Developments in Surface Contamination and Cleaning, Volume 7

Developments in Surface Contamination and Cleaning, Volume 7

Cleanliness Validation and Verification

1st Edition - November 18, 2014

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  • Editors: Rajiv Kohli, Kashmiri L. Mittal
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9780323313032
  • eBook ISBN: 9780323311458

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As device sizes in the semiconductor industries are shrinking, they become more vulnerable to smaller contaminant particles, and most conventional cleaning techniques employed in the industry are not as effective at smaller scales.The book series Developments in Surface Contamination and Cleaning as a whole provides an excellent source of information on these alternative cleaning techniques as well as methods for characterization and validation of surface contamination. Each volume has a particular topical focus, covering the key techniques and recent developments in the area.The chapters in this Volume address the sources of surface contaminants and various methods for their collection and characterization, as well as methods for cleanliness validation. Regulatory aspects of cleaning are also covered. The collection of topics in this book is unique and complements other volumes in this series.Edited by the leading experts in small-scale particle surface contamination, cleaning and cleaning control, these books will be an invaluable reference for researchers and engineers in R&D, manufacturing, quality control and procurement specification situated in a multitude of industries such as: aerospace, automotive, biomedical, defense, energy, manufacturing, microelectronics, optics and xerography. 

Key Features

  • Provides a state-of-the-art survey and best-practice guidance for scientists and engineers engaged in surface cleaning or handling the consequences of surface contamination
  • Addresses the continuing trends of shrinking device size and contamination vulnerability in a range of industries, spearheaded by the semiconductor industry and others
  • Includes new regulatory aspects


Researchers and Engineers in R&D, manufacturing, quality control and procurement specification situated in a multitude of industries such as: aerospace, automotive, biomedical, defense, energy, manufacturing, microelectronics, optics and xerography; academic researchers.

Table of Contents

    • Preface
    • About the Editors
    • Chapter 1: Sources and Generation of Surface Contaminants and Their Impact
      • Abstract
      • Acknowledgments
      • 1 Introduction
      • 2 Surface Cleanliness Levels
      • 3 Sources and Generation of Contaminants
      • 4 Impact of Contaminants
      • 5 Summary and Conclusions
      • Disclaimer
    • Chapter 2: Mid-IR Spectroscopy as a Tool for Cleanliness Validation
      • Abstract
      • 1 Background
      • 2 Principles of Grazing-Angle FTIR
      • 3 Description of the Method
      • 4 Advantages and Disadvantages
      • 5 Results and Applications
      • 6 Future Developments
      • 7 Summary
    • Chapter 3: Optically Stimulated Electron Emission: A Powerful Tool for Surface Cleanliness Monitoring
      • Abstract
      • 1 Introduction
      • 2 OSEE Principle
      • 3 Photoemitting Materials
      • 4 Applications of OSEE
      • 5 Summary
    • Chapter 4: Methods for Verifying Medical Device Cleanliness
      • Abstract
      • 1 Background
      • 2 Cleaning Issues and Concerns with Medical Devices
      • 3 Extraction Techniques
      • 4 Cleaning of Metal and Ceramic Components
      • 5 Device Compatibility—Types of Tests and Description
      • 6 Test Methods to Identify Contaminants in Extracts
      • 7 Setting Limits and Biological Safety Assessment
      • 8 Validation
      • 9 Sources of Contamination
      • 10 Cleanliness Standards, Nonviable Contamination
      • 11 Future Developments
      • 12 Conclusion
    • Chapter 5: Cleaning Validation and Its Regulatory Aspects in the Pharmaceutical Industry
      • Abstract
      • 1 Introduction
      • 2 Good Manufacturing Practice in API Manufacturing
      • 3 Establishing the Acceptance Limits
      • 4 Cleaning of Equipment
      • 5 Sampling Methods for Cleaning Validation
      • 6 Cleaning Method Specificity
      • 7 Solvents Used for Cleaning
      • 8 Cleaning Agents
      • 9 Analytical Methods
      • 10 Cleaning Development Phase
      • 11 Cleaning Validation Protocol
      • 12 Validation Report
      • 13 The FDA Cleaning Validation Guideline
      • 14 Effective Cleaning Validation Maintenance Program
      • 15 Summary
    • Index

Product details

  • No. of pages: 206
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © William Andrew 2014
  • Published: November 18, 2014
  • Imprint: William Andrew
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9780323313032
  • eBook ISBN: 9780323311458

About the Editors

Rajiv Kohli

Dr. Rajiv Kohli is a leading expert with The Aerospace Corporation in contaminant particle behavior, surface cleaning, and contamination control. At the NASA Johnson Space Center in Houston, Texas, he provides technical support for contamination control related to ground-based and manned spaceflight hardware, as well as for unmanned spacecraft. His technical interests are in particle behavior, precision cleaning, solution and surface chemistry, advanced materials and chemical thermodynamics. Dr. Kohli was involved in developing solvent-based cleaning applications for use in the nuclear industry and he also developed an innovative microabrasive system for a wide variety of precision cleaning and micro-processing applications in the commercial industry. He is the senior editor of this book series “Developments in Surface Contamination and Cleaning”; the first ten volumes in the series were published in 2008, 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013 (Volumes 5 and 6), 2015 (Volumes 7 and 8), and 2017 (Volumes 9 and 10), respectively. The second edition of Volume 1 was published in 2016. Volume 11 and Volume 12 (this volume) are expected to be published in 2019. Previously, Dr. Kohli co-authored the book “Commercial Utilization of Space: An International Comparison of Framework Conditions”, and he has published more than 270 technical papers, articles and reports on precision cleaning, advanced materials, chemical thermodynamics, environmental degradation of materials, and technical and economic assessment of emerging technologies. Dr. Kohli was recognized for his contributions to NASA’s Space Shuttle Return to Flight effort with the Public Service Medal, one of the agency’s highest awards.

Affiliations and Expertise

National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Houston, TX, USA

Kashmiri L. Mittal

Dr. Kashmiri (Kash) Mittal was associated with IBM from 1972 to 1994. Currently, he is teaching and consulting in the areas of adhesion science and technology and in surface contamination and cleaning. He is the founding editor of the Journal of Adhesion Science and Technology and is editor of more than 130 published books, many of them dealing with surface contamination and cleaning. In 2002, the Kash Mittal Award was inaugurated for his extensive efforts and significant contributions to the field of colloid and interface chemistry. Among his numerous awards, Dr. Mittal was awarded the title honoris causa by the Maria Curie-Sklodowska University in Lubin, Poland in 2003. Currently, he is teaching and consulting in the areas of surface contamination and cleaning and in adhesion science and technology.

Affiliations and Expertise

Editor, Reviews of Adhesion and Adhesives, USA

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