Diagnostic Ultrasound Imaging: Inside Out - 2nd Edition - ISBN: 9780123964878, 9780123965424

Diagnostic Ultrasound Imaging: Inside Out

2nd Edition

Authors: Thomas Szabo
eBook ISBN: 9780123965424
Hardcover ISBN: 9780123964878
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 12th December 2013
Page Count: 832
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Table of Contents



Chapter 1. Introduction

1.1 Introduction

1.2 Echo Ranging of the Body

1.3 Ultrasound Portrait Photographers

1.4 Ultrasound Cinematographers

1.5 Modern Ultrasound Imaging Developments

1.6 Enabling Technologies for Ultrasound Imaging

1.7 Ultrasound Imaging Safety

1.8 Ultrasound and Other Diagnostic Imaging Modalities

1.9 Contrast Agents

1.10 Comparison of Imaging Modalities

1.11 Conclusion



Chapter 2. Overview

2.1 Introduction

2.2 Fourier Transform

2.3 Building Blocks

2.4 Central Diagram


Chapter 3. Acoustic Wave Propagation

3.1 Introduction to Waves

3.2 Plane Waves in Liquids and Solids

3.3 Elastic Waves in Solids

3.4 Elastic Wave Equations

3.5 Conclusion



Chapter 4. Attenuation

4.1 Losses in Tissues

4.2 Losses in Both Frequency and Time Domains

4.3 Tissue Models

4.4 Pulses in Lossy Media

4.5 Modified Hooke’s Laws and Tissue Models for Viscoelastic Media

4.6 Wave Equations for Tissues

4.7 Discussion

4.8 Penetration and Time Gain Compensation


Chapter 5. Transducers

5.1 Introduction to Transducers

5.2 Resonant Modes of Transducers

5.3 Equivalent Circuit Transducer Model

5.4 Transducer Design Considerations

5.5 Transducer Pulses

5.6 Equations for Piezoelectric Media

5.7 Piezoelectric Materials

5.8 Comparison of Piezoelectric Materials

5.9 Transducer Advanced Topics



Chapter 6. Beamforming

6.1 What is Diffraction?

6.2 Fresnel Approximation of Spatial Diffraction Integral

6.3 Rectangular Aperture

6.4 Apodization

6.5 Circular Apertures

6.6 Focusing

6.7 Angular Spectrum of Waves

6.8 Diffraction Loss

6.9 Limited Diffraction Beams

6.10 Holey Focusing Transducers



Chapter 7. Array Beamforming

7.1 Why Arrays?

7.2 Diffraction in the Time Domain

7.3 Circular Radiators in the Time Domain

7.4 Arrays

7.5 Pulse–Echo Beamforming

7.6 Two-dimensional Arrays

7.7 Baffled

7.8 Computational Diffraction Methods

7.9 Nonideal Array Performance

7.10 Conformable and Deformable Arrays



Chapter 8. Wave Scattering and Imaging

8.1 Introduction

8.2 Scattering of Objects

8.3 Role of Transducer Diffraction and Focusing

8.4 Role of Imaging



Chapter 9. Scattering From Tissue and Tissue Characterization

9.1 Introduction

9.2 Scattering from Tissues

9.3 Properties of and Propagation in Heterogeneous Tissue

9.4 Array Processing of Scattered Pulse–Echo Signals

9.5 Tissue Characterization Methods

9.6 Applications of Tissue Characterization

9.7 Aberration Correction

9.8 Wave Equations for Tissue



Chapter 10. Imaging Systems and Applications

10.1 Introduction

10.2 Trends in Imaging Systems

10.3 Major Controls

10.4 Block Diagram

10.5 Major Modes

10.6 Clinical Applications

10.7 Transducers and Image Formats

10.8 Front End

10.9 Scanner

10.10 Back End

10.11 Advanced Signal Processing

10.12 Alternate Imaging System Architectures



Chapter 11. Doppler Modes

11.1 Introduction

11.2 The Doppler Effect

11.3 Scattering from Flowing Blood in Vessels

11.4 Continuous-Wave Doppler

11.5 Pulsed-Wave Doppler

11.6 Comparison of Pulsed- and Continuous-Wave Doppler

11.7 Ultrasound Color Flow Imaging

11.8 Non-Doppler Visualization of Blood Flow

11.9 Doppler Revisited

11.10 Vector Doppler

11.11 Functional Ultrasound Imaging



Chapter 12. Nonlinear Acoustics and Imaging

12.1 Introduction

12.2 What is Nonlinear Propagation?

12.3 Propagation in a Nonlinear Medium with Losses

12.4 Propagation of Beams in Nonlinear Media

12.5 Harmonic Imaging

12.6 Harmonic Signal Processing

12.7 Nonlinear Wave Equations and Simulation Models

12.8 Acoustic Radiation Forces and Streaming



Chapter 13. Ultrasonic Exposimetry and Acoustic Measurements

13.1 Introduction to Measurements

13.2 Materials Characterization

13.3 Transducers

13.4 Acoustic Output Measurements

13.5 Performance Measurements

13.6 High-intensity Acoustic Measurements

13.7 Thought Experiments



Chapter 14. Ultrasound Contrast Agents

14.1 Introduction

14.2 Microbubble as Linear Resonator

14.3 Microbubble as Nonlinear Resonator

14.4 Cavitation and Bubble Destruction

14.5 Ultrasound Contrast Agents

14.6 Imaging with Ultrasound Contrast Agents

14.7 Therapeutic Ultrasound Contrast Agents: Smart Bubbles

14.8 Equations of Motion for Contrast Agents

14.9 Conclusion



Chapter 15. Ultrasound-induced Bioeffects

15.1 Introduction

15.2 Ultrasound-induced Bioeffects: Observation to Regulation

15.3 Thermal Effects

15.4 Nonthermal Effects

15.5 The Output Display Standard

15.6 Ultrasound-induced Bioeffects: A Closer Look

15.7 Comparison of Medical Ultrasound Modalities

15.8 Equations for Predicting Temperature Rise

15.9 Conclusions



Chapter 16. Elastography

16.1 Introduction

16.2 Elastography Physics

16.3 Elastography Implementations

16.4 Conclusions



Chapter 17. Therapeutic Ultrasound

17.1 Introduction

17.2 Therapeutic Ultrasound Physics

17.3 Therapeutic Ultrasound Applications

17.4 Conclusions


Appendix A. The Fourier Transform

A.1 Introduction

A.2 The Fourier Transform



Appendix B


Appendix C. Development of One-Dimensional KLM Model Based on ABCD Matrices


Appendix D. List of Groups Interested in Medical Ultrasound



Diagnostic Ultrasound Imaging provides a unified description of the physical principles of ultrasound imaging, signal processing, systems and measurements. This comprehensive reference is a core resource for both graduate students and engineers in medical ultrasound research and design. With continuing rapid technological development of ultrasound in medical diagnosis, it is a critical subject for biomedical engineers, clinical and healthcare engineers and practitioners, medical physicists, and related professionals in the fields of signal and image processing.

The book contains 17 new and updated chapters covering the fundamentals and latest advances in the area, and includes four appendices, 450 figures (60 available in color on the companion website), and almost 1,500 references. In addition to the continual influx of readers entering the field of ultrasound worldwide who need the broad grounding in the core technologies of ultrasound, this book provides those already working in these areas with clear and comprehensive expositions of these key new topics as well as introductions to state-of-the-art innovations in this field.

Key Features

  • Enables practicing engineers, students and clinical professionals to understand the essential physics and signal processing techniques behind modern imaging systems as well as introducing the latest developments that will shape medical ultrasound in the future
  • Suitable for both newcomers and experienced readers, the practical, progressively organized applied approach is supported by hands-on MATLAB® code and worked examples that enable readers to understand the principles underlying diagnostic and therapeutic ultrasound
  • Covers the new important developments in the use of medical ultrasound: elastography and high-intensity therapeutic ultrasound. Many new developments are comprehensively reviewed and explained, including aberration correction, acoustic measurements, acoustic radiation force imaging, alternate imaging architectures, bioeffects: diagnostic to therapeutic, Fourier transform imaging, multimode imaging, plane wave compounding, research platforms, synthetic aperture, vector Doppler, transient shear wave elastography, ultrafast imaging and Doppler, functional ultrasound and viscoelastic models


Suitable as a graduate level text for engineering or science students or as a reference for the practicing engineer, scientist or physician engaged in ultrasound research or development.


No. of pages:
© Academic Press 2014
Academic Press
eBook ISBN:
Hardcover ISBN:


In 2014, ten years after publishing the first edition of this book, Dr. Thomas L. Szabo has updated the text and produced this second edition. The printed version is approximately one-third thicker and comes with a new cover image; there is also an e-book version available. A lot of different items in ultrasound imaging are explained, starting with an introduction of imaging modalities, basic ultrasound wave propagation and interactions aspects with materials, as well as technological aspects as transducer models and various beam forming methods or clinical applications for ultrasound imaging and therapy.

The MATLAB-files (query) from the first edition are still available to download. These files complement the explanations in the text and are useful for practical lessons in underpinning the theory with examples of various beamplots, Fourier transforms or for deepening the self-study.

In this second edition, most chapters were revised and topics that have been published or introduced into clinical practice within the last decade were added. To comply with the technological developments in this field, two new chapters were introduced. The first one covers modern therapeutic applications, e.g., sonothrombolysis, transcranial or cosmetic ultrasound, while the second covers the topic of elastographic methods like acoustic radiation force impulse, strain or shear Imaging.

The main strength of this book is its inclusion of an introduction and state-of-the-art review of physics and signal processing techniques used in ultrasound imaging and therapy in a single volume. The same topics can be found in different chapters as well, but including an explanation from another point of view that helps to clarify the complexity involved and understanding of the topics.

Unfortunately, this new printed edition is available with black-and-white images only, while in the digital e-book, colored images are available. This is a disadvantage, as images like modern Doppler images or velocity scales are less useful to the reader when printed in black-and-white. However, the publishers have recognized this drawback and have made full-color images available for download from the book’s website.

The book is now 17 chapters long and, for both physicists and physicians, is a rich source of information regarding basic physics and signal processing methods, covering a broad range of topics in medical ultrasound. It is an essential book to have on your tablet or bookshelf.

Center for Medical Physics & Biomedical Engineering, Medical University Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, A-1090 Vienna

About the Authors

Thomas Szabo Author

Professor Szabo has contributed to the fundamental understanding and design of surface acoustic wave signal processing devices, to novel means of transduction and measurement for nondestructive evaluation using ultrasound, to seismic signal processing applied to acoustic imaging, and to the research and development of state-of-the-art diagnostic ultrasound imaging systems. He has published over seventy papers in these areas. His current interests in ultrasound are overcoming present limitations in imaging the body and finding new ways of extracting noninvasively diagnostically useful information about tissue structure, health and function. His research includes the following methods: digital beamforming, signal processing, miniature transducer arrays, nonlinear acoustic propagation, ultrasound-induced bioeffects, broadband measurement techniques, simulation and measurement of wave propagation in inhomogeneous media and scanning acoustic microscopy. Dr. Szabo is a Fellow of the Acoustical Society of America and of the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine, a Senior Life Member of the IEEE, a convenor and U. S. delegate to the International Electrotechnical Commission, and a winner of a best paper award in the IEEE UFFC/SU Transactions.

Affiliations and Expertise

Research Professor, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Boston University, MA, USA