Defects in Two-Dimensional Materials

Defects in Two-Dimensional Materials

1st Edition - February 14, 2022

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  • Editors: Rafik Addou, Luigi Colombo
  • Paperback ISBN: 9780128202920
  • eBook ISBN: 9780323903103

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Defects in Two-Dimensional Materials addresses the fundamental physics and chemistry of defects in 2D materials and their effects on physical, electrical and optical properties. The book explores 2D materials such as graphene, hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) and transition metal dichalcogenides (TMD). This knowledge will enable scientists and engineers to tune 2D materials properties to meet specific application requirements. The book reviews the techniques to characterize 2D material defects and compares the defects present in the various 2D materials (e.g. graphene, h-BN, TMDs, phosphorene, silicene, etc.). As two-dimensional materials research and development is a fast-growing field that could lead to many industrial applications, the primary objective of this book is to review, discuss and present opportunities in controlling defects in these materials to improve device performance in general or use the defects in a controlled way for novel applications.

Key Features

  • Presents the theory, physics and chemistry of 2D materials
  • Catalogues defects of 2D materials and their impacts on materials properties and performance
  • Reviews methods to characterize, control and engineer defects in 2D materials


Materials Scientists and Engineers, Physicists, Electrical Engineers

Table of Contents

  • Cover image
  • Title page
  • Table of Contents
  • Copyright
  • List of contributors
  • About the editors
  • Preface
  • Chapter 1: Introduction
  • References
  • Chapter 2: Physics and theory of defects in 2D materials: the role of reduced dimensionality
  • Abstract
  • Acknowledgement
  • 2.1. Introduction
  • 2.2. Classification of defects
  • 2.3. Insights into the atomic structures of defects from scanning tunneling and transmission electron microscopy experiments
  • 2.4. Production of defects in two-dimensional materials under electron and ion irradiation
  • 2.5. Examples of defects in two-dimensional materials
  • 2.6. Theoretical aspects of the physics of defects in bulk crystalline solids and two-dimensional materials
  • 2.7. Calculations of defect formation energies and electronic structure using the supercell approach
  • 2.8. Electronic structure of 2D materials with defects
  • 2.9. Point defects and vibrational properties of 2D materials from atomistic simulations
  • 2.10. Conclusions and outlook
  • References
  • Chapter 3: Defects in two-dimensional elemental materials beyond graphene
  • Abstract
  • 3.1. Introduction
  • 3.2. Borophene
  • 3.3. Silicene
  • 3.4. Germanene
  • 3.5. Stanene
  • 3.6. Plumbene
  • 3.7. Phosphorene
  • 3.8. Arsenene (h-As) and Antimonene (h-Sb)
  • 3.9. Bismuthene
  • 3.10. Selenene and tellurene
  • 3.11. Gallenene
  • 3.12. Hafnene
  • 3.13. Conclusions and outlook
  • References
  • Chapter 4: Defects in transition metal dichalcogenides
  • Abstract
  • 4.1. Introduction
  • 4.2. Point defects
  • 4.3. Impurities
  • 4.4. Line defects
  • 4.5. Control of defects and their applications
  • 4.6. Summary
  • References
  • Chapter 5: Realization of electronic grade graphene and h-BN
  • Abstract
  • 5.1. Challenges overview: growth, transfer, and integration
  • 5.2. Apparatus and methodology overview
  • 5.3. Scalable growth by chemical vapor deposition
  • 5.4. Material optimization
  • 5.5. Conclusions and outlook
  • References
  • Chapter 6: Realization of electronic-grade two-dimensional transition metal dichalcogenides by thin-film deposition techniques
  • Abstract
  • Acknowledgements
  • 6.1. Current challenges in transition metal dichalcogenide synthesis
  • 6.2. Current synthesis techniques
  • 6.3. Controlling nucleation and crystal growth
  • 6.4. Materials engineering
  • 6.5. Summary
  • References
  • Chapter 7: Materials engineering – defect healing & passivation
  • Abstract
  • 7.1. Introduction
  • 7.2. Defect formation and healing in 2D TMDs
  • 7.3. Defect engineering by chemical treatment and applications
  • 7.4. Defect control by external sources
  • 7.5. Future perspectives
  • References
  • Chapter 8: Nonequilibrium synthesis and processing approaches to tailor heterogeneity in 2D materials
  • Abstract
  • Acknowledgements
  • 8.1. Introduction
  • 8.2. Non-equilibrium synthesis – effects of chemical potential on the heterogeneity of 2D materials
  • 8.3. Strain induced phenomena in 2D materials
  • 8.4. Heterogeneity introduced by the self-assembly of nanoscale ‘building blocks’
  • 8.5. The effects of kinetic energy on defects and doping: hyperthermal implantation for the formation of Janus monolayers
  • 8.6. Summary and outlook
  • References
  • Chapter 9: Two-dimensional materials under ion irradiation: from defect production to structure and property engineering
  • Abstract
  • Acknowledgements
  • 9.1. Introduction
  • 9.2. Response of two-dimensional materials to ion irradiation: theoretical aspects
  • 9.3. Experiments on ion irradiation of two-dimensional materials
  • 9.4. Applications
  • 9.5. Summary, challenges, and outlook
  • References
  • Chapter 10: Tailoring defects in 2D materials for electrocatalysis
  • Abstract
  • Acknowledgements
  • 10.1. Introduction
  • 10.2. Defect-tailored 2D electrocatalysts for hydrogen evolution reaction (HER)
  • 10.3. Defect-tailored 2D electrocatalysts for oxygen evolution reaction (OER)
  • 10.4. Defect-tailored 2D electrocatalysts for nitrogen reduction reaction (NRR)
  • 10.5. Defect-tailored 2D electrocatalysts for carbon dioxide reduction reaction (CO2RR)
  • 10.6. Challenges and perspectives of defect engineering for 2D electrocatalysts
  • References
  • Chapter 11: Devices and defects in two-dimensional materials: outlook and perspectives
  • Abstract
  • 11.1. Introduction
  • 11.2. Defect characterization in 2D TMDs using ultrafast pump-probe spectroscopy
  • 11.3. Devices fabricated on 2D CVD-grown TMDs
  • 11.4. Devices fabricated on MBE-grown TMDs
  • 11.5. 2D van der Waals (vdW) heterostructures
  • 11.6. Enhancing 2D device performance using defect engineering
  • 11.7. Theoretical investigation of defects in 2D TMDs
  • References
  • Chapter 12: Concluding remarks
  • References
  • Index

Product details

  • No. of pages: 432
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Elsevier 2022
  • Published: February 14, 2022
  • Imprint: Elsevier
  • Paperback ISBN: 9780128202920
  • eBook ISBN: 9780323903103

About the Editors

Rafik Addou

Rafik Addou is a research scientist at the University of Texas at Dallas (UTD), USA, where he leads efforts on understanding the interface and surface science of graphene, transition metal dichalcogenides, and other emerging 2D materials for nano- and opto-electronics. He earned a BSc in Physics from Mohamed Premier University, Oujda, Morocco, and MSc in Materials Physics from Aix-Marseille University, France. In 2010, he received his PhD degree in Materials Science from Ecole des Mines (Nancy, France) in association with Empa Materials Science and Technology Laboratory (Thun, Switzerland). Before joining UTD, Dr. Addou was at the University of South Florida (Tampa FL, USA) as a postdoctoral research fellow in Physics where he studied the surface physics of graphene.

Affiliations and Expertise

Research Scientist at the University of Texas at Dallas (UTD), USA

Luigi Colombo

Luigi Colombo is the Director of Strategic Programs and Adjunct Professor in the Department of Materials Science & Engineering at the University of Texas at Dallas, USA. For almost 40 years, he worked on a variety of materials research and development programs and device integration at Texas Instruments in Dallas, TX, USA. From 2008-2013 in collaboration with the Ruoff group at the University of Texas at Austin, USA, he discovered and developed a large area graphene film growth using a catalytic CVD process on Cu substrates.

Affiliations and Expertise

Director of Strategic Programs and Adjunct Professor, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Texas at Dallas, USA

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