Diabetes

Diabetes

Oxidative Stress and Dietary Antioxidants

1st Edition - October 29, 2013

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  • Editor: Victor Preedy
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9780124058859
  • eBook ISBN: 9780124055223

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Description

Diabetes: Oxidative Stress and Dietary Antioxidants bridges the trans-disciplinary divide among diabetologists, endocrinologists, and nutritionists in understanding and treating diabetes. The book covers, in a single volume, the science of oxidative stress in diabetes and the potentially therapeutic use of natural antioxidants in the diet or food matrix. The processes within the science of oxidative stress are described in concert with other processes such as apoptosis, cell signaling, receptor-mediated responses and more. This approach recognizes that diseases are usually multifactorial and that oxidative stress is a single component of this.Pharmacological treatments for diabetes are commonly marked by unwanted side effects, leading to treatment efforts using naturally occurring substances. But a plant-based approach alone is not sufficient; understanding the processes inherent in the oxidative stress of diabetes is vital for clinical workers, dietitians, and nutritionists.This translational work provides that understanding. The book begins by covering the basic biology of oxidative stress from molecular biology to imaging in relation to diabetes. There are chapters on neuropathy, nephropathy, atherosclerosis, cardiomyopathy, and retinopathy. The book then moves on to antioxidants in foods, including plants, components of the diet, and their relevance to diabetes.

Key Features

  • Nutritionists will use the information related to mitochondrial oxidative stress in one disease and propose new diet-related strategies to prevent such conditions arising in another unrelated disease
  • Dietitians will prescribe new foods or diets containing antioxidants for conditions that are refractory by conventional pharmacological treatments
  • Dietitians, after learning about the basic biology of oxidative stress, will be able to suggest new treatments to their multidisciplinary teams
  • Nutritionists and dietitians will learn about cell signaling and will be able to suggest preventive or therapeutic strategies with antioxidant-rich foods to reduce damage done by diseases involving abnormal cell signaling

Readership

Nutritionists, dieticians, diabetologists, endocrinologists, and researchers across these areas

Table of Contents

  • Preface

    Contributors

    Section I: Oxidative Stress and Diabetes

    Chapter 1. Oxidative Stress and Diabetic Neuropathy

    Abstract

    Acknowledgments

    List of Abbreviations

    Introduction and Epidemiology

    Natural History and Prognosis

    Hyperglycemia as a Crucial Cause of Diabetic Neuropathy

    Oxidative Stress and Diabetic Neuropathy

    Oxidative Stress and Antioxidant Treatment in Diabetic Neuropathy

    Therapeutic Potential of a New Antioxidant Protein Delivery in Diabetic Neuropathy

    From Experimental Evidence of Neuropathy in Animals to the Treatment of Diabetic Neuropathy in Man

    Conclusion

    Summary Points

    References

    Chapter 2. Cerebral Ischemia in Diabetics and Oxidative Stress

    Abstract

    List of Abbreviations

    Introduction – Diabetes and Cerebral Ischemia

    Pathophysiological Roles of Free Radicals

    Diabetes and Free Radicals

    Cerebral Ischemia

    Free Radical Production during Ischemia/Reperfusion

    NOS Pathway

    The Role of Iron

    Mitochondrial Production of Free Radicals

    Reperfusion

    Free Radicals and Cerebral Ischemia-Induced Cell Death Pathways

    Oxidative Stress in Diabetic Cerebral Ischemia

    Conclusion

    Summary Points

    References

    Chapter 3. Diabetic Cardiomyopathy and Oxidative Stress

    Abstract

    List of Abbreviations

    Introduction

    Diabetic Cardiomyopathy

    Hallmarks of DM

    Oxidative Stress

    Hyperglycemia

    Lipotoxicity

    ROS and RNS in Diabetic Cardiomyopathy

    Superoxide

    Nitric Oxide and Peroxynitrite

    Hydroxyl Radical

    The Modulation of Cell Signaling Pathways

    Conclusion

    Summary Points

    References

    Chapter 4. Diabetic Retinopathy and Oxidative Stress

    Abstract

    List of Abbreviations

    Histopathology of DR

    Oxidative Stress Mechanisms

    Oxidative Stress and DR

    Summary Points

    References

    Chapter 5. Mitochondrial Oxidative Stress in Diabetes

    Abstract

    Acknowledgements

    List of Abbreviations

    Introduction

    Oxidative Stress: ROS and Reactive Nitrogen Species (RNS)

    Diabetes

    Diabetes, Inflammation and Oxidative Stress

    ROS Production and Diabetic Complications

    Antioxidants and Diabetes

    Dietary Antioxidants

    Antioxidants, Mitochondria and Diabetes

    Conclusions

    Summary points

    References

    Chapter 6. Iron, Oxidative Stress and Diabetes

    Abstract

    List of Abbreviations

    Introduction

    Distribution of Iron in the Body

    Iron Homeostasis

    Oxidative Stress

    Iron and Oxidative Stress

    Oxidative Stress in Diabetes

    Iron and Diabetes

    Iron Overload States

    Iron Deficiency

    The Role of Iron in Diabetes without Overt Iron Overload

    The Role of Iron in Complications of Diabetes

    Conclusions

    Summary Points

    References

    Section II: Antioxidants and Diabetes

    Chapter 7. α-Tocopherol Supplementation, Lipid Profile, and Insulin Sensitivity in Diabetes Mellitus Type 2

    Abstract

    List of Abbreviations

    Introduction

    Vitamin E and Diabetes

    A Possible Mechanism Underlying the Effects of α-Tocopherol in Diabetes Mellitus

    α-Tocopherol Supplementation in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    Is Vitamin E Supplementation Recommended for Diabetic Complications?

    Final Considerations

    Summary Points

    References

    Chapter 8. Effect of Salvia miltiorrhiza on Antioxidant Enzymes in Diabetic Patients

    Abstract

    List of Abbreviations

    Introduction

    Combinations Containing S. miltiorrhiza

    Active Components in S. miltiorrhiza

    Summary Points

    References

    Chapter 9. Antioxidant Spices and Herbs Used in Diabetes

    Abstract

    List of Abbreviations

    Introduction

    Culinary Herbs

    Spices

    Conclusions

    Summary Points

    References

    Chapter 10. Resveratrol and Oxidative Stress in Diabetes Mellitus

    Abstract

    List of Abbreviations

    Introduction

    The Role of Resveratrol in the Prevention of Diabetes Mellitus

    The Role of Resveratrol in the Treatment of Diabetes Mellitus

    Summary Points

    References

    Chapter 11. Vitamin D, Oxidative Stress and Diabetes: Is There A Link?

    Abstract

    List of Abbreviations

    Introduction

    Vitamin D

    Factors Affecting Vitamin D Status

    Oxidative Stress in Diabetes: Development and Complications

    Vitamin D and Diabetes

    Vitamin D as an Antioxidant

    Antioxidant Effect of Vitamin D in Diabetes: Direct vs. Indirect Effect

    Conclusion

    Summary Points

    References

    Chapter 12. Glutamine and Antioxidant Potential in Diabetes

    Abstract

    List of Abbreviations

    Introduction to Glutamine

    Immunomodulatory Effects of GLN

    GLN and Diabetes

    GLN and Hyperglycemia-Induced Complications

    Mechanisms of GLN in Attenuating Oxidative Stress

    Proposed Molecular Mechanisms Other than Antioxidant Effects

    Conclusions

    Summary Points

    References

    Chapter 13. The Anti-Oxidative Component of Docosahexaenoic Acid (DHA) in the Brain in Diabetes

    Abstract

    List of Abbreviations

    Introduction: Oxidative Stress in Diabetes

    Docosahexaenoic Acid (DHA)

    DHA and Oxidative Stress

    Neuroprotectin D1

    DHA and Oxidative Stress in the Brain

    References

    Chapter 14. Diabetic Nephropathy and Tocotrienol

    Abstract

    List of Abbreviations

    Introduction

    Biological Markers Involved in the Pathophysiology of Diabetic Nephropathy

    Tocotrienols

    Experimental Study Stating the Use of Tocotrienol in Diabetic Nephropathy

    Tocotrienol and Diabetic Nephropathy: Possible Mechanism of Action

    Effect on glycemic Index and Renal Physiology

    Prevention of Renal Oxidative Stress

    Inhibitory Effect on Proinflammatory and Profibrotic Cytokines

    Effect on NF-κB Signaling and Renal Apoptosis

    Conclusion

    References

    Chapter 15. Polyphenols, Oxidative Stress, and Vascular Damage in Diabetes

    Abstract

    List of Abbreviations

    Introduction

    Oxidative Stress, Nitric Oxide, and Endothelial Dysfunction

    Polyphenols and Antioxidant Mechanisms in Diabetes

    Polyphenols and Vascular Regeneration in Diabetes

    Conclusions and the Road Ahead

    Summary Points

    References

    Chapter 16. Vitamin E and Vascular Protection in Diabetes

    Abstract

    Acknowledgments and Disclosure

    List of Abbreviations

    Introduction

    Haptoglobin

    Haptoglobin Gene and Protein Structure

    Geographical Distribution

    Hp Antioxidant Function

    Different Hp Types Differ in Their Ability to Inhibit Hb Redox Activities

    Hp and High-Density Lipoprotein (HDL)

    Vitamin E

    Epidemiological Studies of Vitamin E Supplementation for Hp 2–2 Diabetic Individuals

    In Conclusion

    Summary Points

    References

    Chapter 17. The Use of Ginkgo biloba Extract in Cardiovascular Protection in Patients with Diabetes

    Abstract

    List of Abbreviations

    Introduction

    Characteristics of Ginkgo biloba Extract

    Effects of Ginkgo biloba Extract on Glucose Metabolism

    Protective Effects of Ginkgo biloba Extracts on Cardiovascular Health

    Conclusions

    Summary Points

    References

    Chapter 18. The Protective Role of Taurine in Cardiac Oxidative Stress under Diabetic Conditions

    Abstract

    List of Abbreviations

    Introduction

    Diabetes-Induced Oxidative Stress

    The Role of Mitochondria in ROS Production

    Advanced Glycation End Products (AGE) Mediated ROS Production

    The Role of NADPH Oxidase in ROS Production

    The Role of CaMKII in ROS Production

    The Role of Fatty Acids in ROS Production

    The Role of the Polyol Pathway in ROS Production

    The Role of Nrf2 in ROS Production

    The Role of Xanthine Oxidase in ROS Production

    The Role of Increased Hexosamine Flux in ROS Production

    The Role of PKC Activation in ROS Production

    The Role of Angiotensin II Activation in ROS Production

    Endogenous Antioxidant Mechanisms

    The Beneficial Role of Taurine

    Mechanisms of the Anti-Hyperglycemic Action of Taurine

    The Antioxidant Mechanism of Taurine against Cardiac Oxidative Stress under Diabetic Conditions

    Summary Points

    References

    Chapter 19. Statins, Diabetic Oxidative Stress and Vascular Tissue

    Abstract

    List of Abbreviations

    Introduction

    Oxidative Stress and Diabetes

    Statins: Discovery and Mechanisms

    Impact of Statins on Oxidative Stress

    Diabetic Macrovascular Disease: Clinical Evidence

    Diabetic Microvascular Disease: Clinical Evidence

    Summary and Future Directions

    Summary Points

    References

    Chapter 20. Resveratrol and Cerebral Arterioles during Type 1 Diabetes

    Abstract

    List of Abbreviations

    Introduction

    Oxidative Stress and Impaired Cerebrovascular Function in T1D

    Influence of Resveratrol on Vascular Function

    Summary Points

    References

    Chapter 21. Herbal Chrysanthemi Flos, Oxidative Damage and Protection against Diabetic Complications

    Abstract

    List of Abbreviations

    Diabetes

    Chrysanthemi Flos

    Effects of CF on Diabetes and Its Complications

    Effect of CF on Other Biological Activities

    Chemical Constituents of CF and Their Activities

    Toxic Effects of CF

    Conclusions

    Summary Points

    References

    Chapter 22. Antioxidant Supplements and Diabetic Retinopathy

    Abstract

    List of Abbreviations

    Introduction

    In Vitro Studies

    Animal Studies

    Clinical Studies

    Final Comments and Future Directions

    Summary Points

    References

    Chapter 23. Lutein and Oxidative Stress-Mediated Retinal Neurodegeneration in Diabetes

    Abstract

    Acknowledgment

    List of Abbreviations

    Introduction

    General Information about Lutein

    Clinical Data for Lutein

    Retinal Neurodegeneration in Diabetes

    ROS Accumulation in the Diabetic Retina

    General Influences of ROS in Pathogenesis

    Lutein’s Suppressive Effects on ROS in the Retina

    Lutein’s Neuroprotective Effects in the Diabetic Retina

    Summary Points

    References

    Chapter 24. Epidemiologic Evidence on Antioxidant-related Micronutrients and Diabetic Retinopathy

    Abstract

    List of Abbreviations

    Introduction

    Association Between Antioxidant-related Micronutrients and Diabetic Retinopathy

    Discussion

    Conclusion

    Summary Points

    References

    Chapter 25. Oxidative Stress and the Lung in Diabetes: The Use of Pomegranate Juice

    Abstract

    List of Abbreviations

    Introduction

    The Lung as a Target Organ in Diabetes

    Polyphenols as Antioxidants

    Pomegranate

    Clinical Evidence Regarding Pomegranate

    Antidiabetic Properties of Pomegranate

    The Effect of Pomegranate on Diabetic Lung Injury

    Summary Points

    References

    Chapter 26. Antioxidants, Oxidative Stress and Preeclampsia in Type 1 Diabetes

    Abstract

    List of Abbreviations

    Introduction

    Oxidative Stress and Antioxidant Status in Pregnancies Complicated by T1DM

    Oxidative Stress and Antioxidant Status in PE

    Antioxidant Supplementation and PE: Findings from Experimental Studies

    Antioxidant Supplementation and PE: Findings from Clinical Trials

    Summary Points

    References

    Index

    Color Plates

Product details

  • No. of pages: 280
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Academic Press 2013
  • Published: October 29, 2013
  • Imprint: Academic Press
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9780124058859
  • eBook ISBN: 9780124055223

About the Editor

Victor Preedy

Victor R. Preedy BSc, PhD, DSc, FRSB, FRSPH, FRCPath, FRSC is Emeritus Professor of Nutritional Biochemistry, at King’s College London and Professor of Clinical Biochemistry (Hon) at King’s College Hospital. He was the long-term Director of the Genomics Centre at King’s College London from 2006 to 2020. Professor Preedy has carried out research when attached to Imperial College London, The School of Pharmacy (now part of University College London) and the MRC Centre at Northwick Park Hospital. He has collaborated with research groups in Finland, Japan, Australia, USA and Germany. Prof. Preedy is a leading expert on the science of health and has a long-standing interest in dietary and plant-based components. To his credit, Professor Preedy has published over 750 articles, which includes peer-reviewed manuscripts based on original research, abstracts and symposium presentations, reviews and numerous books and volumes.

Affiliations and Expertise

Emeritus Professor, King’s College London; Professor, King’s College Hospital, London, UK

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