Diffusion in Solids - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780125226608, 9780323147767

Diffusion in Solids

1st Edition

Recent Developments

Editors: A.S. Nowick
eBook ISBN: 9780323147767
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 28th January 1975
Page Count: 506
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Diffusion in Solids: Recent Developments provides an overview of diffusion in crystalline solids. This book discusses the various aspects of the theory of diffusion. Organized into nine chapters, this volume starts with a discussion on the process of diffusion in solids. This book then examines the tools that supplement the conventional diffusion measurements, including electromigration, ionic conductivity, isotope effects, and vacancy wind effects. This text explores the molecular dynamic calculation by which the interatomic forces must be assumed. Other chapters discuss the method of measurement of the isotope effect on diffusion, which is the most powerful method of determining relevant information about the correlation factor. This volume extensively discusses diffusion in organic and amorphous materials, as well as interstitial diffusion in solids. The final chapter deals with ionic motion and diffusion in various groups of materials called fast ionic conductors. Solid-state physicists, materials scientists, physical chemists, and electrochemists will find this book extremely useful.

Table of Contents

List of Contributors


1. Classical and Quantum Theory of Diffusion in Solids

I. Introduction

II. Jump Frequency

III. Lattice Vibration Theory

IV. Defect Modes

V. Temperature Dependence—Classical Case

VI. Mass Dependence—Classical Case

VII. Quantum and Anharmonic Effects

VIII. Lattice Vibration Theory and Diffusion Experiments


2. Exact Defect Calculations in Model Substances

I. Introduction

II. The Molecular Dynamics, Monte Carlo, and Molecular Statics Methods

III. Discussion of Molecular Dynamics and Monte Carlo Results on Point Defects at Thermal Equilibrium

Appendix A. Monte Carlo Acceptance Ratio Method for Free Energy Differences

Appendix B. Lennard-Jones Vacancy Jump Calculations

Appendix C. Molecular Dynamics Calculation of the Isotope Effect


3. Isotope Effects in Diffusion

I. Preface

II. Introduction

III. Self-Diffusion in Pure Metals

IV. Diffusion in Dilute Alloys

V. Diffusion in Concentrated Alloys

VI. Diffusion in Alkali and Silver Halide Crystals

VII. Diffusion in Transition Metal Oxides

VIII. Correlation Effects in Grain Boundary Diffusion


4. Fast Diffusion in Metals

I. Introduction

II. Experience on Fast Diffusion

III. Corroboration of Existence of Interstitial-Type Defects

IV. Fast Diffusion Mechanisms

V. Interpretation of Fast Diffusion Behavior of Particular Systems


5. Hydrogen Diffusion in Metals

I. Introduction

II. Site Location, Phase Diagrams, and Solubility

III. Experimental Methods

IV. Values for the Diffusion Coefficients at Small Concentrations (α Phases)

V. High Hydrogen Concentrations

VI. Isotope Dependence

VII. Deviations of the Diffusion Coefficient from the Arrhenius Relation

VIII. Dependence on Alloying

IX. Influence of Traps

X. Influence of Structure

XL Conclusions


6. Electromigration in Metals

I. Introduction

II. Formal Background

III. Techniques for Measurement

IV. The Nature of the Driving Force

V. Interstitial Electromigration

VI. Monovalent Metals and Their Alloys

VII. Divalent Metals—Anisotropy in Single Crystals

VIII. Electromigration in Trivalent Metals

IX. Electromigration in Metals of More Complex Electronic Structure

X. Electromigration in Thin Films: Problem for Integrated Circuitry


7. Atom Currents Generated by Vacancy Winds

List of Symbols

I. Introduction

II. Theory

III. Measurement of the Vacancy Wind and the Wind-Generated Solute Current

IV. Solute Segregation around Vacancy Sinks


8. Diffusion in Alkali Halides

I. Introduction

II. Defects and Their Interactions

III. Theory of Diffusion in Ionic Crystals

IV. Experimental Methods

V. The Experimental Situation and Numerical Results

VI. Conclusion


9. Very Rapid Ionic Transport in Solids

I. Introduction

II. Special Characteristics of Fast Ionic Conductors

III. Materials Which Exhibit Fast Ionic Motion

IV. Theoretical Approaches to Fast Ion Conduction

V. Outlook for the Future




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© Academic Press 1975
Academic Press
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About the Editor

A.S. Nowick

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