Diffusion in Solids

Diffusion in Solids

Recent Developments

1st Edition - January 28, 1975

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  • Editor: A.S. Nowick
  • eBook ISBN: 9780323147767

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Diffusion in Solids: Recent Developments provides an overview of diffusion in crystalline solids. This book discusses the various aspects of the theory of diffusion. Organized into nine chapters, this volume starts with a discussion on the process of diffusion in solids. This book then examines the tools that supplement the conventional diffusion measurements, including electromigration, ionic conductivity, isotope effects, and vacancy wind effects. This text explores the molecular dynamic calculation by which the interatomic forces must be assumed. Other chapters discuss the method of measurement of the isotope effect on diffusion, which is the most powerful method of determining relevant information about the correlation factor. This volume extensively discusses diffusion in organic and amorphous materials, as well as interstitial diffusion in solids. The final chapter deals with ionic motion and diffusion in various groups of materials called fast ionic conductors. Solid-state physicists, materials scientists, physical chemists, and electrochemists will find this book extremely useful.

Table of Contents

  • List of Contributors


    1. Classical and Quantum Theory of Diffusion in Solids

    I. Introduction

    II. Jump Frequency

    III. Lattice Vibration Theory

    IV. Defect Modes

    V. Temperature Dependence—Classical Case

    VI. Mass Dependence—Classical Case

    VII. Quantum and Anharmonic Effects

    VIII. Lattice Vibration Theory and Diffusion Experiments


    2. Exact Defect Calculations in Model Substances

    I. Introduction

    II. The Molecular Dynamics, Monte Carlo, and Molecular Statics Methods

    III. Discussion of Molecular Dynamics and Monte Carlo Results on Point Defects at Thermal Equilibrium

    Appendix A. Monte Carlo Acceptance Ratio Method for Free Energy Differences

    Appendix B. Lennard-Jones Vacancy Jump Calculations

    Appendix C. Molecular Dynamics Calculation of the Isotope Effect


    3. Isotope Effects in Diffusion

    I. Preface

    II. Introduction

    III. Self-Diffusion in Pure Metals

    IV. Diffusion in Dilute Alloys

    V. Diffusion in Concentrated Alloys

    VI. Diffusion in Alkali and Silver Halide Crystals

    VII. Diffusion in Transition Metal Oxides

    VIII. Correlation Effects in Grain Boundary Diffusion


    4. Fast Diffusion in Metals

    I. Introduction

    II. Experience on Fast Diffusion

    III. Corroboration of Existence of Interstitial-Type Defects

    IV. Fast Diffusion Mechanisms

    V. Interpretation of Fast Diffusion Behavior of Particular Systems


    5. Hydrogen Diffusion in Metals

    I. Introduction

    II. Site Location, Phase Diagrams, and Solubility

    III. Experimental Methods

    IV. Values for the Diffusion Coefficients at Small Concentrations (α Phases)

    V. High Hydrogen Concentrations

    VI. Isotope Dependence

    VII. Deviations of the Diffusion Coefficient from the Arrhenius Relation

    VIII. Dependence on Alloying

    IX. Influence of Traps

    X. Influence of Structure

    XL Conclusions


    6. Electromigration in Metals

    I. Introduction

    II. Formal Background

    III. Techniques for Measurement

    IV. The Nature of the Driving Force

    V. Interstitial Electromigration

    VI. Monovalent Metals and Their Alloys

    VII. Divalent Metals—Anisotropy in Single Crystals

    VIII. Electromigration in Trivalent Metals

    IX. Electromigration in Metals of More Complex Electronic Structure

    X. Electromigration in Thin Films: Problem for Integrated Circuitry


    7. Atom Currents Generated by Vacancy Winds

    List of Symbols

    I. Introduction

    II. Theory

    III. Measurement of the Vacancy Wind and the Wind-Generated Solute Current

    IV. Solute Segregation around Vacancy Sinks


    8. Diffusion in Alkali Halides

    I. Introduction

    II. Defects and Their Interactions

    III. Theory of Diffusion in Ionic Crystals

    IV. Experimental Methods

    V. The Experimental Situation and Numerical Results

    VI. Conclusion


    9. Very Rapid Ionic Transport in Solids

    I. Introduction

    II. Special Characteristics of Fast Ionic Conductors

    III. Materials Which Exhibit Fast Ionic Motion

    IV. Theoretical Approaches to Fast Ion Conduction

    V. Outlook for the Future



Product details

  • No. of pages: 506
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Academic Press 1975
  • Published: January 28, 1975
  • Imprint: Academic Press
  • eBook ISBN: 9780323147767

About the Editor

A.S. Nowick

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