Demineralization by Ion Exchange

Demineralization by Ion Exchange

In Water Treatment and Chemical Processing of Other Liquids

1st Edition - January 1, 1968

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  • Author: Samuel B. Applebaum
  • eBook ISBN: 9781483258423

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Demineralization by Ion Exchange: In Water Treatment and Chemical Processing of Other Liquids presents the methods of demineralization by ion exchange to completely remove dissolved impurities from water and other liquids. This book discusses the developments as well as the engineering and practical aspects in demineralization. Organized into 14 chapters, this book begins with an overview of the history of ion exchange. This text then provides data on the demineralizer equipment, specifying proper materials of construction and design of the shells, their internal distributors, piping, and valves. Other chapters consider the method and equipment design that will help solve water treatment or chemical processing problem with the greatest reliability and economy. This book discusses as well the technical calculations showing how the demineralizer systems are selected. The final chapter deals with the designs of many actual full-scale plants. This book is a valuable resource for executives, consultants, engineers, engineering students, and chemists.

Table of Contents

  • Preface

    1. Brief History of Ion Exchange and the Industrial Needs That Led to Demineralization



    2. Survey of the Impurities in Water, Their Harmful Effects in Industry, and Methods of Removing Them

    I. Water Supplies

    II. Impurities in Water

    III. Forms of Water Analysis

    IV. Units of Measurement

    V. Harmful Effects of Water Impurities in Industry

    VI. Water-Quality Tolerances for Various Applications

    VII. General Methods of Removing Impurities


    3. Removal of the Major Ionic Dissolved Impurities in Water

    I. Removal of Calcium and Magnesium: Water-Softening

    II. Removal of Calcium, Magnesium, Sodium, and Potassium: Hydrogen Cation Exchange

    III. Removal of Iron and Manganese

    IV. Removal of Alkalinity

    V. Removal of Sulfate, Chloride, Nitrate, and Phosphate

    VI. Removal of Silica

    VII. Comparison of Water Treatments


    4. Removal of Nonionic Suspended and Colloidal Impurities

    I. Removal of Turbidity by Filtration without Presettling

    II. Removal of Turbidity, Color, Organic Matter, Microorganisms, Bacteria, Colloidal Silica, and Oil, by Coagulation, Settling, and Filtration

    III. Removal of Organic Matter

    IV. Removal of Colloidal Silica

    V. Removal of Oil from Surface Waters and Condensates

    VI. Removal of Corrosion Products from Condensates


    5. Removal of Gaseous Impurities

    I. Laws of Gas Behavior

    II. Other Factors in Gas Solubility

    III. Application of the Laws and Other Factors

    IV. Removal of Carbon Dioxide

    V. Removal of Hydrogen Sulfide, Methane, and Ammonia

    VI. Removal of Oxygen

    VII. Removal of Chlorine


    6. The Demineralization Process and Systems

    I. Nature of Ion Exchange and Exchange Materials

    II. Ion Exchange Equilibria

    III. Strong-Acid Hydrogen Cation Exchangers

    IV. Weak-Acid Hydrogen Cation Exchangers

    V. Weak-Base Anion Exchangers

    VI. Strong-Base Anion Exchangers

    VII. Exchange Techniques

    VIII. Regeneration Phase

    IX. Ion Leakage and Endpoints of Exhaustion Phase

    X. Ten Major Demineralizer Systems

    XI. Summary of Applications of the Ten Major Demineralizer Systems

    XII. Three-Bed and Mixed-Bed System


    7. The Major American Ion Exchange Materials

    I. Cation Exchangers

    II. Anion Exchangers


    8. Demineralizer Equipment Designs

    I. The Shell

    II. Subfill Under Exchange Materials

    III. Internal Distributors and Collectors

    IV. External Valves and Piping

    V. Regeneration Systems

    VI. Instrumentation for Monitoring Performance

    VII. Automatic Control Devices and Panel

    VIII. Neutralizers of Regeneration Waste Waters


    9. Demineralizer Technical Design Calculations and Typical Examples

    I. Normal Procedure and Steps to Be Followed

    II. Typical Examples of Design Calculations

    10. Condensate Purification for High-Pressure Utility and Industrial Boilers

    I. Turbine and Boiler Deposits Before Advent of Condensate Demineralization

    II. Advent of Once-Through Drumless Boilers and Condensate Demineralizers

    III. Condensate-Purification Equipment at the Philo Station

    IV. Prefilter Design

    V. Development of High-Rate Mixed-Bed Condensate Demineralizers

    VI. External Regeneration System

    VII. Omission of Prefilters

    VIII. Condensate-Demineralizer Design

    IX. Ammoniation of Cation Resin

    X. Condensate-Purification for Industrial High-Pressure Boilers

    XI. Ammoniated Cation Resin for Removing Iron from Utility High-Pressure Heater Drains

    XII. Disposable, Nonregenerated Powdered Resin


    11. Demineralizing Water Treatment in Nuclear (Atomic) Power Plants

    I. Functions of Demineralizers in Nuclear Stations

    II. Pressurized-Water Reactor Systems

    III. Boiling-Water Reactor System

    IV. Two Boiling-Water Reactor Installations


    12. Comparison of Evaporators and Demineralizers and New Demineralizer Processes for Desalination

    I. Advantages of Evaporators

    II. Operating Problems with Evaporators

    III. Typical Economic Studies of Evaporators and Demineralizers

    IV. The Flash Evaporator

    V. Comparison of Flash Evaporator and Demineralizer

    VI. Experiences with Flash Evaporators

    VII. Cation Exchange Presoftening of Brackish-Water Feed for an Evaporator Desalination Plant

    VIII. New Demineralizing Processes for High-Solids Waters


    13. Continuous Ion Exchange

    I. Review of Past Fixed-Bed Design Criteria and Their Change

    II. Description of Continuous Method

    III. History of Continuous Method

    IV. The Higgins Design

    V. The Asahi Design

    VI. Economic Comparison of Continuous-Bed and Fixed-Bed Plants

    VII. Operating Problems with Continuous Beds

    VIII. Field of Application


    14. Chemical Processing by Ion Exchange

    I. Solid Exchangers with Chemical Regenerants

    II. Applications: Removal of Impurities for Upgrading Products

    III. Applications: Recovery of Valuable Substances and Purification of Liquors for Reuse

    IV. Solid Exchangers with Water Elution and No Chemical Regenerants

    V. Liquid Exchangers


    Author Index

    Subject Index

Product details

  • No. of pages: 406
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Academic Press 1968
  • Published: January 1, 1968
  • Imprint: Academic Press
  • eBook ISBN: 9781483258423

About the Author

Samuel B. Applebaum

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  • Víctor S. Mon May 14 2018

    Demineralization by Ion Exchange

    A book that all people have to read