Diffusion MRI - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780123747099, 9780080878515

Diffusion MRI

1st Edition

From quantitative measurement to in-vivo neuroanatomy

Editors: Heidi Johansen-Berg Timothy E.J. Behrens
eBook ISBN: 9780080878515
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 20th April 2009
Page Count: 502
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Description

Diffusion MRI is a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) method that produces in vivo images of biological tissues weighted with the local microstructural characteristics of water diffusion, providing an effective means of visualizing functional connectivities in the nervous system. This book is the first comprehensive reference promoting the understanding of this rapidly evolving and powerful technology and providing the essential handbook for designing, analyzing or interpreting diffusion MR experiments. The book presents diffusion imaging in the context of well-established, classical experimental techniques, so that readers will be able to assess the scope and limitations of the new imaging technology with respect to techniques available previously. All chapters are written by leading international experts and cover methodology, validation of the imaging technology, application of diffusion imaging to the study of variation and development of normal brain anatomy, and disruption to the white matter in neurological disease or psychiatric disorder.

Key Features

• Discusses all aspects of a diffusion MRI study from acquisition, through analysis, to interpretation, providing an essential reference text for scientists designing or interpreting diffusion MR experiments • Practical advice on running an experiment • Full color throughout

Readership

Neuroscientists interested in the study of connections in the brain, brain imaging, within Cognitive Neuroscience, Neuroscience, Radiology, Medical Physics and adjacent areas.

Table of Contents

Contributors

Preface

Foreword

REFERENCES

Section 1: Introduction to Diffusion MRI

Chapter 1. Introduction to Diffusion MR

I What is Diffusion?

II Magnetic Resonance and Diffusion

III Diffusion in Neural Tissue

IV Concluding Remarks

Acknowledgments

References

Chapter 2. Pulse Sequences for Diffusion-weighted MRI

I MRI Pulse Sequence Primer

II Adding Diffusion Weighting to a Pulse Sequence

III Bulk Motion Sensitivity

IV Single-shot EPI (SS-EPI) Methods

V Parameter Optimization

VI Other DWI Pulse Sequences

References

Chapter 3. Gaussian Modeling of the Diffusion Signal

I Introduction

II Diffusion Basics

III Basic Modeling and Quantification

IV Data Acquisition Strategies

V Artifacts

References

Chapter 4. Multiple Fibers: Beyond the Diffusion Tensor

I Introduction

II Multiple fibers: what’s all the fuss about?

III Model-based approaches

IV Non-parametric algorithms

V Derived information

VI Applications and exploitation

VII Summary

Acknowledgments

Appendix A QBall Implementation

Appendix B Spherical Deconvolution Implementation

References

Section 2: Diffusion MRI for Quantitative Measurement

Chapter 5. White Matter Structure: A Microscopist’s View

I Introduction

II Cellular Components of the CNS White Matter

III Water Content of White Matter

IV Changes in White Matter Due to Abnormalities in Myelin

V The Ultrastructural Effects of Demyelination and Axonal Damage in Humans

VI Summary

Acknowledgments

References

CHAPTER 6. The Biological Basis of Diffusion Anisotropy

I UTILITY OF MICROSCOPIC WATER MOTION

II RELATIONSHIP OF WATER DIFFUSION ANISOTROPY TO TISSUE MICROSTRUCTURE

III ROLE OF THE APPARENT DIFFUSION COEFFICIENTS IN INTERPRETING ANISOTROPY

IV ISSUES RELATED TO DIFFUSION ANISOTROPY MEASUREMENTS IN TISSUE BY MRI

V SUMMARY

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

REFERENCES

Chapter 7. Inferring Microstructural Information of White Matter from Diffusion MRI

I The Morphological Features of White Matter

II Diffusion MRI and Tissue Microstructure

III Diffusion Tensor Imaging – A Tool for White Matter Microstructural Mapping

IV Diffusion Tensor Imaging – A Tool for White Matter Microstructural Mapping?

V Types of Diffusion Processes in the Tissue

VI Q-space Analysis

VII Models of Diffusion in White Matter

VIII Towards Virtual Biopsy of White Matter with Diffusion MRI

References

Chapter 8. Cross-subject Comparison of Local Diffusion MRI Parameters

I Introduction

II Cross-subject Registration (Image Alignment)

III VBM – Overview and Application to Diffusion Data

IV Problems of Interpretability in VBM-Style Analyses

V Region-of-Interest and Tractography-Based Strategies for Localizing Change

VI Tract-Based Spatial Statistics

VII Other Skeleton-Based Work

VIII Statistical Modeling, Thresholding, and Multivariate Approaches

IX Alternative Diffusion Measures to Test

X Interpretation Issues: Partial Volume Effects and Complex Tract Structure

XI Standard-Space Templates and Atlases

XII Empirical Studies of Gaussianity and Repeatability in Diffusion MRI Data

XIII Example Multi-Subject Studies: Schizophrenia and Multiple Sclerosis

XIV Conclusions

References

CHAPTER 9. Diffusion MRI in Neurological Disorders

I INTRODUCTION

II METHODOLOGICAL CONSIDERATIONS

III CLINICAL APPLICATIONS

IV CONCLUSIONS

REFERENCES

Chapter 10. DTI in Development and Aging

I Introduction

II Diffusion Metrics Utilized in the Study of Tissue Microstructure Across the Lifespan

III Diffusion in Development

IV Diffusion in Aging

V The Association Between DTI Metrics and Tissue Morphometry

VI Caveats to the Use of Diffusion Imaging in the Study of Aging and Development

VII Future Directions

Acknowledgments

References

Chapter 11. Individual Differences in White Matter Microstructure in the Healthy Brain

I Introduction

V Language

VII Conclusion

References

CHAPTER 12. Diffusion Tensor Imaging and Its Application to Schizophrenia and Related Disorders

I INTRODUCTION

II REVIEW OF DTI FINDINGS IN SCHIZOPHRENIA

III FUTURE DIRECTIONS, WHAT ARE WE MISSING, AND HOW CAN WE FILL IN THE GAPS?

REFERENCES

Section 3: Diffusion MRI for in vivo Neuroanatomy

Chapter 13. Classic and Contemporary Neural Tract Tracing Techniques

I Introduction

II A Brief Historical Perspective of the Development of Experimental Tract Tracing

III Contemporary Application of Experimental Tract Tracing in Non-Human Primates

C Specific Tract Tracing Techniques

1 Transneuronal Tracing Using Conventional Tracers

2 Viral Transneuronal Tracers

IV Conclusions

Suggested Technical References

References

Chapter 14. The Human Connectome: Linking Structure and Function in the Human Brain

I What is the Connectome?

II Modes of Brain Connectivity

III Defining Network Nodes of the Connectome

IV Graph Analysis of Brain Connectivity

V Mapping the Network of Structural Connections of the Human Brain

VI Relating Structural Connections to Functional Interactions

VII Brain Connectivity and Network Disease

VIII The Future Importance of the Connectome

Acknowledgments

References

Network Glossary

Chapter 15. MR Diffusion Tractography

I Introduction

II Streamline Tractography

III Probabilistic Tractography

IV Choice of Local Description of Diffusion in Tractography

V Designing a Diffusion Tractography Study

VI Future Advances in Diffusion Tractography

VII Summary and Conclusions

References

Chapter 16. Validation of Tractography

I Introduction

II Validation of Fiber Orientation Information

III Validation of Tractography

IV Summary

References

Chapter 17. Connectivity Fingerprinting of Gray Matter

I Introduction

II Subcortical GM

III Cortical Gray

IV Validation

V Conclusions

References

Chapter 18. The Connectional Anatomy of Language: Recent Contributions from Diffusion Tensor Tractography

I Introduction

II The Anatomy of the Arcuate Fasciculus: from Blunt Dissections to Tractography

III Lateralization of the Arcuate Fasciculus

IV Comparative Anatomy of Perisylvian Language Networks

V Beyond the Arcuate Fasciculus: the Ventral Pathway

VI Application of DTI Tractography to Language Disorders

VII Future Directions and Conclusions

Acknowledgments

References

Chapter 19. Tractography for Surgical Targeting

I Introduction

II Surgical Target and Intent

III Tractography Strategies for Surgical Purposes

IV Conclusions

Acknowledgments

References

Chapter 20. Comparing Brain Connections in Different Species using Diffusion Weighted Imaging

I Introduction

II Comparing DTI Tractography with Tract Tracing Techniques

III Using DTI-Tractography to Examine the Connections of Human Ventral Frontal Cortex

IV Language and the Arcuate Fascicle in Humans and other Primates

V DTI Suggests Basic Similarities in Frontal Lobe Organization in Man and other Primates

VI Premotor Cortex

VII Comparing the Parietal Cortex in Human and other Primates

VIII Conclusions

References

Chapter 21. Imaging Structure and Function

I Introduction

II Structural imaging and brain morphometry

III Combining sources of data

IV Imaging anatomo-functional networks

V Conclusions

References

Index

Details

No. of pages:
502
Language:
English
Copyright:
© Academic Press 2009
Published:
Imprint:
Academic Press
eBook ISBN:
9780080878515

About the Editor

Heidi Johansen-Berg

Affiliations and Expertise

Oxford Centre for Functional MRI of the Brain (FMRIB), Department of Clinical Neurology, University of Oxford, UK

Timothy E.J. Behrens

Affiliations and Expertise

Department of Experimental Psychology, University of Oxford; Centre for Functional MRI of the Brain (FMRIB), UK

Reviews

"A thorough and exciting review of the diffusion MRI techniques that are going to rewrite our knowledge of the long tract anatomy of the human brain. Extremely well written and illustrated." - Michael S. Gazzaniga, Director, Sage Center for the Study of Mind, University of California, Santa Barbara, USA

"25 years after its debut, diffusion MRI today provides us with beautiful, marvelous images of connecting wires within the human brain, and this is achieved just by placing healthy subjects or patients in the middle of a strong magnet. How is this miracle possible? What could we expect from the knowledge of the brain connectome? This beautifully illustrated book addresses these questions with great clarity. The book is highly recommendable to all those who are interested in the links between brain structure and function." - Denis Le Bihan, Member of the Institut de France, Academy of Sciences; Director, NeuroSpin; CEA-Saclay Center, Gif-sur-Yvette, France

"Unbelievable as it may seem, we know almost nothing about the real connectivity of the human cerebral cortex. What we think we know is mostly inferred from results obtained in the monkey. This book provides an exciting exploration of diffusion tensor imaging, a method that can start to close this gap. The editors, who are themselves pioneers in this field, have assembled authoritative chapters on the promises that lie ahead and the challenges that will be encountered." - Marsel Mesulam, Ruth and Evelyn Dunbar Professor of Neurology, Psychiatry and Psychology; Director, The Cognitive Neurology and Alzheimer's Disease Center (CNADC), Feinberg School of Medicine, Northwestern University, Chicago, USA


"Diffusion MRI has tremendous potential for elucidating brain structure and circuitry in health and disease, but the approach is fraught with methodological and interpretational challenges. This excellent and authoritative book edited by Johansen-Berg and Behrens is an invaluable resource for everyone using diffusion MRI or wanting to learn more about it."  - David C. Van Essen, Edison Professor and Department Head, Anatomy and Neurobiology Department, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, USA

Ratings and Reviews