Diagnostic Ultrasound Imaging: Inside Out

Diagnostic Ultrasound Imaging: Inside Out

2nd Edition - December 5, 2013

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  • Author: Thomas Szabo
  • eBook ISBN: 9780123965424
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9780123964878

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Diagnostic Ultrasound Imaging provides a unified description of the physical principles of ultrasound imaging, signal processing, systems and measurements. This comprehensive reference is a core resource for both graduate students and engineers in medical ultrasound research and design. With continuing rapid technological development of ultrasound in medical diagnosis, it is a critical subject for biomedical engineers, clinical and healthcare engineers and practitioners, medical physicists, and related professionals in the fields of signal and image processing. The book contains 17 new and updated chapters covering the fundamentals and latest advances in the area, and includes four appendices, 450 figures (60 available in color on the companion website), and almost 1,500 references. In addition to the continual influx of readers entering the field of ultrasound worldwide who need the broad grounding in the core technologies of ultrasound, this book provides those already working in these areas with clear and comprehensive expositions of these key new topics as well as introductions to state-of-the-art innovations in this field.

Key Features

  • Enables practicing engineers, students and clinical professionals to understand the essential physics and signal processing techniques behind modern imaging systems as well as introducing the latest developments that will shape medical ultrasound in the future
  • Suitable for both newcomers and experienced readers, the practical, progressively organized applied approach is supported by hands-on MATLAB® code and worked examples that enable readers to understand the principles underlying diagnostic and therapeutic ultrasound
  • Covers the new important developments in the use of medical ultrasound: elastography and high-intensity therapeutic ultrasound. Many new developments are comprehensively reviewed and explained, including aberration correction, acoustic measurements, acoustic radiation force imaging, alternate imaging architectures, bioeffects: diagnostic to therapeutic, Fourier transform imaging, multimode imaging, plane wave compounding, research platforms, synthetic aperture, vector Doppler, transient shear wave elastography, ultrafast imaging and Doppler, functional ultrasound and viscoelastic models


Suitable as a graduate level text for engineering or science students or as a reference for the practicing engineer, scientist or physician engaged in ultrasound research or development.

Table of Contents

  • Preface


    Chapter 1. Introduction

    1.1 Introduction

    1.2 Echo Ranging of the Body

    1.3 Ultrasound Portrait Photographers

    1.4 Ultrasound Cinematographers

    1.5 Modern Ultrasound Imaging Developments

    1.6 Enabling Technologies for Ultrasound Imaging

    1.7 Ultrasound Imaging Safety

    1.8 Ultrasound and Other Diagnostic Imaging Modalities

    1.9 Contrast Agents

    1.10 Comparison of Imaging Modalities

    1.11 Conclusion



    Chapter 2. Overview

    2.1 Introduction

    2.2 Fourier Transform

    2.3 Building Blocks

    2.4 Central Diagram


    Chapter 3. Acoustic Wave Propagation

    3.1 Introduction to Waves

    3.2 Plane Waves in Liquids and Solids

    3.3 Elastic Waves in Solids

    3.4 Elastic Wave Equations

    3.5 Conclusion



    Chapter 4. Attenuation

    4.1 Losses in Tissues

    4.2 Losses in Both Frequency and Time Domains

    4.3 Tissue Models

    4.4 Pulses in Lossy Media

    4.5 Modified Hooke’s Laws and Tissue Models for Viscoelastic Media

    4.6 Wave Equations for Tissues

    4.7 Discussion

    4.8 Penetration and Time Gain Compensation


    Chapter 5. Transducers

    5.1 Introduction to Transducers

    5.2 Resonant Modes of Transducers

    5.3 Equivalent Circuit Transducer Model

    5.4 Transducer Design Considerations

    5.5 Transducer Pulses

    5.6 Equations for Piezoelectric Media

    5.7 Piezoelectric Materials

    5.8 Comparison of Piezoelectric Materials

    5.9 Transducer Advanced Topics



    Chapter 6. Beamforming

    6.1 What is Diffraction?

    6.2 Fresnel Approximation of Spatial Diffraction Integral

    6.3 Rectangular Aperture

    6.4 Apodization

    6.5 Circular Apertures

    6.6 Focusing

    6.7 Angular Spectrum of Waves

    6.8 Diffraction Loss

    6.9 Limited Diffraction Beams

    6.10 Holey Focusing Transducers



    Chapter 7. Array Beamforming

    7.1 Why Arrays?

    7.2 Diffraction in the Time Domain

    7.3 Circular Radiators in the Time Domain

    7.4 Arrays

    7.5 Pulse–Echo Beamforming

    7.6 Two-dimensional Arrays

    7.7 Baffled

    7.8 Computational Diffraction Methods

    7.9 Nonideal Array Performance

    7.10 Conformable and Deformable Arrays



    Chapter 8. Wave Scattering and Imaging

    8.1 Introduction

    8.2 Scattering of Objects

    8.3 Role of Transducer Diffraction and Focusing

    8.4 Role of Imaging



    Chapter 9. Scattering From Tissue and Tissue Characterization

    9.1 Introduction

    9.2 Scattering from Tissues

    9.3 Properties of and Propagation in Heterogeneous Tissue

    9.4 Array Processing of Scattered Pulse–Echo Signals

    9.5 Tissue Characterization Methods

    9.6 Applications of Tissue Characterization

    9.7 Aberration Correction

    9.8 Wave Equations for Tissue



    Chapter 10. Imaging Systems and Applications

    10.1 Introduction

    10.2 Trends in Imaging Systems

    10.3 Major Controls

    10.4 Block Diagram

    10.5 Major Modes

    10.6 Clinical Applications

    10.7 Transducers and Image Formats

    10.8 Front End

    10.9 Scanner

    10.10 Back End

    10.11 Advanced Signal Processing

    10.12 Alternate Imaging System Architectures



    Chapter 11. Doppler Modes

    11.1 Introduction

    11.2 The Doppler Effect

    11.3 Scattering from Flowing Blood in Vessels

    11.4 Continuous-Wave Doppler

    11.5 Pulsed-Wave Doppler

    11.6 Comparison of Pulsed- and Continuous-Wave Doppler

    11.7 Ultrasound Color Flow Imaging

    11.8 Non-Doppler Visualization of Blood Flow

    11.9 Doppler Revisited

    11.10 Vector Doppler

    11.11 Functional Ultrasound Imaging



    Chapter 12. Nonlinear Acoustics and Imaging

    12.1 Introduction

    12.2 What is Nonlinear Propagation?

    12.3 Propagation in a Nonlinear Medium with Losses

    12.4 Propagation of Beams in Nonlinear Media

    12.5 Harmonic Imaging

    12.6 Harmonic Signal Processing

    12.7 Nonlinear Wave Equations and Simulation Models

    12.8 Acoustic Radiation Forces and Streaming



    Chapter 13. Ultrasonic Exposimetry and Acoustic Measurements

    13.1 Introduction to Measurements

    13.2 Materials Characterization

    13.3 Transducers

    13.4 Acoustic Output Measurements

    13.5 Performance Measurements

    13.6 High-intensity Acoustic Measurements

    13.7 Thought Experiments



    Chapter 14. Ultrasound Contrast Agents

    14.1 Introduction

    14.2 Microbubble as Linear Resonator

    14.3 Microbubble as Nonlinear Resonator

    14.4 Cavitation and Bubble Destruction

    14.5 Ultrasound Contrast Agents

    14.6 Imaging with Ultrasound Contrast Agents

    14.7 Therapeutic Ultrasound Contrast Agents: Smart Bubbles

    14.8 Equations of Motion for Contrast Agents

    14.9 Conclusion



    Chapter 15. Ultrasound-induced Bioeffects

    15.1 Introduction

    15.2 Ultrasound-induced Bioeffects: Observation to Regulation

    15.3 Thermal Effects

    15.4 Nonthermal Effects

    15.5 The Output Display Standard

    15.6 Ultrasound-induced Bioeffects: A Closer Look

    15.7 Comparison of Medical Ultrasound Modalities

    15.8 Equations for Predicting Temperature Rise

    15.9 Conclusions



    Chapter 16. Elastography

    16.1 Introduction

    16.2 Elastography Physics

    16.3 Elastography Implementations

    16.4 Conclusions



    Chapter 17. Therapeutic Ultrasound

    17.1 Introduction

    17.2 Therapeutic Ultrasound Physics

    17.3 Therapeutic Ultrasound Applications

    17.4 Conclusions


    Appendix A. The Fourier Transform

    A.1 Introduction

    A.2 The Fourier Transform



    Appendix B


    Appendix C. Development of One-Dimensional KLM Model Based on ABCD Matrices


    Appendix D. List of Groups Interested in Medical Ultrasound


Product details

  • No. of pages: 832
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Academic Press 2013
  • Published: December 5, 2013
  • Imprint: Academic Press
  • eBook ISBN: 9780123965424
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9780123964878

About the Author

Thomas Szabo

Thomas Szabo
Professor Szabo has contributed to the fundamental understanding and design of surface acoustic wave signal processing devices, to novel means of transduction and measurement for nondestructive evaluation using ultrasound, to seismic signal processing applied to acoustic imaging, and to the research and development of state-of-the-art diagnostic ultrasound imaging systems. He has published over seventy papers in these areas. His current interests in ultrasound are overcoming present limitations in imaging the body and finding new ways of extracting noninvasively diagnostically useful information about tissue structure, health and function. His research includes the following methods: digital beamforming, signal processing, miniature transducer arrays, nonlinear acoustic propagation, ultrasound-induced bioeffects, broadband measurement techniques, simulation and measurement of wave propagation in inhomogeneous media and scanning acoustic microscopy. Dr. Szabo is a Fellow of the Acoustical Society of America and of the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine, a Senior Life Member of the IEEE, a convenor and U. S. delegate to the International Electrotechnical Commission, and a winner of a best paper award in the IEEE UFFC/SU Transactions.

Affiliations and Expertise

Research Professor, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Boston University, MA, USA

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  • TomRiis Wed Sep 11 2019

    Good text. Organizes the topics

    Good text. Organizes the topics of Ultrasound well.