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In this completely updated and revised edition of Designing with the Mind in Mind, Jeff Johnson provides you with just enough background in perceptual and cognitive psychology that user interface (UI) design guidelines make intuitive sense rather than being just a list or rules to follow.
Early UI practitioners were trained in cognitive psychology, and developed UI design rules based on it. But as the field has evolved since the first edition of this book, designers enter the field from many disciplines. Practitioners today have enough experience in UI design that they have been exposed to design rules, but it is essential that they understand the psychology behind the rules in order to effectively apply them.
In this new edition, you'll find new chapters on human choice and decision making, hand-eye coordination and attention, as well as new examples, figures, and explanations throughout.
- Provides an essential source for user interface design rules and how, when, and why to apply them
- Arms designers with the science behind each design rule, allowing them to make informed decisions in projects, and to explain those decisions to others
- Equips readers with the knowledge to make educated tradeoffs between competing rules, project deadlines, and budget pressures
- Completely updated and revised, including additional coverage on human choice and decision making, hand-eye coordination and attention, and new mobile and touch-screen examples throughout
Interface designers and developers, software designers, web designers, web application designers, interaction designers, appliance designers and developers, information architects, usability engineers, usability evaluators and development managers, students and teachers in computer science, graphic design, HCI, and usability.
User-Interface Design Rules: Where do they come from and how can they be used Effectively?
User-Interface Design and Evaluation Requires Understanding and Experience
Comparing User-Interface Design Guidelines
Where do Design Guidelines come from?
Intended Audience of this Book
Chapter 1. Our Perception is Biased
Perception Biased by Experience
Perception Biased by Current Context
Perception Biased by Goals
Taking Biased Perception into Account When Designing
Chapter 2. Our Vision is Optimized to See Structure
Gestalt Principle: Proximity
Gestalt Principle: Similarity
Gestalt Principle: Continuity
Gestalt Principle: Closure
Gestalt Principle: Symmetry
Gestalt Principle: Figure/Ground
Gestalt Principle: Common Fate
Gestalt Principles: Combined
Chapter 3. We Seek and Use Visual Structure
Structure Enhances People’s Ability to Scan Long Numbers
Data-Specific Controls Provide Even More Structure
Visual Hierarchy Lets People Focus on the Relevant Information
Chapter 4. Our Color Vision is Limited
How Color Vision Works
Vision is Optimized for Contrast, Not Brightness
The Ability to Discriminate Colors Depends on How Colors are Presented
External Factors that Influence the Ability to Distinguish Colors
Guidelines for Using Color
Chapter 5. Our Peripheral Vision is Poor
Resolution of the Fovea Compared to the Periphery
Is the Visual Periphery Good for Anything?
Examples from Computer User Interfaces
Common Methods of Making Messages Visible
Heavy Artillery for Making Users Notice Messages
Visual Search is Linear Unless Targets “Pop” in the Periphery
Chapter 6. Reading is Unnatural
We’re Wired for Language, but not for Reading
Is Reading Feature-Driven or Context-Driven?
Skilled and Unskilled Reading use Different Parts of the Brain
Poor Information Design can Disrupt Reading
Much of the Reading Required by Software is Unnecessary
Test on Real Users
Chapter 7. Our Attention is Limited; Our Memory is Imperfect
Short- Versus Long-Term Memory
A Modern View of Memory
Characteristics of Attention and Working Memory
Implications of Working Memory Characteristics for User-Interface Design
Characteristics of Long-Term Memory
Implications of Long-Term Memory Characteristics for User-Interface Design
Chapter 8. Limits on Attention Shape Our Thought and Action
We Focus on Our Goals and Pay Little Attention to Our Tools
We Notice Things More When they are Related to Our Goals
We Use External Aids to Keep Track of What we are Doing
We Follow the Information “Scent” Toward Our Goal
We Prefer Familiar Paths
Our Thought Cycle: Goal, Execute, Evaluate
After We Achieve a task’s Primary Goal, We Often Forget Cleanup Steps
Chapter 9. Recognition is Easy; Recall is Hard
Recognition is Easy
Recall is Hard
Recognition Versus Recall: Implications for User-Interface Design
Chapter 10. Learning from Experience and Performing Learned Actions are Easy; Novel Actions, Problem Solving, and Calculation are Hard
We have Three Brains
We have Two Minds
Learning from Experience is (Usually) Easy
Performing Learned Actions is Easy
Performing Novel Actions is Hard
Problem Solving and Calculation are Hard
Implications for User-Interface Design
Answers to Puzzles
Chapter 11. Many Factors Affect Learning
We Learn Faster when Practice is Frequent, Regular, and Precise
We Learn Faster when Operation is Task Focused, Simple, and Consistent
We Learn Faster when Vocabulary is Task Focused, Familiar, and Consistent
When Risk is Low, we Explore More and Learn More
Chapter 12. Human Decision Making is Rarely Rational
People are Often Irrational
Losses Mean More to us Than Gains
We are Biased by how Choices are Worded
We are Biased by Our Vivid Imaginations and Memories
Exploiting Strengths and Weaknesses of Human Cognition
Chapter 13. Our Hand–Eye Coordination Follows Laws
Fitts’ Law: Pointing at Displayed Targets
Steering Law: Moving Pointers Along Constrained Paths
Chapter 14. We Have Time Requirements
The Many Time Constants of the Human Brain
Engineering Approximations of time Constants: Orders of Magnitude
Designing to Meet Real-Time Human Interaction Deadlines
Additional Guidelines for Achieving Responsive Interactive Systems
Achieving Responsiveness is Important
Appendix. Well-known User-Interface Design Rules
Shneiderman (1987); Shneiderman and Plaisant (2009)
Nielsen and Molich (1990)
Nielsen and Mack (1994)
Stone et al. (2005)
- No. of pages:
- © Morgan Kaufmann 2014
- 7th February 2014
- Morgan Kaufmann
- eBook ISBN:
- Paperback ISBN:
Jeff Johnson is an Assistant Professor of Computer Science at the University of San Francisco. He is also a principal at Wiser Usability, a consultancy focused on elder usability. After earning B.A. and Ph.D. degrees from Yale and Stanford, he worked as a UI designer, implementer, manager, usability tester, and researcher at Cromemco, Xerox, US West, Hewlett-Packard, and Sun. He has taught at Stanford, Mills, and the University of Canterbury. He is a member of the ACM SIGCHI Academy and a recipient of SIGCHI's Lifetime Achievement in Practice Award. He has authored articles on a variety of topics in HCI, as well as the books GUI Bloopers (1st and 2nd eds.), Web Bloopers, Designing with the Mind in Mind (1st and 2nd eds.), Conceptual Models: Core to Good Design (with Austin Henderson), and Designing User Interfaces for an Aging Population (with Kate Finn).
President and Principal Consultant, UI Wizards, Inc.
"The clear writing style, comprehensive coverage of common design decisions, and the reference to human psychology that provide the theoretical support for these decisions make it a solid addition to your personal or professional library."--User Experience Magazine, 2014
“Even if you are working for many years in the field of UX, it is worth reading this book…you learn a lot of interesting background information that can help one to question existing rules, to consider their own experiences and to establish well-founded decisions.”--UsabilityBlog.de, July 10, 2014.
"...easy and captivating reading, something not commonly encountered in a nonfiction work on an important subject…software developers and anyone else who may be concerned with designing good user interfaces should read this book."--ComputingReviews.com, Aug 28, 2014.
"…the authors provide an excellent selection of topics and examples that constitutes necessary knowledge for everyone involved in designing user interfaces, and perhaps even all software engineers…The book is easy to read for novice audiences, students and particularly practitioners. It is well illustrated with plenty of examples."--HCI International News, May 2014
"…guide to user interface design based on the science of human perception and memory. Each chapter focus on a particular limiting aspect of the human mind, including priming or experience bias in our perceptions, looking for visual structure, poor quality of color and peripheral vision, the high cognitive load of reading…"--ProtoView.com, April 2014
"What's really good about the book is that Johnson provides ample details about the topic, but doesn't reduce it to so just a set of rules or mind-numbing (and thusly unreadable) checklists. His synopsis of the topics provides the reader with a broad understanding of the topic and what they need to do in order to ensure effective UI design is executed."--SlashDot.org, April 28, 2014
"In this valuable traversal of human cognition, Jeff Johnson illuminates its operation and exposes everyday fallacies and misunderstandings through examples and explanations. The results provide a useful education for everyone, but one that is essential for designers. If you are curious about the human mind, you will enjoy this book: if you are a designer, you need it."--Don Norman, Nielsen Norman group and Author of Design of Everyday Things, revised and expanded edition
"Need to know about how things really work in the mind of your users? Designing with the Mind in Mind is a treasure trove, packed with insightful information about the cognitive pitfalls, perceptual glitches, and usability errors that plague user interfaces. DWTMIM is a book every designer needs to read, if only to understand why your brilliant user experience might not actually work in reality, and what brain science suggests you do about fixing it."--Dan Russell, Senior Research Scientist, Search Quality, Google
"Several excellent books ago, Jeff Johnson figured out that the way to reveal user interface design is to emphasize concrete examples. This book is organized around 14 fundamental and wide-ranging insights about human psychology that are vividly grounded and applied in design examples. The book will be useful to professionals who can quickly inform or remind themselves of how user interface design guidelines work, and it will engage and equip students entering this exciting area."--John M. Carroll, Distinguished Professor of Information Sciences and Technology, The Pennsylvania State University
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