Description

This is a book about one of nature's most remarkable accomplishments. When deer grow antlers they are actually regenerating anatomically complex appendages - something that no other mammal can do. The rate at which antler elongate makes them the fastest growing structures in the animal kingdom. Profoundly affected by male hormones, these secondary sex characters grow into massive tumors if the deer possessing them is castrated. These and other unique characteristics have made antlers the focus of extensive scientific research that addresses some provocative questions: From what tissues do antlers develop? By what morphogenetic mechanisms are they regenerated every year? What social functions prompted their initial evolution? How are they influenced by hormones, and by the seasonal daylength fluctuations that regulate their annual replacement cycles? These and many other questions are considered in this comprehensive account of antlerology. Students of development, evolution, and behavior will find much to appreciate in this volume, as will ecologists, wildlife biologists, and zookeepers. It is a rich source of information for endocrinologists and physiologists interested in the relationship of antlers to the reproductive cycle. The orthopedists will find the study of antlers a valuable model of skeletal growth and bone disease, and the purported medicinal properties of velvet antlers will be a subject of interest to the pharmacologist. Deer Antlers: Regeneration, Function, and Evolution is as scientifically accurate as it is readable. It does not answer all questions about these unique appendages, but it is certain to arouse curiosity about the many unsolved problems of how antlers grow, die, and are shed in the course of a single year.

Table of Contents

Preface 1 Introduction Text General References 2 The Diversity of Deer Fallow Deer Red Deer Sika Deer Sambar Barasingha, or Swamp Deer Eld's Deer, or Thamin Schomburgk's Deer Rusa Deer Hog Deer Axis Deer, or Chital Père David's Deer, or Mi-lu Muntjac Tufted Deer Musk Deer Chinese Water Deer Roe Deer Wapiti, or American Elk Moose Reindeer and Caribou White-Tailed, Black-Tailed, and Mule Deer Brockets Pampas Deer Marsh Deer Huemul Pudu Cervid Classification References 3 Horns and Tusks How Horns Grow The Improbable Pronghorn The Histogenesis of Horns Tusks References 4 The Evolution of Deer Fur-Covered Horns Nondeciduous "Antlers" The Earliest Antlers The World's Largest Deer Continent without Deer Deer in the Americas Recapitulation References 5 The Social Significance of Antlers Rutting Behavior Phylogeny of Function Why the Velvet Is Shed Theories of Antler Casting Ultimate Explanations References 6 A Fawn's First Antlers Pedicle Development Antlerogenic Transformation Fawns versus Yearlings Photoperiod and Hormones Histogenesis References 7 Developmental Anatomy of Antlers Antler Casting Histogenesis Wound Healing The Nature of Velvet Zones of Differentiation Chondrification Ossification Systemic Effects of Antler Ossification Vascularization Innervation References 8 Regeneration Modes of Growth The Spectrum of Regeneration Mechanism of Blastema Production Epimorphic Regeneration in Mammals Strategy and Prospects References 9 Abnormal Antlers Genetic Effects Systemic Influences Injuries in Velvet Pedicle

Details

No. of pages:
316
Language:
English
Copyright:
© 1983
Published:
Imprint:
Academic Press
Electronic ISBN:
9780323140430
Print ISBN:
9780122930805

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