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Developments in Surface Contamination and Cleaning, Volume 8 - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780323299619, 9780323312714

Developments in Surface Contamination and Cleaning, Volume 8

1st Edition

Cleaning Techniques

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Editors: Rajiv Kohli Kashmiri L. Mittal
Hardcover ISBN: 9780323299619
eBook ISBN: 9780323312714
Imprint: William Andrew
Published Date: 17th November 2014
Page Count: 234
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As device sizes in the semiconductor industries shrink, devices become more vulnerable to smaller contaminant particles, and most conventional cleaning techniques employed in the industry are not effective at smaller scales.
The book series Developments in Surface Contamination and Cleaning as a whole provides an excellent source of information on these alternative cleaning techniques as well as methods for characterization and validation of surface contamination. Each volume has a particular topical focus, covering the key techniques and recent developments in the area.

Several novel wet and dry surface cleaning methods are addressed in this Volume. Many of these methods have not been reviewed previously, or the previous reviews are dated. These methods are finding increasing commercial application and the information in this book will be of high value to the reader.

Edited by the leading experts in small-scale particle surface contamination, cleaning and cleaning control these books will be an invaluable reference for researchers and engineers in R&D, manufacturing, quality control and procurement specification situated in a multitude of industries such as: aerospace, automotive, biomedical, defense, energy, manufacturing, microelectronics, optics and xerography. 

Key Features

  • Provides a state-of-the-art survey and best-practice guidance for scientists and engineers engaged in surface cleaning or handling the consequences of surface contamination
  • Addresses the continuing trends of shrinking device size and contamination vulnerability in a range of industries, spearheaded by the semiconductor industry and others
  • Covers novel wet and dry surface cleaning methods of increasing commercial importance


Researchers and Engineers in R&D, manufacturing, quality control and procurement specification situated in a multitude of industries such as: aerospace, automotive, biomedical, defense, energy, manufacturing, microelectronics, optics and xerography.

Table of Contents

  • Preface
  • About the Editors
  • Chapter 1: How Green and Does it Clean: Methodologies for Assessing Cleaning Products for Safety and Performance
    • Abstract
    • 1 Background
    • 2 Environmental Concerns
    • 3 Green Cleaning
    • 4 Regulatory Aspects
    • 5 Product Selection
    • 6 Green Assessment—What Makes a Product Green?
    • 7 Performance Testing/Efficacy Evaluation
    • 8 Summary
    • Appendix A Contact Information for Cleaning Products and Suppliers
    • Appendix B Contact Information for Soils and Contaminants and Suppliers
  • Chapter 2: UV-Ozone Cleaning for Removal of Surface Contaminants
    • Abstract
    • Acknowledgment
    • 1 Introduction
    • 2 Surface Contamination and Cleanliness Levels
    • 3 Principles of UV-Ozone Cleaning
    • 4 Process Variables
    • 5 Cleaning Systems
    • 6 Advantages and Disadvantages of UV-Ozone Cleaning
    • 7 Applications
    • 8 Summary
    • Disclaimer
  • Chapter 3: Use of Water Ice for Removal of Surface Contaminants
    • Abstract
    • Acknowledgments
    • 1 Introduction
    • 2 Surface Contamination and Surface Cleanliness Levels
    • 3 Theoretical Considerations
    • 4 Description of the Process
    • 5 Cleaning Systems
    • 6 Cost Considerations
    • 7 Advantages and Disadvantages
    • 8 Applications
    • 9 Summary and Conclusions
    • Disclaimer
  • Chapter 4: Post-CMP Cleaning
    • Abstract
    • 1 Introduction
    • 2 Forces on Particulate Contaminants in a Post-CMP Cleaning Process
    • 3 Types of Post-CMP Cleaning Processes
    • 4 Megasonic Cleaning
    • 5 Cleaning Chemistries
    • 6 Summary
  • Chapter 5: A Brief Review of the Cleaning Process for Electronic Device Fabrication
    • Abstract
    • 1 Introduction
    • 2 Cleaning of Inorganic Contamination
    • 3 Cleaning of Organic Contaminants
    • 4 Effects of Surfactants in Cleaning Solutions
    • 5 Wet Cleaning for Removing Trace Metals after Etching Process
    • 6 Silicon Product Wet Etching Process
    • 7 Summary and Conclusions
  • Index


No. of pages:
© William Andrew 2015
17th November 2014
William Andrew
Hardcover ISBN:
eBook ISBN:

About the Editors

Rajiv Kohli

Dr. Rajiv Kohli is a leading expert with The Aerospace Corporation in contaminant particle behavior, surface cleaning, and contamination control. At the NASA Johnson Space Center in Houston, Texas, he provides technical support for contamination control related to ground-based and manned spaceflight hardware, as well as for unmanned spacecraft. His technical interests are in particle behavior, precision cleaning, solution and surface chemistry, advanced materials and chemical thermodynamics. Dr. Kohli was involved in developing solvent-based cleaning applications for use in the nuclear industry and he also developed an innovative microabrasive system for a wide variety of precision cleaning and micro-processing applications in the commercial industry. He is the senior editor of this book series “Developments in Surface Contamination and Cleaning”; the first ten volumes in the series were published in 2008, 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013 (Volumes 5 and 6), 2015 (Volumes 7 and 8), and 2017 (Volumes 9 and 10), respectively. The second edition of Volume 1 was published in 2016. Volume 11 and Volume 12 (this volume) are expected to be published in 2019. Previously, Dr. Kohli co-authored the book “Commercial Utilization of Space: An International Comparison of Framework Conditions”, and he has published more than 270 technical papers, articles and reports on precision cleaning, advanced materials, chemical thermodynamics, environmental degradation of materials, and technical and economic assessment of emerging technologies. Dr. Kohli was recognized for his contributions to NASA’s Space Shuttle Return to Flight effort with the Public Service Medal, one of the agency’s highest awards.

Affiliations and Expertise

National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Houston, TX, USA

Kashmiri L. Mittal

Dr. Kashmiri (Kash) Mittal was associated with IBM from 1972 to 1994. Currently, he is teaching and consulting in the areas of adhesion science and technology and in surface contamination and cleaning. He is the founding editor of the Journal of Adhesion Science and Technology and is editor of more than 130 published books, many of them dealing with surface contamination and cleaning. In 2002, the Kash Mittal Award was inaugurated for his extensive efforts and significant contributions to the field of colloid and interface chemistry. Among his numerous awards, Dr. Mittal was awarded the title honoris causa by the Maria Curie-Sklodowska University in Lubin, Poland in 2003. Currently, he is teaching and consulting in the areas of surface contamination and cleaning and in adhesion science and technology.

Affiliations and Expertise

Editor, Reviews of Adhesion and Adhesives


"...this excellent series continues to report new cleaning processes in a critical light as well as procedures and protocols for assessing cleanliness…I’m not aware of any comparable in-depth treatments in the field of industrial cleaning and for that reason alone, strongly recommend these volumes or individual chapters within them." --Galvanotechnik

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