planar Imaging Methods

2.5 Parameter Optimization

2.6 Other DWI Pulse Sequences


Chapter 3. Diffusion Acquisition: Pushing the Boundaries



3.1 The Modular Nature of Diffusion Sequences

3.2 Improving Image Quality

3.3 Improving Diffusion Contrast

3.4 Conclusions


Chapter 4. Geometric Distortions in Diffusion MRI


4.1 Introduction

4.2 Echo Planar Imaging

4.3 Where Does the Off-Resonance Field Come From?

4.4 Modified Imaging Techniques that Yield Less-Distorted Images

4.5 Imaging Techniques that Acquire Information about the Off-Resonance Field

4.6 Image Registration-Based Methods for Correcting Distortions

4.7 Recent Work at the FMRIB


Chapter 5. Gaussian Modeling of the Diffusion Signal


5.1 Introduction

5.2 Diffusion Basics

5.3 Basic Modeling and Quantification

5.4 Data Acquisition Strategies

5.5 Artifacts

5.6 What is a Model?


Chapter 6. Multiple Fibers: Beyond the Diffusion Tensor



6.1 Introduction

6.2 Multiple Fibers: What’s All the Fuss About?

6.3 Model-Based Approaches

6.4 Nonparametric Algorithms

6.5 Derived Information

6.6 Applications and Exploitation

6.7 Summary

Appendix A Qball Implementation

Appendix B Spherical Deconvolution Implementation


Section II: Diffusion MRI for Quantitative Measurement

Chapter 7. White Matter Structure: A Microscopist’s View



7.1 Introduction

7.2 Cellular Components of the CNS White Matter

7.3 Water Content of White Matter

7.4 Changes in White Matter Due to Abnormalities in Myelin

7.5 The Ultrastructural Effects of Demyelination and Axonal Damage in Humans

7.6 Plasticity in White Matter

7.7 Summary


Chapter 8. The Biological Basis of Diffusion Anisotropy



8.1 Utility of Microscopic Water Motion

8.2 Relationship of Water Diffusion Anisotropy to Tissue Microstructure

8.3 Role of the Apparent Diffusion Coefficients for Interpreting Anisotropy

8.4 Issues Related to Diffusion Anisotropy Measurements in Tissue by MRI

8.5 Summary


Chapter 9. Inferring Microstructural Information of White Matter from Diffusion MRI


9.1 The Morphological Features of White Matter

9.2 Diffusion MRI and Tissue Microstructure

9.3 Diffusion Tensor Imaging—A Tool for White Matter Microstructural Mapping

9.4 Diffusion Tensor Imaging—A Tool for White Matter Microstructural Mapping?

9.5 Types of Diffusion Processes in the Tissue

9.6 Q-Space Analysis

9.7 Models of Diffusion in White Matter

9.8 Towards Virtual Biopsy of White Matter With Diffusion MRI

9.9 Summary


Chapter 10. Cross-Subject Comparison of Local Diffusion MRI Parameters


10.1 Introduction

10.2 Cross-Subject Registration (Image Alignment)

10.3 Voxel-Based Morphometry—Overview and Application to Diffusion Data

10.4 Problems of Interpretability in VBM-Style Analyses

10.5 Region-of-Interest and Tractography-Based Strategies for Localizing Change

10.6 Tract-Based Spatial Statistics

10.7 Other Skeleton-Based Work

10.8 Statistical Modeling, Thresholding, and Multivariate Approaches

10.9 Alternative Diffusion Measures to Test

10.10 Interpretation Issues: Partial Volume Effects and Complex Tract Structure

10.11 Standard Space Templates and Atlases

10.12 Empirical Studies of Gaussianity and Repeatability in Diffusion MRI Data

10.13 Example Multi-Subject Studies

10.14 Conclusions


Chapter 11. Diffusion MRI in Neurological Disorders


11.1 Introduction

11.2 Brief Overview of Methods for Clinical Research

11.3 Clinical Applications

11.4 Conclusions


Chapter 12. Diffusion Tensor Imaging in the Study of Aging and Age-Associated Neural Disease



12.1 Introduction

12.2 Typical Diffusion Metrics Utilized in the Study of Tissue Microstructure Across the Lifespan

12.3 Diffusion in Aging

12.4 Associations Between DTI Metrics and Gray Matter Morphometry

12.5 Caveats to the use of Diffusion Imaging in the Study of Aging and Age-Associated Disease

12.6 Future Directions


Chapter 13. Diffusion Imaging in the Developing Brain


13.1 Changes in Diffusion Measures with Increasing Gestational Age

13.2 Abnormal White Matter and Cortical Gray Matter Development in Preterm Infants at Term

13.3 Assessing the Connectome in the Developing Brain

13.4 DTI in Preterm Brain Injury

13.5 Diffusion MRI Studies of the Developing Preterm Brain and Association with Neurodevelopmental Outcome

13.6 MRI in the Term Infant with Perinatal Brain Injury

13.7 Future Directions

13.8 Conclusions


Chapter 14. Individual Differences in White Matter Microstructure in the Healthy Brain


14.1 Introduction

14.2 Gender and Handedness

14.3 Changes in White Matter Microstructure with Development and Aging are Associated with Development or Deterioration in Cognitive Skills

14.4 Age-Independent Variation in Brain Structure Reflects Inter-Individual Variation in Behavior

14.5 Are Individual Differences in White Matter due to Nature or Nurture?

14.6 Conclusion


Chapter 15. Diffusion Tensor Imaging and its Application to Schizophrenia and Related Disorders


15.1 Introduction

15.2 Review of DTI Findings in Schizophrenia

15.3 Future Directions: What are we Missing and How Can we Fill in the Gaps?


Section III: Diffusion MRI for In vivo Neuroanatomy

Chapter 16. Mapping Connections in Humans and Non-Human Primates: Aspirations and Challenges for Diffusion Imaging



16.1 Introduction

16.2 Neuroanatomical Fundamentals

16.3 Approaches to Imaging Human Brain Connectivity

16.4 Imaging Structural Connectivity: The HCP Strategy

16.5 The Fiber Architecture of Gyral Blades and Deep White Matter

16.6 Discussion


Chapter 17. Classic and Contemporary Neural Tract-Tracing Techniques


17.1 Introduction

17.2 A Brief Historical Perspective of the Development of Experimental Tract Tracing

17.3 Contemporary Application of Experimental Tract Tracing in Non-Human Primates

17.4 Conclusions


Further Reading

Chapter 18. The Human Connectome: Linking Structure and Function in the Human Brain



18.1 What is the Connectome?

18.2 Modes of Brain Connectivity

18.3 Defining Network Nodes of the Connectome

18.4 Graph Analysis of Brain Connectivity

18.5 Mapping the Network of Structural Connections of the Human Brain

18.6 Relating Structural Connections to Functional Interactions

18.7 Brain Connectivity and Network Disease

18.8 The Future of the Connectome


Chapter 19. MR Diffusion Tractography


19.1 Introduction

19.2 Streamline Tractography

19.3 Probabilistic Tractography

19.4 Global Tractography Approaches

19.5 Choice of Local Description of Diffusion in Tractography

19.6 Designing a Diffusion Tractography Study

19.7 Future Advances in Diffusion Tractography

19.8 Summary and Conclusions


Chapter 20. Validation of Tractography


20.1 Introduction

20.2 Validation of Fiber Orientation Information

20.3 Validation of Tractography

20.4 Summary


Chapter 21. Connectivity Fingerprinting of Gray Matter


21.1 Introduction

21.2 Application to Subcortical Gray Matter

21.3 Application to Cortical Gray

21.4 Validation

21.5 Conclusions


Chapter 22. Contribution of Diffusion Tractography to the Anatomy of Language



22.1 Introduction

22.2 The Anatomy of the Arcuate Fasciculus: From Blunt Dissections to Tractography

22.3 Lateralization of the Arcuate Fasciculus

22.4 Comparative Anatomy of Perisylvian Language Network

22.5 Functional Correlates of Perisylvian Language Network

22.6 Beyond the Arcuate Fasciculus: Ventral and Frontal Networks

22.7 Application of Tractography to Language Disorders

22.8 Summary and Future Directions


Chapter 23. Presurgical Tractography Applications



23.1 Introduction

23.2 Presurgical Applications, Tract Latitudes, and Tracking Failures

23.3 Potential Surgical Targets and Intentions

23.4 Presurgical Tractography

23.5 Summary and Conclusions


Chapter 24. Comparing Connections in the Brains of Humans and Other Primates Using Diffusion-Weighted Imaging


24.1 Introduction

24.2 Comparing Tractography with Tract-Tracing Techniques

24.3 Using Tractography to Examine the Connections of Human Ventral Frontal Cortex

24.4 Language and the Arcuate Fascicle in Humans and other Primates

24.5 Tractography Suggests Basic Similarities in Frontal Cortex Organization in Humans and other Primates

24.6 Premotor Cortex

24.7 Comparing the Parietal Cortex in Humans and other Primates

24.8 Conclusions


Chapter 25. Imaging Structure and Function


25.1 Introduction

25.2 Structural Imaging and Brain Morphometry

25.3 Combining Sources of Data

25.4 Imaging Anatomo-Functional Networks

25.5 Conclusions


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© Academic Press 2013
4th November 2013
Academic Press
Hardcover ISBN:
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About the Editors

Heidi Johansen-Berg

Affiliations and Expertise

Oxford Centre for Functional MRI of the Brain (FMRIB), Department of Clinical Neurology, University of Oxford, UK

Timothy E.J. Behrens

Affiliations and Expertise

Department of Experimental Psychology, University of Oxford; Centre for Functional MRI of the Brain (FMRIB), UK


"This text outlines the theory and applications of diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). In 25 chapters, radiologists, neuroscientists, psychologists, psychiatrists, and others from North America, Europe, and Israel outline the methods underlying diffusion imaging; the use of diffusion MRI for quantitative measurement and in understanding neurological disorders…", April 2014

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