Descriptive Physical Oceanography

Descriptive Physical Oceanography

An Introduction

4th Edition - January 1, 1982

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  • Authors: George L. Pickard, William J. Emery
  • eBook ISBN: 9781483278773

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Descriptive Physical Oceanography: An Introduction, Fourth Enlarged Edition considers the synoptic or descriptive aspects of physical oceanography with considerable illustrative materials and some 45 additional figures. This book is divided into nine chapters, and begins with an introduction to the basic goal of physical oceanographic study. The next chapters describe the features of the ocean basins, physical properties of seawater, and the ocean's distribution of water characteristics. These topics are followed by discussions of the conservation of seawater volume and salt; the techniques and methods of physical oceanography; and the general features of the main ocean circulations, as well as the circulation and character of the water masses in the individual oceans. The final chapters examine some of the characteristics of coastal oceanography. This book will prove useful to undergraduate and graduate students with oceanography and related subjects.

Table of Contents

  • Chapter 1 Introduction

    Chapter 2 Ocean Dimensions, Shapes and Bottom Materials

    2.1 Dimensions

    2.2 Sea-floor dimensions

    2.21 Scales

    2.22 Shore

    2.23 Continental shelf

    2.24 Continental slope and rise

    2.25 Deep-sea bottom and sounding

    2.26 Sills

    2.3 Bottom material

    Chapter 3 Physical Properties of Sea-Water

    3.1 Vocabulary

    3.2 Properties of pure water

    3.3 Salinity and conductivity

    3.4 Temperature

    3.5 Density

    3.51 Units for density

    3.52 Effects of salinity and temperature on density

    3.53 Effect of pressure on density

    3.54 Specific volume and anomaly

    3.55 Tables for density and specific volume anomaly

    3.6 Other characteristic properties

    3.7 Sound in the sea

    3.8 Light in the sea

    3.9 Colour of sea-water

    Chapter 4 Typical Distributions of Water Characteristics in the Oceans

    4.1 Introduction

    4.11 General

    4.12 Collection and analysis of data

    4.13 General statistics and area descriptions

    4.2 Density distribution

    4.21 Density at the surface

    4.22 Subsurface density and the pycnocline

    4.23 Static stability

    4.24 Geographic distribution of density

    4.3 Temperature distribution

    4.31 Surface temperature

    4.32 Upper layers and the thermocline

    4.33 Temporal variations of temperature in the upper layer

    4.34 Deep water; potential temperature

    4.4 Salinity distribution

    4.41 Surface salinity

    4.42 Upper-layer salinity

    4.43 Deep-water salinity

    4.44 Temporal variations of salinity

    4.5 Dissolved oxygen distribution

    4.6 Other water-motion tracers

    Chapter 5 Water, Salt and Heat Budgets of the Oceans

    5.1 Conservation of volume

    5.2 Conservation of salt

    5.21 Principle

    5.22 Two examples of applications of the two conservation principles

    5.3 Conservation of Heat Energy; the Heat Budget

    5.31 Heat-budget terms

    5.32 Short- and long-wave radiation; elements of radiation theory

    5.33 Short-wave radiation (Qs)

    5.34 Long-wave radiation (Qh)

    5.35 Heat conduction (Qh)

    5.36 Evaporation (Qe)

    5.37 Geographic distribution of heat-budget terms

    Chapter 6 Instruments and Methods

    6.1 Introduction

    6.2 Instruments

    6.21 Winches, wire, etc.

    6.22 Depth measurement

    6.23 Current measurement

    6.24 Water properties

    6.25 Expendable instruments

    6.26 Radiation measurement

    6.27 Platform

    6.28 Age of ocean water

    6.3 Graphical presentation of data

    6.31 Variation in space; profiles and sections

    6.32 Variation in time

    6.33 Isentropic analysis

    6.34 Characteristic diagrams

    6.35 Conclusion

    Chapter 7 Circulation and Water Masses of the Oceans

    7.1 Introduction

    7.11 Thermohaline circulation

    7.12 Wind-driven circulation

    7.13 Circulation and water masses

    7.2 Southern Ocean

    7.21 Divisions of the Southern Ocean

    7.22 Southern Ocean circulation

    7.23 Southern Ocean water masses

    7.3 Atlantic Ocean

    7.31 Atlantic Ocean as a whole

    7.32 South Atlantic Ocean

    7.33 North Atlantic circulation: general

    7.34 Equatorial Atlantic circulation

    7.35 Atlantic Ocean water masses

    7.4 North Atlantic Adjacent Seas

    7.41 Mediterranean Sea

    7.42 Black Sea

    7.43 Baltic Sea

    7.44 Norwegian and Greenland Seas

    7.45 Labrador Sea, Baffin Bay and Hudson Bay

    7.46 Adjacent seas; inflow and outflow characteristics

    7.5 Arctic Sea

    7.51 Arctic Sea: upper-layer circulation

    7.52 Arctic Sea: water masses

    7.53 Arctic Sea budgets

    7.54 Ice in the sea

    7.6 Pacific Ocean

    7.61 Pacific Ocean circulation

    7.62 North Pacific circulation

    7.63 South Pacific circulation

    7.64 Eastern boundary currents: Peru Current and El Nino

    7.65 Pacific Ocean water masses

    7.7 Indian Ocean

    7.71 Indian Ocean circulation

    7.72 Indian Ocean water masses

    7.8 Red Sea and Persian Gulf

    Chapter 8 Coastal Oceanography

    8.1 Introduction

    8.2 Coastal upwelling

    8.3 Estuaries

    Chapter 9 Some Directions for Future Work

    Appendix Units Used in Descriptive Physical Oceanography


    Suggestions for Further Reading

    Journal and Review Article References


Product details

  • No. of pages: 264
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Pergamon 2013
  • Published: January 1, 1982
  • Imprint: Pergamon
  • eBook ISBN: 9781483278773

About the Authors

George L. Pickard

George Pickard (1913-2007) was a Professor of Oceanography at the University of British Columbia (UBC) and was Director of the UBC Institute of Oceanography from 1958 to 1978. He received his B.A. and his Ph.D. in physics from Oxford. He was appointed to the UBC physics department after service in WWII. George was a Fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, the Royal Society of Canada, and the National Geographic Society.

Affiliations and Expertise

U. of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada

William J. Emery

William J. Emery

Affiliations and Expertise

University of Colorado, Boulder, CO, USA

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