Diffusion MRI

Diffusion MRI

From Quantitative Measurement to In vivo Neuroanatomy

2nd Edition - November 4, 2013
  • Editors: Heidi Johansen-Berg, Timothy E.J. Behrens
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9780123964601
  • eBook ISBN: 9780124055094

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Description

Diffusion MRI remains the most comprehensive reference for understanding this rapidly evolving and powerful technology and is an essential handbook for designing, analyzing, and interpreting diffusion MR experiments. Diffusion imaging provides a unique window on human brain anatomy. This non-invasive technique continues to grow in popularity as a way to study brain pathways that could never before be investigated in vivo. This book covers the fundamental theory of diffusion imaging, discusses its most promising applications to basic and clinical neuroscience, and introduces cutting-edge methodological developments that will shape the field in coming years. Written by leading experts in the field, it places the exciting new results emerging from diffusion imaging in the context of classical anatomical techniques to show where diffusion studies might offer unique insights and where potential limitations lie.

Key Features

  • Fully revised and updated edition of the first comprehensive reference on a powerful technique in brain imaging
  • Covers all aspects of a diffusion MRI study from acquisition through analysis to interpretation, and from fundamental theory to cutting-edge developments
  • New chapters covering connectomics, advanced diffusion acquisition, artifact removal, and applications to the neonatal brain
  • Provides practical advice on running an experiment
  • Includes discussion of applications in psychiatry, neurology, neurosurgery, and basic neuroscience
  • Full color throughout

Readership

Neuroscientists interested in the study of connections in the brain, brain imaging, within Cognitive Neuroscience, Neuroscience, Radiology, Medical Physics and adjacent areas.

Table of Contents

  • Section I: Introduction to Diffusion MRI

    Chapter 1. Introduction to Diffusion MR

    Abstracts

    Acknowledgments

    1.1 What is Diffusion?

    1.2 Magnetic Resonance and Diffusion

    1.3 Diffusion in Neural Tissue

    1.4 Concluding Remarks

    References

    Chapter 2. Pulse Sequences for Diffusion-Weighted MRI

    Abstracts

    2.1 MRI Pulse Sequence Primer

    2.2 Adding Diffusion Weighting to a Pulse Sequence

    2.3 Bulk Motion Sensitivity

    2.4 Single-Shot Echo Planar Imaging Methods

    2.5 Parameter Optimization

    2.6 Other DWI Pulse Sequences

    References

    Chapter 3. Diffusion Acquisition: Pushing the Boundaries

    Abstracts

    Acknowledgments

    3.1 The Modular Nature of Diffusion Sequences

    3.2 Improving Image Quality

    3.3 Improving Diffusion Contrast

    3.4 Conclusions

    References

    Chapter 4. Geometric Distortions in Diffusion MRI

    Abstract

    4.1 Introduction

    4.2 Echo Planar Imaging

    4.3 Where Does the Off-Resonance Field Come From?

    4.4 Modified Imaging Techniques that Yield Less-Distorted Images

    4.5 Imaging Techniques that Acquire Information about the Off-Resonance Field

    4.6 Image Registration-Based Methods for Correcting Distortions

    4.7 Recent Work at the FMRIB

    References

    Chapter 5. Gaussian Modeling of the Diffusion Signal

    Abstracts

    5.1 Introduction

    5.2 Diffusion Basics

    5.3 Basic Modeling and Quantification

    5.4 Data Acquisition Strategies

    5.5 Artifacts

    5.6 What is a Model?

    References

    Chapter 6. Multiple Fibers: Beyond the Diffusion Tensor

    Abstract

    Acknowledgments

    6.1 Introduction

    6.2 Multiple Fibers: What’s All the Fuss About?

    6.3 Model-Based Approaches

    6.4 Nonparametric Algorithms

    6.5 Derived Information

    6.6 Applications and Exploitation

    6.7 Summary

    Appendix A Qball Implementation

    Appendix B Spherical Deconvolution Implementation

    References

    Section II: Diffusion MRI for Quantitative Measurement

    Chapter 7. White Matter Structure: A Microscopist’s View

    Abstract

    Acknowledgments

    7.1 Introduction

    7.2 Cellular Components of the CNS White Matter

    7.3 Water Content of White Matter

    7.4 Changes in White Matter Due to Abnormalities in Myelin

    7.5 The Ultrastructural Effects of Demyelination and Axonal Damage in Humans

    7.6 Plasticity in White Matter

    7.7 Summary

    References

    Chapter 8. The Biological Basis of Diffusion Anisotropy

    Abstract

    Acknowledgments

    8.1 Utility of Microscopic Water Motion

    8.2 Relationship of Water Diffusion Anisotropy to Tissue Microstructure

    8.3 Role of the Apparent Diffusion Coefficients for Interpreting Anisotropy

    8.4 Issues Related to Diffusion Anisotropy Measurements in Tissue by MRI

    8.5 Summary

    References

    Chapter 9. Inferring Microstructural Information of White Matter from Diffusion MRI

    Abstract

    9.1 The Morphological Features of White Matter

    9.2 Diffusion MRI and Tissue Microstructure

    9.3 Diffusion Tensor Imaging—A Tool for White Matter Microstructural Mapping

    9.4 Diffusion Tensor Imaging—A Tool for White Matter Microstructural Mapping?

    9.5 Types of Diffusion Processes in the Tissue

    9.6 Q-Space Analysis

    9.7 Models of Diffusion in White Matter

    9.8 Towards Virtual Biopsy of White Matter With Diffusion MRI

    9.9 Summary

    References

    Chapter 10. Cross-Subject Comparison of Local Diffusion MRI Parameters

    Abstract

    10.1 Introduction

    10.2 Cross-Subject Registration (Image Alignment)

    10.3 Voxel-Based Morphometry—Overview and Application to Diffusion Data

    10.4 Problems of Interpretability in VBM-Style Analyses

    10.5 Region-of-Interest and Tractography-Based Strategies for Localizing Change

    10.6 Tract-Based Spatial Statistics

    10.7 Other Skeleton-Based Work

    10.8 Statistical Modeling, Thresholding, and Multivariate Approaches

    10.9 Alternative Diffusion Measures to Test

    10.10 Interpretation Issues: Partial Volume Effects and Complex Tract Structure

    10.11 Standard Space Templates and Atlases

    10.12 Empirical Studies of Gaussianity and Repeatability in Diffusion MRI Data

    10.13 Example Multi-Subject Studies

    10.14 Conclusions

    References

    Chapter 11. Diffusion MRI in Neurological Disorders

    Abstract

    11.1 Introduction

    11.2 Brief Overview of Methods for Clinical Research

    11.3 Clinical Applications

    11.4 Conclusions

    References

    Chapter 12. Diffusion Tensor Imaging in the Study of Aging and Age-Associated Neural Disease

    Abstract

    Acknowledgments

    12.1 Introduction

    12.2 Typical Diffusion Metrics Utilized in the Study of Tissue Microstructure Across the Lifespan

    12.3 Diffusion in Aging

    12.4 Associations Between DTI Metrics and Gray Matter Morphometry

    12.5 Caveats to the use of Diffusion Imaging in the Study of Aging and Age-Associated Disease

    12.6 Future Directions

    References

    Chapter 13. Diffusion Imaging in the Developing Brain

    Abstract

    13.1 Changes in Diffusion Measures with Increasing Gestational Age

    13.2 Abnormal White Matter and Cortical Gray Matter Development in Preterm Infants at Term

    13.3 Assessing the Connectome in the Developing Brain

    13.4 DTI in Preterm Brain Injury

    13.5 Diffusion MRI Studies of the Developing Preterm Brain and Association with Neurodevelopmental Outcome

    13.6 MRI in the Term Infant with Perinatal Brain Injury

    13.7 Future Directions

    13.8 Conclusions

    References

    Chapter 14. Individual Differences in White Matter Microstructure in the Healthy Brain

    Abstract

    14.1 Introduction

    14.2 Gender and Handedness

    14.3 Changes in White Matter Microstructure with Development and Aging are Associated with Development or Deterioration in Cognitive Skills

    14.4 Age-Independent Variation in Brain Structure Reflects Inter-Individual Variation in Behavior

    14.5 Are Individual Differences in White Matter due to Nature or Nurture?

    14.6 Conclusion

    References

    Chapter 15. Diffusion Tensor Imaging and its Application to Schizophrenia and Related Disorders

    Abstract

    15.1 Introduction

    15.2 Review of DTI Findings in Schizophrenia

    15.3 Future Directions: What are we Missing and How Can we Fill in the Gaps?

    References

    Section III: Diffusion MRI for In vivo Neuroanatomy

    Chapter 16. Mapping Connections in Humans and Non-Human Primates: Aspirations and Challenges for Diffusion Imaging

    Abstract

    Acknowledgments

    16.1 Introduction

    16.2 Neuroanatomical Fundamentals

    16.3 Approaches to Imaging Human Brain Connectivity

    16.4 Imaging Structural Connectivity: The HCP Strategy

    16.5 The Fiber Architecture of Gyral Blades and Deep White Matter

    16.6 Discussion

    References

    Chapter 17. Classic and Contemporary Neural Tract-Tracing Techniques

    Abstract

    17.1 Introduction

    17.2 A Brief Historical Perspective of the Development of Experimental Tract Tracing

    17.3 Contemporary Application of Experimental Tract Tracing in Non-Human Primates

    17.4 Conclusions

    References

    Further Reading

    Chapter 18. The Human Connectome: Linking Structure and Function in the Human Brain

    Abstract

    Acknowledgments

    18.1 What is the Connectome?

    18.2 Modes of Brain Connectivity

    18.3 Defining Network Nodes of the Connectome

    18.4 Graph Analysis of Brain Connectivity

    18.5 Mapping the Network of Structural Connections of the Human Brain

    18.6 Relating Structural Connections to Functional Interactions

    18.7 Brain Connectivity and Network Disease

    18.8 The Future of the Connectome

    References

    Chapter 19. MR Diffusion Tractography

    Abstract

    19.1 Introduction

    19.2 Streamline Tractography

    19.3 Probabilistic Tractography

    19.4 Global Tractography Approaches

    19.5 Choice of Local Description of Diffusion in Tractography

    19.6 Designing a Diffusion Tractography Study

    19.7 Future Advances in Diffusion Tractography

    19.8 Summary and Conclusions

    References

    Chapter 20. Validation of Tractography

    Abstract

    20.1 Introduction

    20.2 Validation of Fiber Orientation Information

    20.3 Validation of Tractography

    20.4 Summary

    References

    Chapter 21. Connectivity Fingerprinting of Gray Matter

    Abstract

    21.1 Introduction

    21.2 Application to Subcortical Gray Matter

    21.3 Application to Cortical Gray

    21.4 Validation

    21.5 Conclusions

    References

    Chapter 22. Contribution of Diffusion Tractography to the Anatomy of Language

    Abstract

    Acknowledgments

    22.1 Introduction

    22.2 The Anatomy of the Arcuate Fasciculus: From Blunt Dissections to Tractography

    22.3 Lateralization of the Arcuate Fasciculus

    22.4 Comparative Anatomy of Perisylvian Language Network

    22.5 Functional Correlates of Perisylvian Language Network

    22.6 Beyond the Arcuate Fasciculus: Ventral and Frontal Networks

    22.7 Application of Tractography to Language Disorders

    22.8 Summary and Future Directions

    References

    Chapter 23. Presurgical Tractography Applications

    Abstract

    Acknowledgments

    23.1 Introduction

    23.2 Presurgical Applications, Tract Latitudes, and Tracking Failures

    23.3 Potential Surgical Targets and Intentions

    23.4 Presurgical Tractography

    23.5 Summary and Conclusions

    References

    Chapter 24. Comparing Connections in the Brains of Humans and Other Primates Using Diffusion-Weighted Imaging

    Abstract

    24.1 Introduction

    24.2 Comparing Tractography with Tract-Tracing Techniques

    24.3 Using Tractography to Examine the Connections of Human Ventral Frontal Cortex

    24.4 Language and the Arcuate Fascicle in Humans and other Primates

    24.5 Tractography Suggests Basic Similarities in Frontal Cortex Organization in Humans and other Primates

    24.6 Premotor Cortex

    24.7 Comparing the Parietal Cortex in Humans and other Primates

    24.8 Conclusions

    References

    Chapter 25. Imaging Structure and Function

    Abstract

    25.1 Introduction

    25.2 Structural Imaging and Brain Morphometry

    25.3 Combining Sources of Data

    25.4 Imaging Anatomo-Functional Networks

    25.5 Conclusions

Product details

  • No. of pages: 632
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Academic Press 2013
  • Published: November 4, 2013
  • Imprint: Academic Press
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9780123964601
  • eBook ISBN: 9780124055094

About the Editors

Heidi Johansen-Berg

Affiliations and Expertise

Oxford Centre for Functional MRI of the Brain (FMRIB), Department of Clinical Neurology, University of Oxford, UK

Timothy E.J. Behrens

Affiliations and Expertise

Department of Experimental Psychology, University of Oxford; Centre for Functional MRI of the Brain (FMRIB), UK