Desert Biology - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780121359027, 9781483216638

Desert Biology

1st Edition

Special Topics on the Physical and Biological Aspects of Arid Regions

Editors: G. W. Brown
eBook ISBN: 9781483216638
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 28th January 1974
Page Count: 620
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Description

Desert Biology: Special Topics on the Physical and Biological Aspects of Arid Regions, Volume II records the conditions and life in the arid regions of the world.

This book discusses the hydrogeology of arid regions, desert soil surfaces and classes, and physical and vegetational aspects of the Sahara Desert. The Piman Indians of the Sonoran Desert, approach to the water relations of desert plants, desert arthropods, and aquatic environments of deserts are also considered.

Other topics include the artificial changes in the hydrogeology of deserts, soils of individual world deserts, rainfall and water supply of desert plants, and ecological plant types in arid regions. The hydrature in true xerophytes, chloride accumulation in halophytes, and biological response to desert water conditions are likewise covered in this publication.

This volume is recommended for researchers and specialists interested in the hot, dry regions of the planet.

Table of Contents


List of Contributors

Preface

Contents of Volume I

Chapter I. Hydrogeology of Arid Regions

I. Introduction

II. Laws of Groundwater Motion

III. Applications of Flow Equations

IV. Groundwater Recharge

V. Circulation of Groundwater

VI. Groundwater Discharge

VII. Water Quality

VIII. Large-Scale Groundwater Circulation

IX. Artificial Changes in the Hydrogeology of Deserts

References

Chapter II. Desert Soils

I. Introduction

II. Desert Soil Surfaces and Classes

III. Characteristic Desert Subsurface Horizons

IV. Desert Soil Suborders and Great Groups

V. Physical Desert Surfaces

VI. Accumulations in Desert Soils

VII. Desert Soils as a Medium for Plants

VIII. Desert Soils and Microorganisms

IX. Soils of Individual World Deserts

X. Concluding Statement

References

Chapter III. Physical and Vegetational Aspects of the Sahara Desert

I. Introduction

II. Physical Environment of the Sahara Desert

III. Vegetation in the Sahara Desert

References

Chapter IV. Desert Algae, Lichens, and Fungi

I. Desert Algae

II. Desert Lichens

III. Desert Fungi

IV. Addendum

References

Chapter V. A New Approach to the Water Relations of Desert Plants

I. Introduction

II. Rainfall and Water Supply of Desert Plants

III. "Diffuse" and "Contracted" Vegetation

IV. The Significance of Soil Texture for the Water Supply of Desert Plants

V. Distinctive Features of Deserts

VI. Hydration of Protoplasm and Osmotic Potential

VII. Plant Hydrature and Environmental Water Conditions

VIII. Diurnal Fluctuation of the Osmotic Potential (ψ8)

IX. Annual Variations of the Osmotic Potential (ψ8)

X. The Ecological Types of Desert Plants

XI. Osmotic Quantities and Importance of Hydrature for Growth and Xeromorphism

XII. Osmotic Potential (ψ8), Growth, and Production of Organic Matter

XIII. The Relation Between the Osmotic Potential (ψ8) and the Anatomical and Morphological Characteristics of Plants

XIV. The Ecological Plant Types in Arid Regions

XV. Hydrature in True Xerophytes

XVI. The Hydrature of Succulents

XVII. Saline Soils in Arid Regions

XVIII. Halophytes and Salt Uptake

XIX. The Effects of Ions on Protoplasm

XX. Chloride Accumulation in Halophytes

XXI. Types of Halophytes

References

Chapter VI. Desert Arthropods

I. Introduction

II. The Insect Organization

III. Water Balance

IV. Tolerance of Water Depletion and of High Temperatures

V. Body Temperature in the Field

VI. Morphological Adaptations, Including Surface Color

VII. Phenology and Behavior

VIII. Conclusion

IX. Summary

References

Chapter VII. Desert Fishes

I. Introduction

II. Aquatic Environments of Deserts

III. General Ecology

IV. Biological Response to Desert Water Conditions

Addendum

References

Chapter VIII. Man in Arid Lands: The Piman Indians of the Sonoran Desert

I. Man in the Desert

II. The Sonoran Desert Setting

III. Piman Indians

IV. Conclusions

References

Chapter IX. Man in Arid Lands: North From Jiddah

Jiddah

Outside Medina

In Camp

In Camp

Zummurrud

Mada' in Salih

Notes on the Nabateans

Author Index

Subject Index

Systematic Index

Details

No. of pages:
620
Language:
English
Copyright:
© Academic Press 1974
Published:
Imprint:
Academic Press
eBook ISBN:
9781483216638

About the Editor

G. W. Brown