Diffusion MRI

Diffusion MRI

From quantitative measurement to in-vivo neuroanatomy

1st Edition - April 20, 2009

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  • Editors: Heidi Johansen-Berg, Timothy E.J. Behrens
  • eBook ISBN: 9780080878515

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Description

Diffusion MRI is a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) method that produces in vivo images of biological tissues weighted with the local microstructural characteristics of water diffusion, providing an effective means of visualizing functional connectivities in the nervous system. This book is the first comprehensive reference promoting the understanding of this rapidly evolving and powerful technology and providing the essential handbook for designing, analyzing or interpreting diffusion MR experiments.The book presents diffusion imaging in the context of well-established, classical experimental techniques, so that readers will be able to assess the scope and limitations of the new imaging technology with respect to techniques available previously. All chapters are written by leading international experts and cover methodology, validation of the imaging technology, application of diffusion imaging to the study of variation and development of normal brain anatomy, and disruption to the white matter in neurological disease or psychiatric disorder.

Key Features

• Discusses all aspects of a diffusion MRI study from acquisition, through analysis, to interpretation, providing an essential reference text for scientists designing or interpreting diffusion MR experiments
• Practical advice on running an experiment
• Full color throughout

Readership

Neuroscientists interested in the study of connections in the brain, brain imaging, within Cognitive Neuroscience, Neuroscience, Radiology, Medical Physics and adjacent areas.

Table of Contents

  • Contributors

    Preface

    Foreword

    REFERENCES

    Section 1: Introduction to Diffusion MRI

    Chapter 1. Introduction to Diffusion MR

    I What is Diffusion?

    II Magnetic Resonance and Diffusion

    III Diffusion in Neural Tissue

    IV Concluding Remarks

    Acknowledgments

    References

    Chapter 2. Pulse Sequences for Diffusion-weighted MRI

    I MRI Pulse Sequence Primer

    II Adding Diffusion Weighting to a Pulse Sequence

    III Bulk Motion Sensitivity

    IV Single-shot EPI (SS-EPI) Methods

    V Parameter Optimization

    VI Other DWI Pulse Sequences

    References

    Chapter 3. Gaussian Modeling of the Diffusion Signal

    I Introduction

    II Diffusion Basics

    III Basic Modeling and Quantification

    IV Data Acquisition Strategies

    V Artifacts

    References

    Chapter 4. Multiple Fibers: Beyond the Diffusion Tensor

    I Introduction

    II Multiple fibers: what’s all the fuss about?

    III Model-based approaches

    IV Non-parametric algorithms

    V Derived information

    VI Applications and exploitation

    VII Summary

    Acknowledgments

    Appendix A QBall Implementation

    Appendix B Spherical Deconvolution Implementation

    References

    Section 2: Diffusion MRI for Quantitative Measurement

    Chapter 5. White Matter Structure: A Microscopist’s View

    I Introduction

    II Cellular Components of the CNS White Matter

    III Water Content of White Matter

    IV Changes in White Matter Due to Abnormalities in Myelin

    V The Ultrastructural Effects of Demyelination and Axonal Damage in Humans

    VI Summary

    Acknowledgments

    References

    CHAPTER 6. The Biological Basis of Diffusion Anisotropy

    I UTILITY OF MICROSCOPIC WATER MOTION

    II RELATIONSHIP OF WATER DIFFUSION ANISOTROPY TO TISSUE MICROSTRUCTURE

    III ROLE OF THE APPARENT DIFFUSION COEFFICIENTS IN INTERPRETING ANISOTROPY

    IV ISSUES RELATED TO DIFFUSION ANISOTROPY MEASUREMENTS IN TISSUE BY MRI

    V SUMMARY

    ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

    REFERENCES

    Chapter 7. Inferring Microstructural Information of White Matter from Diffusion MRI

    I The Morphological Features of White Matter

    II Diffusion MRI and Tissue Microstructure

    III Diffusion Tensor Imaging – A Tool for White Matter Microstructural Mapping

    IV Diffusion Tensor Imaging – A Tool for White Matter Microstructural Mapping?

    V Types of Diffusion Processes in the Tissue

    VI Q-space Analysis

    VII Models of Diffusion in White Matter

    VIII Towards Virtual Biopsy of White Matter with Diffusion MRI

    References

    Chapter 8. Cross-subject Comparison of Local Diffusion MRI Parameters

    I Introduction

    II Cross-subject Registration (Image Alignment)

    III VBM – Overview and Application to Diffusion Data

    IV Problems of Interpretability in VBM-Style Analyses

    V Region-of-Interest and Tractography-Based Strategies for Localizing Change

    VI Tract-Based Spatial Statistics

    VII Other Skeleton-Based Work

    VIII Statistical Modeling, Thresholding, and Multivariate Approaches

    IX Alternative Diffusion Measures to Test

    X Interpretation Issues: Partial Volume Effects and Complex Tract Structure

    XI Standard-Space Templates and Atlases

    XII Empirical Studies of Gaussianity and Repeatability in Diffusion MRI Data

    XIII Example Multi-Subject Studies: Schizophrenia and Multiple Sclerosis

    XIV Conclusions

    References

    CHAPTER 9. Diffusion MRI in Neurological Disorders

    I INTRODUCTION

    II METHODOLOGICAL CONSIDERATIONS

    III CLINICAL APPLICATIONS

    IV CONCLUSIONS

    REFERENCES

    Chapter 10. DTI in Development and Aging

    I Introduction

    II Diffusion Metrics Utilized in the Study of Tissue Microstructure Across the Lifespan

    III Diffusion in Development

    IV Diffusion in Aging

    V The Association Between DTI Metrics and Tissue Morphometry

    VI Caveats to the Use of Diffusion Imaging in the Study of Aging and Development

    VII Future Directions

    Acknowledgments

    References

    Chapter 11. Individual Differences in White Matter Microstructure in the Healthy Brain

    I Introduction

    V Language

    VII Conclusion

    References

    CHAPTER 12. Diffusion Tensor Imaging and Its Application to Schizophrenia and Related Disorders

    I INTRODUCTION

    II REVIEW OF DTI FINDINGS IN SCHIZOPHRENIA

    III FUTURE DIRECTIONS, WHAT ARE WE MISSING, AND HOW CAN WE FILL IN THE GAPS?

    REFERENCES

    Section 3: Diffusion MRI for in vivo Neuroanatomy

    Chapter 13. Classic and Contemporary Neural Tract Tracing Techniques

    I Introduction

    II A Brief Historical Perspective of the Development of Experimental Tract Tracing

    III Contemporary Application of Experimental Tract Tracing in Non-Human Primates

    C Specific Tract Tracing Techniques

    1 Transneuronal Tracing Using Conventional Tracers

    2 Viral Transneuronal Tracers

    IV Conclusions

    Suggested Technical References

    References

    Chapter 14. The Human Connectome: Linking Structure and Function in the Human Brain

    I What is the Connectome?

    II Modes of Brain Connectivity

    III Defining Network Nodes of the Connectome

    IV Graph Analysis of Brain Connectivity

    V Mapping the Network of Structural Connections of the Human Brain

    VI Relating Structural Connections to Functional Interactions

    VII Brain Connectivity and Network Disease

    VIII The Future Importance of the Connectome

    Acknowledgments

    References

    Network Glossary

    Chapter 15. MR Diffusion Tractography

    I Introduction

    II Streamline Tractography

    III Probabilistic Tractography

    IV Choice of Local Description of Diffusion in Tractography

    V Designing a Diffusion Tractography Study

    VI Future Advances in Diffusion Tractography

    VII Summary and Conclusions

    References

    Chapter 16. Validation of Tractography

    I Introduction

    II Validation of Fiber Orientation Information

    III Validation of Tractography

    IV Summary

    References

    Chapter 17. Connectivity Fingerprinting of Gray Matter

    I Introduction

    II Subcortical GM

    III Cortical Gray

    IV Validation

    V Conclusions

    References

    Chapter 18. The Connectional Anatomy of Language: Recent Contributions from Diffusion Tensor Tractography

    I Introduction

    II The Anatomy of the Arcuate Fasciculus: from Blunt Dissections to Tractography

    III Lateralization of the Arcuate Fasciculus

    IV Comparative Anatomy of Perisylvian Language Networks

    V Beyond the Arcuate Fasciculus: the Ventral Pathway

    VI Application of DTI Tractography to Language Disorders

    VII Future Directions and Conclusions

    Acknowledgments

    References

    Chapter 19. Tractography for Surgical Targeting

    I Introduction

    II Surgical Target and Intent

    III Tractography Strategies for Surgical Purposes

    IV Conclusions

    Acknowledgments

    References

    Chapter 20. Comparing Brain Connections in Different Species using Diffusion Weighted Imaging

    I Introduction

    II Comparing DTI Tractography with Tract Tracing Techniques

    III Using DTI-Tractography to Examine the Connections of Human Ventral Frontal Cortex

    IV Language and the Arcuate Fascicle in Humans and other Primates

    V DTI Suggests Basic Similarities in Frontal Lobe Organization in Man and other Primates

    VI Premotor Cortex

    VII Comparing the Parietal Cortex in Human and other Primates

    VIII Conclusions

    References

    Chapter 21. Imaging Structure and Function

    I Introduction

    II Structural imaging and brain morphometry

    III Combining sources of data

    IV Imaging anatomo-functional networks

    V Conclusions

    References

    Index

Product details

  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Academic Press 2009
  • Published: April 20, 2009
  • Imprint: Academic Press
  • eBook ISBN: 9780080878515

About the Editors

Heidi Johansen-Berg

Affiliations and Expertise

Oxford Centre for Functional MRI of the Brain (FMRIB), Department of Clinical Neurology, University of Oxford, UK

Timothy E.J. Behrens

Affiliations and Expertise

Department of Experimental Psychology, University of Oxford; Centre for Functional MRI of the Brain (FMRIB), UK

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