Determinants of Neuronal Identity - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780126382808, 9780323141543

Determinants of Neuronal Identity

1st Edition

Editors: Marty Shankland
eBook ISBN: 9780323141543
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 28th April 1992
Page Count: 544
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Determinants of Neuronal Identity brings together studies of a wide range of vertebrate and invertebrate organisms that highlight the determinants of neuronal identity. Emphasis of this book is on how neurons are generated; how their developmental identities are specified; and to what degree those identities can be subsequently modified to meet the changing needs of the organism. This book also considers various techniques used in the analysis of different organisms. This volume is comprised of 15 chapters; the first of which introduces the reader to the specification of neuronal identity in Caenorhabditis elegans. The discussion then turns to neurogenesis and segmental homology in the leech, as well as intrinsic and extrinsic factors influencing the development of Retzius neurons in the leech nervous system. Drosophila is discussed next, with particular reference to neuronal diversity in the embryonic central nervous system, cell choice and patterning in the retina, and development of the peripheral nervous system. Other chapters explore endocrine influences on the postembryonic fates of neurons during insect metamorphosis; neuron determination in the nervous system of Hydra and in the mammalian cerebral cortex; and segregation of cell lineage in the vertebrate neural crest. This book will help scientists and active researchers in synthesizing a conceptual framework for further studies of neuronal specification.

Table of Contents



1 Specification of Neuronal Identity in Caenorhabditis elegans

I. Introduction

II. Early Neurogenesis

III. Cell Type Specification and Differentiation (Late Neurogenesis)

IV. Prospects


2 Segmental Differentiation of Lineally Homologous Neurons in the Central Nervous System of the Leech

I. Introduction

II. Leech Neuroanatomy

III. Neurogenesis and Segmental Homology

IV. Determination of Neuronal Phenotype by Cell Lineage History

V. Determination of Neuronal Phenotype by Postmitotic Cell Interactions

VI. Spatial Patterning of Neuronal Differentiation


3 Control of Central Neurogenesis in the Leech

I. Introduction

II. Early Neurogenesis in the Leech

III. Significant Segmental Differences in Cell Number in the Ventral Nerve Cord

IV. Birth of Extra Neurons in the Sex Ganglia Depends on Their Innervation of the Male Genitalia

V. What are the Precursors of the Peripherally Induced Central Neurons?

VI. What is the Nature of the Mitogenic Signal?


4 Intrinsic and Extrinsic Factors Influencing the Development of Retzius Neurons in the Leech Nervous System

I. Introduction

II. Adult Properties of Retzius Neurons

III. Influences of Intrinsic Properties and Early Interactions

IV. Later Peripheral Interactions

V. Summary


5 The Generation of Neuronal Diversity in the Drosophila Embryonic Central Nervous System

I. Neuroblast Formation

II. Generation of Neuronal Diversity

III. Gene Regulatory Hierarchies in the Central Nervous System

IV. Perspectives


6 Initial Determination of the Neuroectoderm in Drosophila

I. Introduction

II. The Neural-Epidermal Decision

III. Genetic Mechanisms in the Neural-Epidermal Decision: Controlling Gene Expression

IV. Genetic Mechanisms in the Neural-Epidermal Decision: Genes Taking Part in Interactions between Cells

V. The Neural-Epidermal Decision: Tilting the Balance and Keeping it Tilted

VI. Conclusion


7 Cell Choice and Patterning in the Drosophila Retina

I. Introduction

II. Structure of the Compound Eye

III. Description of Eye Development

IV. Developmental Analysis of the Retina

V. The Role of Specific Genes in Regulating Eye Development

VI. Perspective


8 Development of the Peripheral Nervous System in Drosophila

I. Introduction

II. A Progressive Process

III. Acquisition of Competence

IV. Singling out the Sensory Mother Cell

V. Differentiating the Sensory Mother Cell

VI. Differentiating the Neuron

VII. Programming Diversity

Appendix: Genetic Methods and Tools


9 Endocrine Influences on the Postembryonic Fates of Identified Neurons During Insect Metamorphosis

I. Introduction

II. Description of the Life Cycle and Hormones of Manduca

III. Metamorphic Fates of Identified Neurons

IV. Conclusions


10 Neuron Determination in the Ever-Changing Nervous System of Hydra

I. Introduction

II. The Nervous System of Hydra

III. The Nerve Net is Dynamic

IV. Neuron Cell Lineages

V. Commitment of Multipotent Stem Cells to Neuronal Differentiation

VI. Neuronal Phenotype is Position-Dependent

VII. Basis of Position-Dependent Conversion

VIII. Summary


11 Cell Lineage Segregation in the Vertebrate Neural Crest

I. Introduction

II. Developmental Potential of Neural Crest Cell Populations

III. Evidence That Individual Neural Crest Cells are Multipotent

IV. Evidence for Subpopulations at Stages of Neural Crest Cell Migration

V. Evidence for Neural Crest Sublineages at Postmigratory Stages

VI. Role of Growth Factors in Neural Crest Cell Differentiation

VII. Phenotypic Plasticity in Neural-Crest-Derived Ganglia

VIII. Conclusions Regarding Mechanism s of Cell-Type Segregation in the Neural Crest


12 The Determination of Neuronal Identity in the Mammalian Cerebral Cortex

I. Introduction

II. Organization and Development of the Mammalian Cerebral Cortex

III. Mechanisms of Neuronal Determination

IV. Axon Outgrowth in the Developing Cerebral Cortex

V. Summary


13 Generation of Neuronal Diversity in the Vertebrate Retina

I. Introduction

II. The Embryology of the Eye

III. Sensory Retinal Histogenesis

IV. Mechanisms of Cell Determination in the Sensory Retina

V. Conclusions


14 Development of Motoneuronal Identity in the Zebrafish

I. Introduction

II. Early Patterning of the Embryo

III. Differentiation of the Nervous System

IV. Criteria for Identification of Primary Motoneurons

V. Development of Primary Motoneuronal Identity

VI. Conclusions


15 Cellular and Molecular Mechanisms Determining Neurotransmitter Phenotypes in Sympathetic Neurons

I. Introduction

II. Neurotransmitter Phenotypes of Sympathetic Neurons

III. A System for Studying Cholinergic Sympathetic Neurons: Sweat Gland Innervation

IV. Developmental History of Sympathetic Neurons

V. Molecules That Specify Neurotransmitter Phenotype

VI. Transient Catecholaminergic Cells of the Gut also Change Their Phenotype

VII. Effects of the Alteration in Transmitter Properties on Target Function

VIII. Summary and Conclusions




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© Academic Press 1992
Academic Press
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About the Editor

Marty Shankland

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