Descriptive Micrometeorology - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9781483229607, 9781483282251

Descriptive Micrometeorology

1st Edition

Authors: R. E. Munn
Editors: H. E. Landsberg J. Van Mieghem
eBook ISBN: 9781483282251
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 1st January 1966
Page Count: 260
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Description

Descriptive Micrometeorology compiles views and findings in micrometeorology, which is concerned with the surface boundary layer or thin slice of atmosphere extending from the ground up to a height of approximately 50 meters.

This book describes the micrometeorology of soil, short vegetation, forest, water, ice, snow, and built-up urban surfaces. The properties and influence of the planetary boundary layer are not included. The topics discussed include the energy balance at the earth-atmosphere boundary, radiative flux divergence, factors influencing air temperatures, and Kolmogorov similarity theory. The Eddy correlation method for measuring evaporation, radiation balance of snow and ice surfaces, heat storage and horizontal advection in water, and changes in wind patterns are also covered.

This publication is intended for meteorologists, but is also a good reference for chemists, engineers, geographers, botanists, hydrologists, health physicists, glaciologists, town planners, limnologists, oceanographers, air pollution control officers, foresters, and ecologists interested in the surface boundary layer.

Table of Contents


Foreword

Preface

1· The Earth-Atmosphere Boundary

1.1. The Scope of Micrometeorology

1.2. The Energy Balance at the Earth-Atmosphere Boundary

1.3. Models in Micrometeorology

1.4. Micrometeorology and Microclimatology

2. Short-Wave Radiation at the Earth's Surface

2.1. The Spectrum of Radiation

2.2. The Effect of Temperature on Radiant Energy

2.3. The Energy from the Sun at the Outer Edge of the Atmosphere

2.4. Depletion of Solar Energy by the Atmosphere

2.5. Optical Air Mass

2.6. An Illustrative Example

2.7. Reflection by the Earth's Surface QR

2.8. The Estimation and Measurement of QT and QR

3. Long-Wave Radiation at the Earth's Surface

3.1. Long-Wave Radiation from the Earth's Surface QL↑

3.2. Long-Wave Radiation from the Sky QL↓

3.3. Radiative Flux Divergence

3.4. Measurement of Long-Wave and Net Radiation

4. Soil Temperature and Moisture

4.1. Surface Temperature

4.2. Subsurface Soil Temperatures

4.3. Moisture in Bare Soil

4.4. Evapotranspiration

4.5. The Lysimeter

5. Soil Heat Transfer

5.1. Heat Transfer in a Solid

5.2. The Fourier Heat Conduction Equation in One Dimension

5.3. Experimental Methods

5.4. Some Estimates of Soil Heat Flux

5.5. Soil Moisture Flux

6. Air Temperature and Humidity near the Earth's Surface

6.1. Factors Influencing Air Temperatures

6.2. Diurnal and Annual Patterns of Air Temperature Differences

6.3. Precipitation and Fog

6.4. Humidity Near the Earth's Surface

6.5. The Measurement of Temperature and Mixing Ratio

7. Wind Flow Over Homogeneous Surfaces

7.1. The Essential Problem

7.2. Dimensional Analysis and Similarity Theory

7.3. Viscosity and Shearing Stress

7.4. The Vertical Wind Profile in the Absence of Buoyancy

7.5. The Vertical Wind Profile in a Nonadiabatic Atmosphere

7.6. The Measurement of Mean Wind and Surface Shearing Stress

8. Turbulence over Homogeneous Surfaces

8.1. The Nature of Turbulence

8.2. Some Definitions

8.3. The Problems of Normality and Intermittency in Shear Zones

8.4. The Spectrum of Turbulence

8.5. The Kolmogorov Similarity Theory

8.6. The Effect of Sampling and Smoothing Times

8.7. Correlation Coefficients and the Scale of Turbulence

8.8. Cross-Spectrum Analysis

8.9. Shearing Stress in Terms of Eddy Fluctuations

8.10. The Lagrangian Reference Frame

8.11. The Measurement of Turbulence

9. Turbulent Transfer of Heat from Homogeneous Surfaces

9.1. The Assumption of Constant Vertical Heat Flux

9.2. The Monin-Obukhov Length and the Richardson Number

9.3. The Ratio of Diffusivities KH/Km

9.4. Daytime Turbulent Heat Fluxes

9.5. Nighttime Turbulent Heat Fluxes

9.6. Viscous Dissipation and the Diabatic Wind Profile

9.7. The Eddy Correlation Method for Measuring Heat Flux

9.8. The Effect of Radiative Flux Divergence on Heat Transfer

10. Evaporation from Homogeneous Surfaces

10.1. The Evaporation Process

10.2. Some Formal Relations

10.3. The Ratio of Diffusivities

10.4. Some Recent Experimental Data

10.5. The Eddy Correlation Method for Measuring Evaporation

10.6. Some Practical Considerations

10.7. Measurement of Temperature and Water Vapor Fluctuations

11. Wind Flow Around Obstacles

11.1. The Surface of the Earth

11.2. Wind Flow Around a Cylinder

11.3. Wind Flow around Irregular Objects

11.4. The Energy Balance of an Enclosed Area

11.5. The Effect of a Tower on Wind Measurements

12. Transitional Zones and States

12.1. Introduction

12.2. The Fetch Required to Achieve Steady State Conditions Downwind from an Obstacle

12.3. The Effect of a Discrete Change in Roughness

12.4. Advection

12.5. Transitional States

13. Atmospheric Pollution

13.1. The Meteorological Problem

13.2. A Diffusion Model from Probability Theory

13.3. Taylor's Theorem

13.4. The Pasquill Diffusion Model

13.5. The Effect of a Lapse Rate on Plume Behavior

13.6. Effective Stack Height

13.7. Aerodynamic Downwash around a Building

13.8. Transitional Zones and States

14. The Air Over Bare Ground

14.1. Models and Reality

14.2. The Energy Balance of a Dry Surface

14.3. The Energy Balance of Moist Ground

14.4. The Effect of Fences and Hedges

15. The Air Over Snow and Ice Surfaces

15.1. Introduction

15.2. The Radiation Balance of Snow and Ice Surfaces

15.3. Heat Flux and Heat Storage within Snow and Ice

15.4. Wind Profiles over Snow and Ice

15.5. Temperature Profiles and Vertical Heat Transfer

15.6. Humidity Profiles and Latent Heat Transfer

16. The Energy Balance of a Plant Cover

16.1. The Air Over a Short Grass Surface

16.2. The Energy Balance of a Leaf

16.3. The Radiation Balance of a Plant Cover

16.4. Profiles within a Plant Cover

16.5. Profiles Above Plant Covers

16.6. The Energy Balance within a Plant Cover

16.7. An Alternative Notation for Fluxes

16.8. Carbon Dioxide Profiles and Fluxes

17. Forest Meteorology

17.1. The Forest: An Active Meteorological Region

17.2. The Radiation Balance of a Forest

17.3. Soil Temperature and Moisture

17.4. Forest Temperatures

17.5. Winds in the Forest

17.6. Humidity in the Forest

17.7. Heat Storage within Trees

17.8. The Energy Balance of a Forest

17.9. Additional Remarks

18. The Air Over Oceans and Large Lakes

18.1. Introduction

18.2. Some Physical Properties of Oceans and Lakes

18.3. The Radiation Balance of Oceans and Lakes

18.4. Temperature and Humidity Near the Water Surface

18.5. Wind Flow Over Water

18.6. Heat Storage and Horizontal Advection in Water

18.7. Energy Balance Calculations of a Lake or Ocean

18.8. Turbulence Over Water

19. Land and Sea Breezes

19.1. Introduction

19.2. Land and Sea Breezes During Light Geostrophic Winds

19.3. Sea Breezes When a Geostrophic Wind Is Blowing

19.4. A Mathematical Model of the Sea Breeze

19.5. Humidity Profiles Associated with Sea Breezes

19.6. The Micrometeorology of Small Islands and Lakes

20. The Air in Valleys

20.1. The Importance of Valley Meteorology

20.2. Valley Influences During Strong Geostrophic Winds

20.3. The Radiation Balance in Hilly Country

20.4. Local Wind Flows in Valleys During Light Geostrophic Winds

20.5. Temperatures and Pollution in Valleys

21. The Air Over a City

21.1. Introduction

21.2. The Radiation Balance of a City

21.3. Conductive Heat Flux QG

21.4. The Heat Generated by a City

21.5. City Temperatures

21.6. The Humidity in a City

21.7. Winds in a City

21.8. The Effect of Parks and Greenbelts

21.9. Conclusion

22. The Modification of Local Weather

22.1. Introduction

22.2. Changes in the Radiation Balance

22.3. Changes in Soil Heat Flux QG

22.4. Changes in Humidity

22.5. Changes in Wind Patterns

22.6. Other Examples of Micrometeorological Weather Modification

List of Symbols

References

Author Index

Subject Index

Details

No. of pages:
260
Language:
English
Copyright:
© Academic Press 1966
Published:
Imprint:
Academic Press
eBook ISBN:
9781483282251

About the Author

R. E. Munn

Affiliations and Expertise

Atmospheric Environment Service, Toronto, Ontario, Canada

About the Editor

H. E. Landsberg

Affiliations and Expertise

Geophysics Research Directorate, Air Force Cambridge Research Center

J. Van Mieghem

Affiliations and Expertise

Royal Belgian Meteorological Institute, Uccle, Belgium