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Dielectric Materials for Wireless Communication - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780080453309, 9780080560502

Dielectric Materials for Wireless Communication

1st Edition

Author: Mailadil Sebastian
Hardcover ISBN: 9780080453309
eBook ISBN: 9780080560502
Imprint: Elsevier Science
Published Date: 23rd June 2008
Page Count: 688
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Microwave dielectric materials play a key role in our global society with a wide range of applications, from terrestrial and satellite communication including software radio, GPS, and DBS TV to environmental monitoring via satellite.

A small ceramic component made from a dielectric material is fundamental to the operation of filters and oscillators in several microwave systems. In microwave communications, dielectric resonator filters are used to discriminate between wanted and unwanted signal frequencies in the transmitted and received signal. When the wanted frequency is extracted and detected, it is necessary to maintain a strong signal. For clarity it is also critical that the wanted signal frequencies are not affected by seasonal temperature changes. In order to meet the specifications of current and future systems, improved or new microwave components based on dedicated dielectric materials and new designs are required. The recent progress in microwave telecommunication, satellite broadcasting and intelligent transport systems (ITS) has resulted in an increased demand for Dielectric Resonators (DRs). With the recent revolution in mobile phone and satellite communication systems using microwaves as the propagation media, the research and development in the field of device miniaturization has been a major challenge in contemporary Materials Science. In a mobile phone communication, the message is sent from a phone to the nearest base station, and then on via a series of base stations to the other phone. At the heart of each base station is the combiner/filter unit which has the job of receiving the messages, keeping them separate, amplifying the signals and sending then onto the next base station. For such a microwave circuit to work, part of it needs to resonate at the specific working frequency. The frequency determining component (resonator) used in such a high frequency device must satisfy certain criteria. The three important characteristics required for a dielectric resonator are (a) a high dielectric constant which facilitates miniaturization (b) a high quality factor (Qxf) which improves the signal-to-noise ratio, (c) a low temperature coefficient of the resonant frequency which determines the stability of the transmitted frequency.

During the past 25 years scientists the world over have developed a large number of new materials (about 3000) or improved the properties of known materials. About 5000 papers have been published and more than 1000 patents filed in the area of dielectric resonators and related technologies. This book brings the data and science of these several useful materials together, which will be of immense benefit to researchers and engineers the world over.

The topics covered in the book includes factors affecting the dielectric properties, measurement of dielectric properties, important low loss dielectric material systems such as perovskites, tungsten bronze type materials, materials in BaO-TiO2 system, (Zr,Sn)TiO4, alumina, rutile, AnBn-1O3n type materials, LTCC, ceramic-polymer composites etc. The book also has a data table listing all reported low loss dielectric materials with properties and references arranged in the order of increasing dielectric constant.

Key Features

  • Collects together in one source data on all new materials used in wireless communication
  • Includes tabulated properties of all reported low loss dielectric materials
  • In-depth treatment of dielectric resonator materials


Research scientists and engineers working in the area of wireless communication, postgraduate students in physical and chemical sciences, graduate and postgraduate students in electronic engineering

Table of Contents

Foreword by Prof. Neil Alford, F R Eng. Imperial College London
Chapter 1. Introduction

Chapter 2. Measurement of microwave dielectric properties and factors affecting them

2.1. Permittivity
2.2. Quality factor (Q)
2.3. Measurement of microwave dielectric properties
2.3.1. Hakki and Coleman (Courtney) method Measurement of Permittivity Measurement of loss tangent
2.3.2. TE01ƒÔ) mode dielectric resonator method
2.3.3. Measurement of quality factor by stripline method
2.3.4. Whispering Gallery Mode resonators
2.3.5. Split Post Dielectric Resonator (SPDR) method
2.3.6. Cavity Perturbation method
2.3.7. TM010 mode and Re-entrant cavity method
2.3.8. TE01n mode cavities
2.4. Estimation of dielectric loss by spectroscopic methods
2.5. Factors affecting the dielectric loss
2.6. Correction for porosity
2.7. Calculation of permittivity using Clausius Mossotti equation
2.8. Measurement of temperature coefficient of resonant frequency
2.9. Tuning of resonant frequency

Chapter 3. Microwave dielectric materials in the BaO-TiO2 system

3.1. Introduction
3.2. BaTi4O9
3.2.1. Microwave dielectric properties
3.3. BaTi5O11
3.4. Ba2Ti9O20
3.4.1. Preparation
3.4.2. Structure
3.4.3. Properties
3.5. BaTi4O9/Ba2Ti9O20 composites
3.6. Conclusion

Chapter 4. (Zr,Sn)TiO4 ceramics

4.1. Introduction
4.2. Preparation
4.2.1. Solid state method
4.2.2. Wet chemical methods
4.3. Crystal structure and phase transformation
4.4. Microwave dielectric properties
4.5. Conclusion

Chapter 5. Tungsten bronze type materials

5.1. Introduction
5.2. Crystal structure
5.3. Preparation of Ba6-3xLn8+2xTi18O54 ceramics
5.4. Dielectric properties
5.4.1. Effect of dopants
5.4.2. Substitution for Ba
5.4.3. Substitution for Ti
5.4.4. Texturing
5.4.5. Effect of glass
5.5. Phase transition
5.6. Conclusion

Chapter 6. ABO3 type perovskites

6.1. Introduction
6.2. Tolerance factor (t) and perovskite cell parameter (ap)
6.3. ATiO3 (A=Ba, Sr, Ca)
6.4. Ag(Nb1-xTax)O3
6.5. Ca(Li1/3Nb2/3)O3-ƒÔ
6.6. CaO-Ln2O3-TiO2-Li2O system
6.7. LnAlO3
6.8. Conclusion

Chapter 7. A(B¡¦1/2B¡¨1/2)O3 complex perovskites

7.1. Introduction
7.2. Ba(B¡¦1/2Nb1/2)O3 ceramics
7.3. Ba(B¡¦1/2Ta1/2)O3 ceramics
7.4. Sr(B¡¦1/2Nb1/2)O3 ceramics
7.4.1. Tailoring ƒäf of Sr(B¡¦1/2Nb1/2)O3 ceramics
7.5 Sr(B¡¦1/2Ta1/2)O3 ceramics
7.5.1. Effect of non-stoichiometry in Sr(B¡¦1/2Ta1/2)O3 ceramics
7.5.2. Effect of A and B Site substitutions
7.5.3. Effect of rutile addition
7.6. Ca(B¡¦1/2Nb1/2)O3 ceramics
7.6.1. Tailoring the dielectric properties of Ca(B¡¦1/2Nb1/2)O3 ceramics by addition of TiO2 and CaTiO3
7.6.2. Effect of A and B site substitutions on the structure and dielectric
7.7. Ca(B¡¦1/2Ta1/2)O3 ceramics
7.8. (Pb1-xCax)(Fe1/2B¡¨1/2)O3 [B¡¦=Nb,Ta]
7.9. Ln(A1/2Ti1/2)O3 [Ln=lanthanide, A=Zn, Mg, Co]
7.10 Conclusion

Chapter 8. A(B¡¦1/3B¡¨2/3)O3 complex perovskites

8.1. Introduction
8.2. Ba(Zn1/3Ta2/3)O3 (BZT)
8.2.1. Preparation
8.2.2. Crystal structure and ordering
8.2.3. Dielectric properties
8.2.4. Effect of BaZrO3 addition in BZT
8.3. Ba(Mg1/3Ta2/3)O3 (BMT)
8.3.1. Preparation
8.3.2 Crystal structure and ordering
8.3.3. Properties
8.3.4 Effect of dopants
8.3.5. effect of glass addition
8.3.6. Nonstoichiometry
8.3.7 Dielectric properties at low temperatures
8.4. (Ba,Sr)(Mg1/3Ta2/3)O3
8.5. Ba(Zn1/3Nb2/3)O3 (BZN)
8.5.1. Preparation
8.5.2. Dielectric properties
8.6. Ba(Ni1/3Nb2/3)O3
8.7. Ba(Co1/2Nb2/3)O3
8.8. Ba(Mg(Nb1/3Nb2/3)O3
8.9 Conclusion

Chapter 9. Cation deficient perovskites

9.1 Introduction
9.2. A4B3O12 ceramics
9.3. A5B4O15 ceramics.
9.4. A6B5O18 ceramics
9.5. A8B7O24 ceramics
9.6. La2/3(Mg1/2W1/2)O3
9.7. Conclusions

Chapter 10. A(A1/4B2/4C1/4)O3 (A=Ca,Mg, Zn, Sr, Co..,
B=Nb,Ta) type materials

10.1 Introduction
10.2. Structure and properties of Ca5B2TiO12 [B=Nb,Ta] ceramics
10.3. Effect of dopant addition in Ca5B2TiO12 (B=Nb.Ta) ceramics
10.4. Effect of glass addition
10.5. Effect of cationic substitution in A and B sites in Ca5B2TiO12 ceramics B=Nb,Ta)
10.6 Conclusions

Chapter 11. Alumina, titania and other materials

11.1. Alumina
11.2. Titania
11.3. CeO2
11.4. Silicates
11.5. Spinel
11.6. Tungstates
11.7. AB2O6(A=Zn,Co, Ni, Sr, Ca, Mg;B=Nb,Ta)
11.8. A4M2O9 (M=Mg, Mn, Fe, Co: A=Ta,Nb)
11.9. Ln2BaAO5 (Ln= lanthanide); A=Cu, Zn, Mg)
11.10. LnTiAO6 (A=Nb.Ta)
11.11. MgTiO3
11.12. ZnO-TiO2 system.
11.13. Conclusion

Chapter 12: Low Temperature Cofired Ceramics (LTCC)

12.1. Introduction
12.2. LTCC process and design aspects of microwave components
12.3 Materials selection and requirements
12.3. Important characteristics required for the glass ceramic composites
12.3.1 densification
12.3.2 ƒÕr in the range 5-70
12.3.3. Qf>1000
12.3.4 Ċf close to zero
12.3.5. High thermal conductivity
12.3.6. Thermal expansion
12.3.7. Chemical compatibility with electrode material
12.4. Commercial LTCC materials
12.5. Glass-ceramic composites
12.6. Microwave dielectric properties of glasses
12.7. LTCC materials and their properties
12.7.1 Alumina
12.7.2. TiO2 based LTCC
12.7.3. Li2O-M2O5-TiO2 system
12.7.4. Bismuth based materials BiAO4 (A=Nb.TA) BiO2-TiO2 Bi2O3-ZnO-Nb2O5 Bi12MO20-ƒÔ
12.7.5 TeO2 type
12.7.6. ZnO-TiO2 system
12.7.7. MgAlO4 and ZnAlO4
12.7.8. Tungsten-bronze type
12.7.9. Pb1-xCax(Fe1/2Nb1/2)O3
12.7.10. Ca(Li1/3Nb2/3)O3)-d
12.7.11. BaO-TiO2 system
12.7.12 Vanadate system
12.7.13. Zinc and barium niobates
12.7.14. (MgCa)TiO3
12.7.15. Mg4(Nb/Ta)2O9
12. 7.16. Ba(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3
12.7.17. (Zr,Sn)TiO4
12.7.18. Ag(NbTa)O3 system
12.7.19. AMP)2)O7
12.7.20 ABO4 (A=Ca, Sr, Ba, Mg, Mn, Zn; B=Mo,W)
12.8. Conclusion

Chapter 13. Tailoring the properties of low loss dielectrics

13.1 Introduction
13.2 Solid solution formation
13.3 Use of additives
13.4 Non-stoichiometry
13.5 Stacked resonators
13.6 Tailoring the properties by mixture formation

Chapter 14. Conclusion

Appendix I. Ionic radii

Appendix II. List of DRs reported in the literature with properties and


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© Elsevier Science 2008
23rd June 2008
Elsevier Science
Hardcover ISBN:
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About the Author

Mailadil Sebastian

Dr. M T Sebastian is currently Deputy Director, National Institute for Interdisciplinary Science and Technology at Trivandrum in India. He obtained his Ph.D. in Physics from Banaras Hindu University in 1983. He taught physics at Cochin University of Science & Technology during 1984-87. He was an Alexander Von Humboldt Fellow in Germany and Nokia Visiting Fellow in Finland. He has done extensive researches in USA, UK, France, Germany, Australia, Czech Republic, Australia, Japan and Finland. He has co-authored the book “Random non-random and periodic faulting in crystals” published by Gordon & Breach Science publishers (1994). He has published more than 160 research papers in international refereed journals and possesses several patents. His research interests are microwave ceramic dielectric resonators, perovskites electrode materials, crystal growth and defect characterization, X-ray scattering from disordered structures, electronic packaging materials.

Affiliations and Expertise

National Institute for Interdisciplinary Science and Technology

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