Deer Antlers - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780122930805, 9780323140430

Deer Antlers

1st Edition

Regeneration, Function and Evolution

Authors: Richard Goss
eBook ISBN: 9780323140430
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 28th May 1983
Page Count: 316
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Description

This is a book about one of nature's most remarkable accomplishments. When deer grow antlers they are actually regenerating anatomically complex appendages - something that no other mammal can do. The rate at which antler elongate makes them the fastest growing structures in the animal kingdom. Profoundly affected by male hormones, these secondary sex characters grow into massive tumors if the deer possessing them is castrated. These and other unique characteristics have made antlers the focus of extensive scientific research that addresses some provocative questions: From what tissues do antlers develop? By what morphogenetic mechanisms are they regenerated every year? What social functions prompted their initial evolution? How are they influenced by hormones, and by the seasonal daylength fluctuations that regulate their annual replacement cycles? These and many other questions are considered in this comprehensive account of antlerology. Students of development, evolution, and behavior will find much to appreciate in this volume, as will ecologists, wildlife biologists, and zookeepers. It is a rich source of information for endocrinologists and physiologists interested in the relationship of antlers to the reproductive cycle. The orthopedists will find the study of antlers a valuable model of skeletal growth and bone disease, and the purported medicinal properties of velvet antlers will be a subject of interest to the pharmacologist.

Deer Antlers: Regeneration, Function, and Evolution is as scientifically accurate as it is readable. It does not answer all questions about these unique appendages, but it is certain to arouse curiosity about the many unsolved problems of how antlers grow, die, and are shed in the course of a single year.

Table of Contents


Preface

1 Introduction

Text

General References

2 The Diversity of Deer

Fallow Deer

Red Deer

Sika Deer

Sambar

Barasingha, or Swamp Deer

Eld's Deer, or Thamin

Schomburgk's Deer

Rusa Deer

Hog Deer

Axis Deer, or Chital

Père David's Deer, or Mi-lu

Muntjac

Tufted Deer

Musk Deer

Chinese Water Deer

Roe Deer

Wapiti, or American Elk

Moose

Reindeer and Caribou

White-Tailed, Black-Tailed, and Mule Deer

Brockets

Pampas Deer

Marsh Deer

Huemul

Pudu

Cervid Classification

References

3 Horns and Tusks

How Horns Grow

The Improbable Pronghorn

The Histogenesis of Horns

Tusks

References

4 The Evolution of Deer

Fur-Covered Horns

Nondeciduous "Antlers"

The Earliest Antlers

The World's Largest Deer

Continent without Deer

Deer in the Americas

Recapitulation

References

5 The Social Significance of Antlers

Rutting Behavior

Phylogeny of Function

Why the Velvet Is Shed

Theories of Antler Casting

Ultimate Explanations

References

6 A Fawn's First Antlers

Pedicle Development

Antlerogenic Transformation

Fawns versus Yearlings

Photoperiod and Hormones

Histogenesis

References

7 Developmental Anatomy of Antlers

Antler Casting

Histogenesis

Wound Healing

The Nature of Velvet

Zones of Differentiation

Chondrification

Ossification

Systemic Effects of Antler Ossification

Vascularization

Innervation

References

8 Regeneration

Modes of Growth

The Spectrum of Regeneration

Mechanism of Blastema Production

Epimorphic Regeneration in Mammals

Strategy and Prospects

References

9 Abnormal Antlers

Genetic Effects

Systemic Influences

Injuries in Velvet

Pedicle Wounds

Do Nerves Affect Antler Development?

Nonexistent Mistakes

Horn Abnormalities

References

10 The Case of the Asymmetric Antlers

The Prevalence of Asymmetry

Is Asymmetry Genetic?

The Brow Tine Mystery

References

11 Light and Latitude

Reversed Seasons

Frequency Changes

The Role of Latitude

The Tropical Paradox

Circannual Rhythms

References

12 Internal Influences

Testosterone

Estrogen

Progesterone

Pituitary Hormones

Adrenal Steroids

Thyroid Hormone

The Effects of Pinealectomy

Nutrition versus Genetics

References

13 Castration

Methods and Degrees of Emasculation

The Castrate Antler

The Antleroma: A Model for Tumor Growth?

Antlers and Cancer

References

14 Antlered Does and Antierless Bucks

Reindeer and Caribou

Incidence of Female Antlers

The Fertility of Antlered Does

Experimental Induction of Female Antlers

The Absence of Antlers in Males

References

15 Medicinal Uses of Antlers

Historical

The Antler Business

Harvesting and Preparation

Prescriptions

Scientific Investigations

Ethical Pros and Cons

References

Index

Details

No. of pages:
316
Language:
English
Copyright:
© Academic Press 1983
Published:
Imprint:
Academic Press
eBook ISBN:
9780323140430

About the Author

Richard Goss

Affiliations and Expertise

Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island, U.S.A.