Demineralization by Ion Exchange - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9781483228051, 9781483258423

Demineralization by Ion Exchange

1st Edition

In Water Treatment and Chemical Processing of Other Liquids

Authors: Samuel B. Applebaum
eBook ISBN: 9781483258423
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 1st January 1968
Page Count: 406
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Demineralization by Ion Exchange: In Water Treatment and Chemical Processing of Other Liquids presents the methods of demineralization by ion exchange to completely remove dissolved impurities from water and other liquids. This book discusses the developments as well as the engineering and practical aspects in demineralization.

Organized into 14 chapters, this book begins with an overview of the history of ion exchange. This text then provides data on the demineralizer equipment, specifying proper materials of construction and design of the shells, their internal distributors, piping, and valves. Other chapters consider the method and equipment design that will help solve water treatment or chemical processing problem with the greatest reliability and economy. This book discusses as well the technical calculations showing how the demineralizer systems are selected. The final chapter deals with the designs of many actual full-scale plants.

This book is a valuable resource for executives, consultants, engineers, engineering students, and chemists.

Table of Contents


1. Brief History of Ion Exchange and the Industrial Needs That Led to Demineralization



2. Survey of the Impurities in Water, Their Harmful Effects in Industry, and Methods of Removing Them

I. Water Supplies

II. Impurities in Water

III. Forms of Water Analysis

IV. Units of Measurement

V. Harmful Effects of Water Impurities in Industry

VI. Water-Quality Tolerances for Various Applications

VII. General Methods of Removing Impurities


3. Removal of the Major Ionic Dissolved Impurities in Water

I. Removal of Calcium and Magnesium: Water-Softening

II. Removal of Calcium, Magnesium, Sodium, and Potassium: Hydrogen Cation Exchange

III. Removal of Iron and Manganese

IV. Removal of Alkalinity

V. Removal of Sulfate, Chloride, Nitrate, and Phosphate

VI. Removal of Silica

VII. Comparison of Water Treatments


4. Removal of Nonionic Suspended and Colloidal Impurities

I. Removal of Turbidity by Filtration without Presettling

II. Removal of Turbidity, Color, Organic Matter, Microorganisms, Bacteria, Colloidal Silica, and Oil, by Coagulation, Settling, and Filtration

III. Removal of Organic Matter

IV. Removal of Colloidal Silica

V. Removal of Oil from Surface Waters and Condensates

VI. Removal of Corrosion Products from Condensates


5. Removal of Gaseous Impurities

I. Laws of Gas Behavior

II. Other Factors in Gas Solubility

III. Application of the Laws and Other Factors

IV. Removal of Carbon Dioxide

V. Removal of Hydrogen Sulfide, Methane, and Ammonia

VI. Removal of Oxygen

VII. Removal of Chlorine


6. The Demineralization Process and Systems

I. Nature of Ion Exchange and Exchange Materials

II. Ion Exchange Equilibria

III. Strong-Acid Hydrogen Cation Exchangers

IV. Weak-Acid Hydrogen Cation Exchangers

V. Weak-Base Anion Exchangers

VI. Strong-Base Anion Exchangers

VII. Exchange Techniques

VIII. Regeneration Phase

IX. Ion Leakage and Endpoints of Exhaustion Phase

X. Ten Major Demineralizer Systems

XI. Summary of Applications of the Ten Major Demineralizer Systems

XII. Three-Bed and Mixed-Bed System


7. The Major American Ion Exchange Materials

I. Cation Exchangers

II. Anion Exchangers


8. Demineralizer Equipment Designs

I. The Shell

II. Subfill Under Exchange Materials

III. Internal Distributors and Collectors

IV. External Valves and Piping

V. Regeneration Systems

VI. Instrumentation for Monitoring Performance

VII. Automatic Control Devices and Panel

VIII. Neutralizers of Regeneration Waste Waters


9. Demineralizer Technical Design Calculations and Typical Examples

I. Normal Procedure and Steps to Be Followed

II. Typical Examples of Design Calculations

10. Condensate Purification for High-Pressure Utility and Industrial Boilers

I. Turbine and Boiler Deposits Before Advent of Condensate Demineralization

II. Advent of Once-Through Drumless Boilers and Condensate Demineralizers

III. Condensate-Purification Equipment at the Philo Station

IV. Prefilter Design

V. Development of High-Rate Mixed-Bed Condensate Demineralizers

VI. External Regeneration System

VII. Omission of Prefilters

VIII. Condensate-Demineralizer Design

IX. Ammoniation of Cation Resin

X. Condensate-Purification for Industrial High-Pressure Boilers

XI. Ammoniated Cation Resin for Removing Iron from Utility High-Pressure Heater Drains

XII. Disposable, Nonregenerated Powdered Resin


11. Demineralizing Water Treatment in Nuclear (Atomic) Power Plants

I. Functions of Demineralizers in Nuclear Stations

II. Pressurized-Water Reactor Systems

III. Boiling-Water Reactor System

IV. Two Boiling-Water Reactor Installations


12. Comparison of Evaporators and Demineralizers and New Demineralizer Processes for Desalination

I. Advantages of Evaporators

II. Operating Problems with Evaporators

III. Typical Economic Studies of Evaporators and Demineralizers

IV. The Flash Evaporator

V. Comparison of Flash Evaporator and Demineralizer

VI. Experiences with Flash Evaporators

VII. Cation Exchange Presoftening of Brackish-Water Feed for an Evaporator Desalination Plant

VIII. New Demineralizing Processes for High-Solids Waters


13. Continuous Ion Exchange

I. Review of Past Fixed-Bed Design Criteria and Their Change

II. Description of Continuous Method

III. History of Continuous Method

IV. The Higgins Design

V. The Asahi Design

VI. Economic Comparison of Continuous-Bed and Fixed-Bed Plants

VII. Operating Problems with Continuous Beds

VIII. Field of Application


14. Chemical Processing by Ion Exchange

I. Solid Exchangers with Chemical Regenerants

II. Applications: Removal of Impurities for Upgrading Products

III. Applications: Recovery of Valuable Substances and Purification of Liquors for Reuse

IV. Solid Exchangers with Water Elution and No Chemical Regenerants

V. Liquid Exchangers


Author Index

Subject Index


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© Academic Press 1968
Academic Press
eBook ISBN:

About the Author

Samuel B. Applebaum

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