Descriptive Physical Oceanography

Descriptive Physical Oceanography

An Introduction

6th Edition - April 6, 2011
This is the Latest Edition
  • Author: Lynne Talley
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9780750645522
  • eBook ISBN: 9780080939117

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Description

Descriptive Physical Oceanography, Sixth Edition, provides an introduction to the field with an emphasis on large-scale oceanography based mainly on observations. Topics covered include the physical properties of seawater, heat and salt budgets, instrumentation, data analysis methods, introductory dynamics, oceanography and climate variability of each of the oceans and of the global ocean, and brief introductions to the physical setting, waves, and coastal oceanography. This updated version contains ocean basin descriptions, including ocean climate variability, emphasizing dynamical context; new chapters on global ocean circulation and introductory ocean dynamics; and a new companion website containing PowerPoint figures, lecture and study guides, and practical exercises for analyzing a global ocean data set using Java OceanAtlas. This text is ideal for undergraduates and graduate students in marine sciences and oceanography.

Key Features

  • Expanded ocean basin descriptions, including ocean climate variability, emphasizing dynamical context
  • New chapters on global ocean circulation and introductory ocean dynamics
  • Companion website containing PowerPoint figures, supplemental chapters, and practical exercises for analyzing a global ocean data set using Java OceanAtlas

Readership

Advanced undergraduates and graduate students in the marine sciences and oceanography.

Table of Contents

  • Preface

    Chapter 1. Introduction to Descriptive Physical Oceanography

    1.1. Overview

    1.2. Space and TimeScales of Physical Oceanographic Phenomena

    Chapter 2. Ocean Dimensions, Shapes, and Bottom Materials

    2.1. Dimensions

    2.2. Plate Tectonics and Deep-Sea Topography

    2.3. Seafloor Features

    2.4. Spatial Scales

    2.5. Shore, Coast, and Beach

    2.6. Continental Shelf, Slope, and Rise

    2.7. Deep Ocean

    2.8. Sills, Straits, and Passages

    2.9. Methods for Mapping Bottom Topography

    2.10. Bottom Material

    2.11. Ocean Basins

    Chapter 3. Physical Properties of Seawater

    3.1. Molecular Properties of Water

    3.2. Pressure

    3.3. Thermal Properties of Seawater: Temperature, Heat, and Potential Temperature

    3.4. Salinity and Conductivity

    3.5. Density of Seawater

    3.6. Tracers

    3.7. Sound in the Sea

    3.8. Light and the Sea

    3.9. Ice in the Sea

    Chapter 4. Typical Distributions of Water Characteristics

    4.1. Introduction

    4.2. Temperature Distribution of the Oceans

    4.3. Salinity Distribution

    4.4. Density Distribution

    4.5. Dissolved Oxygen

    4.6. Nutrients and Other Tracers

    4.7. Age, Turnover Time, and Ventilation Rate

    4.8. Optical Properties of Seawater

    Chapter 5. Mass, Salt, and Heat Budgets and Wind Forcing

    5.1. Conservation of Volume and Mass

    5.2. Conservation of Salt

    5.3. Three Examples of the two Conservation Principles

    5.4. Conservation of Heat Energy; the Heat Budget

    5.5. Geographic Distribution and Temporal Variation of the Heat-Budget Terms

    5.6. Meridional Heat Transport

    5.7. Buoyancy Fluxes

    5.8. Wind Forcing

    Chapter 6. Data Analysis Concepts and Observational Methods

    6.1. Oceanographic Sampling

    6.2. Observational Error

    6.3. Basic Statistical Concepts

    6.4. Variation in Space: Profiles, Vertical Sections, and Horizontal Maps

    6.5. Variation in Time

    6.6. Multidimensional Sampling

    6.7. Water Property (Water Mass) Analyses

    Chapter 7. Dynamical Processes for Descriptive Ocean Circulation

    7.1. Introduction: Mechanisms

    7.2. Momentum Balance

    7.3. Temperature, Salinity, and Density Evolution

    7.4. Mixing Layers

    7.5. Response to Wind Forcing

    7.6. Geostrophic Balance

    7.7. Vorticity, Potential Vorticity, Rossby and Kelvin Waves, and Instabilities

    7.8. Wind-Driven Circulation: Sverdrup Balance and Western Boundary Currents

    7.9. Wind-Driven Circulation: Eastern Boundary Currents and Equatorial Circulation

    7.10. Buoyancy (Thermohaline) Forcing and Abyssal Circulation

    Chapter 8. Gravity Waves, Tides, and Coastal Oceanography

    8.1. Introduction

    8.2. General Properties of Waves

    8.3. Surface Gravity Waves

    8.4. Internal Gravity Waves

    8.5. Large-Scale Continental Shelf and Coastal-Trapped Waves

    8.6. Tides

    8.7. Water Properties in Coastal Regions: River Runoff

    8.8. Estuaries

    8.9. Coral Reefs

    8.10. Adjacent Seas

    Chapter 9. Atlantic Ocean

    9.1. Introduction and Overview

    9.2. Forcing

    9.3. North Atlantic Circulation

    9.4. Tropical Atlantic Circulation

    9.5. South Atlantic Circulation

    9.6. Depth Dependence of the Atlantic Ocean Circulation

    9.7. Meridional Overturning Circulation in the Atlantic

    9.8. Atlantic Ocean Water Masses

    9.9. Climate and the Atlantic Ocean

    Chapter 10. Pacific Ocean

    10.1. Introduction and Overview

    10.2. Wind and Buoyancy Forcing

    10.3. North Pacific Circulation

    10.4. South Pacific Circulation

    10.5. Pacific Ocean Mesoscale Eddy Variability

    10.6. Depth Dependence of the Pacific Ocean Circulation and Meridional Overturn

    10.7. Tropical Pacific Circulation and Water Properties

    10.8. El Niño/ La Niña and The Southern Oscillation (ENSO)

    10.9. Pacific Ocean Water Masses

    10.10. Decadal Climate Variability and Climate Change

    Chapter 11. Indian Ocean

    11.1. Introduction and Overview

    11.2. Wind and Buoyancy Forcing

    11.3. Monsoonal and Tropical Ocean Circulation

    11.4. South Indian Ocean Subtropical Circulation

    11.5. Indonesian Throughflow

    11.6. Red Sea and Persian Gulf Outflows

    11.7. Intermediate and Deep Circulation

    11.8. Water Masses

    11.9. Climate and the Indian Ocean

    Chapter 12. Arctic Ocean and Nordic Seas

    12.1. Introduction

    12.2. The Nordic Seas

    12.3. Baffin Bay and Hudson Bay

    12.4. Arctic Ocean: Circulation and Ice Drift

    12.5. Arctic Ocean Water Masses

    12.6. Arctic Ocean Transports and Budgets

    12.7. Sea Ice in the Arctic

    12.8. Climate Variations and the Arctic

    Chapter 13. Southern Ocean

    13.1. Introduction

    13.2. Forcing

    13.3. Southern Ocean Fronts and Zones

    13.4. Southern Ocean Circulation and Transports

    13.5. Southern Ocean Water Masses

    13.6. Eddies in the Southern Ocean

    13.7. Sea Ice in the Southern Ocean

    13.8. Climate Variability in the Southern Ocean

    Chapter 14. Global Circulation and Water Properties

    14.1. Global Circulation

    14.2. Global Mass Transports and Overturning Circulation

    14.3. Heat and Freshwater Transports and Ocean Circulation

    14.4. Global Property Distributions

    14.5. Eddy Variability and Diffusivity

    14.6. Climate and the Global Ocean

    Chapter S1. Brief History of Physical Oceanography

    S1.1. Scientists on Ships

    S1.2. Organized Expeditions Prior to the Twentieth Century

    S1.3. Scandinavian Contributions and the Dynamic Method

    S1.4. The Meteor Expedition

    S1.5. World War II and Mid-Twentieth Century Physical Oceanography

    S1.6. A Brief History of Numerical Modeling in Physical Oceanography

    Chapter S4. Typical Distributions of Water Characteristics

    Chapter S5. Mass, Salt, and Heat Budgets and Wind Forcing

    Chapter S6. Data Analysis Concepts and Observational Methods

    Chapter S7. Dynamical Processes for Descriptive Ocean Circulation

    7.1. Introduction: Mechanisms

    7.2. Momentum Balance

    7.3. Temperature, Salinity, and Density Evolution

    7.4. Mixing Layers

    7.5. Response to Wind Forcing

    7.6. Geostrophic Balance

    7.7. Vorticity, Potential Vorticity, Rossby and Kelvin Waves, and Instabilities

    7.8. Wind-Driven Circulation: Sverdrup Balance and Western Boundary Currents

    7.9. Wind-Driven Circulation: Eastern Boundary Currents and Equatorial Circulation

    7.10. Buoyancy (Thermohaline) Forcing and Abyssal Circulation

    Chapter S8. Gravity Waves, Tides, and Coastal Oceanography

    S8.7. Water Properties in Coastal Regions: River Runoff

    S8.8. Estuaries

    S8.9. Coral Reefs

    S8.10. Adjacent Seas

    Chapter S9. Atlantic Ocean

    Chapter S10. Pacific Ocean

    Chapter S11. Indian Ocean: Supplementary Materials

    Chapter S12. The Arctic Ocean and Nordic Seas

    Chapter S13. Southern Ocean

    Chapter S14. Global Circulation and Water Properties

    Chapter S15. Climate and the Oceans

    S15.1. Introduction

    S15.2. Climate and the Atlantic Ocean

    S15.3. Climate and the Pacific Ocean

    S15.4. Climate and the Indian Ocean

    S15.5. Climate and the Arctic Ocean

    S15.6. Climate and the Southern Ocean

    S15.7. Global Ocean Climate Change

    Chapter S16. Instruments and Methods

    S16.1. The Impact of Space and Timescales on Sampling and Instrumentation

    S16.2. Platforms

    S16.3. Depth and Pressure Measurements

    S16.4. Water Property Measurements (Temperature, Salinity, Density, and Tracers)

    S16.5. Current Measurements

    S16.6. Acoustic Methods for Observing Changes in Temperature or Density

    S16.7. Sea-Level Measurement

    S16.8. Radiation and Optical Measurements

    S16.9. Satellites

    s16.10. Data Archives and Data Centers

    References

    Color Plates

    Index

    Added Refs from Supplemental Material

Product details

  • No. of pages: 564
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Academic Press 2011
  • Published: April 6, 2011
  • Imprint: Academic Press
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9780750645522
  • eBook ISBN: 9780080939117
  • About the Author

    Lynne Talley

    Lynne Talley is a Professor of Oceanography at Scripps Institution of Oceanography (SIO), University of California San Diego. Lynne is a seagoing oceanographer with research interests in the water mass distributions and circulation of the world ocean. She is a graduate of Oberlin College (B.A. in physics) and the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution/Massachusetts Institute of Technology Joint Program (Ph.D. in physical oceanography). She has been an editor of the Journal of Physical Oceanography and has served on the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (AR4 and AR5), many committees of the National Academy of Sciences, and planning and steering committees for major field programs, including the World Ocean Circulation Experiment (WOCE) of the 1990s and the U.S. Global Ocean Carbon and Repeat Hydrography Program. She is a Fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, the American Geophysical Union, the Oceanography Society, and the American Meteorological Society.

    Affiliations and Expertise

    Scripps Inst. of Oceanography, UCSD, La Jolla, CA, USA