Diet-Microbe Interactions in the Gut - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780124078253, 9780124079410

Diet-Microbe Interactions in the Gut

1st Edition

Effects on Human Health and Disease

Editors: Kieran Tuohy Daniele Del Rio
eBook ISBN: 9780124079410
Hardcover ISBN: 9780124078253
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 11th August 2014
Page Count: 268
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Description

Drawing on expert opinions from the fields of nutrition, gut microbiology, mammalian physiology, and immunology, Diet-Microbe Interactions for Human Health investigates the evidence for a unified disease mechanism working through the gut and its resident microbiota, and linking many inflammation-related chronic diet associated diseases.
State of the art post-genomic studies can highlight the important role played by our resident intestinal microbiota in determining human health and disease. Many chronic human diseases associated with modern lifestyles and diets — including those localized to the intestinal tract like inflammatory bowel disease and celiac disease, and more pervasive systemic conditions such as obesity, diabetes and cardiovascular disease — are characterized by aberrant profiles of gut bacteria or their metabolites. Many of these diseases have an inflammatory basis, often presenting with a chronic low-grade systemic inflammation, hinting at persistent and inappropriate activation of inflammatory pathways.
Through the presentation and analysis of recent nutrition studies, this book discusses the possible mechanisms underpinning the disease processes associated with these pathologies, with high fat diets appearing to predispose to disease, and biologically active plant components, mainly fiber and polyphenols, appearing to reduce the risk of chronic disease development.

Key Features

  • One comprehensive, translational source for all aspects of nutrition and diet's effect on gastrointestinal health and disease
  • Experts in nutrition, diet, microbiology and immunology take readers from the bench research (cellular and biochemical mechanisms of vitamins and nutrients) to new preventive and therapeutic approaches
  • Clear presentations by leading researchers of the cellular mechanisms underlying diet, immune response, and gastrointestinal disease help practicing nutritionists and clinicians (gastroenterologists, endocrinologists) map out new areas for clinical research and structuring clinical recommendations

Readership

Nutritionists, dieticians, and researchers in nutrition, microbiology, immunology, and gastroenterology

Table of Contents

  • Foreword
  • Acknowledgements
  • List of Contributors
  • Chapter 1. The Microbiota of the Human Gastrointestinal Tract: A Molecular View
    • Introduction
    • Gut Microbiota Metabolism in Health and Disease
    • Methodologies for Studying the Human Gut Microbiota
    • Spatial Distribution of the Gut Microbiota and Interactions with Diet
    • Models to Study Microbial Ecology
    • Conclusions
    • References
  • Chapter 2. A Nutritional Anthropology of the Human Gut Microbiota
    • Human Diet or Microbiota, Which Came First?
    • Metagenomics and Cultivation-Independent Assessment of Human Gut Microbiota
    • Microbiome and Human Nutritional Phenotype
    • The Gut Microbiota in Human Evolution
    • Population Metagenomic Variation within the Human Microbiota
    • The Western Diet Metagenome is Obesity Prone
    • Conclusions
    • References
  • Chapter 3. Probiotic Microorganisms for Shaping the Human Gut Microbiota – Mechanisms and Efficacy into the Future
    • Introduction
    • Let’s Start With the Definition of Probiotics
    • Shaping the Microbiota
    • The Neonatal Period
    • Adult Life and the Proposed Enterotype Classification
    • The Aged Period
    • Mechanisms and Efficacy
    • Efficacy in Healthy People
    • Conclusions
    • References
  • Chapter 4. Bifidobacteria of the Human Gut: Our Special Friends
    • Taxonomy of Bifidobacteria
    • Bifidobacterial Ecology
    • Bifidobacterial Populations in the Human Gut
    • Bifidobacteria as Probiotics
    • Bifidobacterial Genomics
    • Comparative Genomics and Bifidobacteria
    • Interaction Between Bifidobacteria and Their Hosts
    • Conclusions
    • References
  • Chapter 5. Shaping the Human Microbiome with Prebiotic Foods – Current Perspectives for Continued Development
    • Introduction
    • Linking Microbiome Structure and Function
    • Probiotics
    • Prebiotics
    • Testing Prebiotics
    • Conclusion
    • References
  • Chapter 6. Bioactivation of High-Molecular-Weight Polyphenols by the Gut Microbiome
    • Introduction
    • Proanthocyanidins
    • Hydrolyzable Tannins (Gallotannins and Ellagitannins)
    • Conclusions
    • References
  • Chapter 7. Gut Microbial Metabolism of Plant Lignans: Influence on Human Health
    • Introduction
    • Conversion of Plant Lignans to Enterolignans by Gut Bacteria
    • Associations Between Lignan Exposure and Human Health
    • Interindividual Differences in Lignan Metabolism
    • Conclusions
    • Acknowledgements
    • References
  • Chapter 8. Gut Microbiome Modulates Dietary Xenobiotic Toxicity: The Case of DON and Its Derivatives
    • Introduction
    • Gastric Stability of DON Derivatives
    • Bacterial Transformation and Intestinal Absorption of DON and its Derivatives
    • DON and DON-Conjugates Impact on the Human Gut
    • References
  • Chapter 9. Gut Microbiota–Immune System Crosstalk: Implications for Metabolic Disease
    • Gut Microbial Recognition by the Immune System
    • Intestinal Barrier, Gut Permeability and Metabolic Inflammation
    • Effects of Intestinal Bacterial Short-Chain Fatty Acids (SCFAs) on Inflammation and Metabolism
    • Dietary Fat Metabolism, Bile Acids and Gut Microbiota
    • Diet, Tmao, Gut Microbiota and Atherosclerosis
    • Immune Versus Metabolic Functions in Intestinal Epithelial Cells Gene Networks
    • Conclusion
    • References
  • Chapter 10. The Interplay of Epigenetics and Epidemiology in Autoimmune Diseases: Time for Geoepigenetics
    • The Etiology and Pathogenesis of Autoimmune Disease
    • The Rationale for Geoepigenetics
    • Geoepigenetics of Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE)
    • Geoepigenetics of Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA)
    • Geoepigenetics of Systemic Sclerosis
    • Conclusions
    • References
  • Chapter 11. Obesity-Associated Gut Microbiota: Characterization and Dietary Modulation
    • The Obesity Pandemic
    • Genetic Determinants of Obesity
    • Obesity Associated Gut Microbiota
    • Interactions between Gut Microbes and Obesity: “The Energy Extraction Theory”
    • Interactions between Gut Microbes and Obesity: “The Appetite Control Theory”
    • Interactions between Gut Microbes and Obesity: “The Inflammation Theory”
    • Gut Microbiota as a Therapeutic Target of Probiotics, Prebiotics and Synbiotics
    • Conclusions
    • References
  • Chapter 12. An Apple a Day Keeps the Doctor Away – Inter-Relationship Between Apple Consumption, the Gut Microbiota and Cardiometabolic Disease Risk Reduction
    • Introduction
    • Apple Components
    • The Human Gut Microbiota
    • Cardiometabolic Disease Risk – Epidemiological Studies
    • Cardiometabolic Risk Factors
    • Diabetes Risk
    • Conclusion
    • References
  • Chapter 13. Whole Plant Foods and Colon Cancer Risk
    • Introduction
    • Diet and Colorectal Cancer
    • Biological Activity and Anticancer Properties of Whole-Grain Cereals
    • Biological Activity and Anticancer Properties of Brassica Vegetables
    • Human Studies
    • Biological Activity and Anticancer Properties of Berry Fruits
    • Conclusion
    • References
  • Chapter 14. Population Level Divergence from the Mediterranean Diet and the Risk of Cancer and Metabolic Disease
    • Mediterranean Diet as the Traditional Diet of Southern Europe
    • The Evidence-Based Health Protection by Mediterranean Diet
    • Mediterranean Diet as a Health Protection Model
    • Mediterranean Food Consumption and Human Gut Microbiota
    • References
  • Chapter 15. Diet and the Gut Microbiota – How the Gut: Brain Axis Impacts on Autism
    • Background
    • Gut Microbiota and ASD
    • Amino Acid Metabolism
    • Lipid Metabolism and the Brain
    • Short-Chain Fatty Acids (SCFA) and the Brain
    • Gut Microbiota and Digestive Function
    • Probiotics, Gut Microbiota Successional Development and Brain Function
    • Conclusions
    • References
  • Index

Details

No. of pages:
268
Language:
English
Copyright:
© Academic Press 2015
Published:
Imprint:
Academic Press
eBook ISBN:
9780124079410
Hardcover ISBN:
9780124078253

About the Editor

Kieran Tuohy

Kieran Tuohy received his PhD from the University of Surrey (UK) in 2000 under the supervision of Professor Ian Rowland, an MSc. in Environmental Microbiology from the University of Aberdeen, Scotland, and a BSc. in Industrial Microbiology from University College Dublin, Ireland. He worked for 10 years in the group of Professor Glenn Gibson within the Department of Food Science and Nutrition, University of Reading, first as post doctoral researcher and then as Lecturer in Food Metabonomics. His research at Reading focused on measuring the impact diet, especially probiotics and prebiotics on the human gut microbiota. In 2010 he moved to Fondazione Edmund Mach (FEM), Trento, Italy and set up a new research team working on diet:microbe interactions with a special focus on whole plant foods. He now leads the Nutrition and Nutrigenomics Group at FEM with a research focus on whole plant foods, plant bioactives, especially fiber, prebiotics and polyphenols, fermented dairy products and probiotics. He is an Associate Editor of the International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition, is on the scientific steering committee of the NutrEvent series of innovation events in the area of food, nutrition and health, and has been involved in a number of expert activities and events organised by the International Life Sciences Institute (ILSI) Europe and the International Scientific Association for Probiotics and Prebiotics (ISAPP).

Affiliations and Expertise

Group Leader Nutrition and Nutrigenomics, Department of Food Quality and Nutrition, Research and Innovation Centre, Fondazione Edmund Mach, via E. Mach, 1 San Michele all'Adige,Trento, 38010 Italy

Daniele Del Rio

Daniele Del Rio was appointed Assistant Professor at the University of Parma in 2005, after gaining his doctorate under the supervision of Prof. Furio Brighenti. During his PhD and post-doctoral years, he repeatedly visited the Plant Products and Human Nutrition Group led by Prof. Alan Crozier at the University of Glasgow, where he developed interests and expertise in advanced analysis of polyphenols and their metabolites in food and human samples. Thanks to this fruitful international connection, as one of the leading researchers in the field, he is running the Laboratory of Phytochemicals in Physiology at the Department of Food Science in Parma and is the co-founder of the LS9 "Bioactives & Health" Interlaboratory Group, where the biological activity of human microbiota derived phytochemical metabolites represents one of the core research topics. Daniele is a Visiting Scholar at the Medical Research Council Human Nutrition Research Unit in Cambridge and a senior collaborator of the Need for Nutrition Education/Innovation Programme (NNEdPro), an independent knowledge generation and research platform also based in Cambridge. He is a member of the Board of Directors of the University Spin-Off "Madegus", focused on Nutritional Education for Children and Associate Editor of the International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition.

Affiliations and Expertise

Department of Food Science, University of Parma, Italy