Data Architecture - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780123851260, 9780123851277

Data Architecture

1st Edition

From Zen to Reality

Authors: Charles Tupper
eBook ISBN: 9780123851277
Paperback ISBN: 9780123851260
Imprint: Morgan Kaufmann
Published Date: 23rd March 2011
Page Count: 448
Sales tax will be calculated at check-out Price includes VAT/GST
Price includes VAT/GST

Institutional Subscription

Secure Checkout

Personal information is secured with SSL technology.

Free Shipping

Free global shipping
No minimum order.


Data Architecture: From Zen to Reality explains the principles underlying data architecture, how data evolves with organizations, and the challenges organizations face in structuring and managing their data. Using a holistic approach to the field of data architecture, the book describes proven methods and technologies to solve the complex issues dealing with data. It covers the various applied areas of data, including data modelling and data model management, data quality, data governance, enterprise information management, database design, data warehousing, and warehouse design. This text is a core resource for anyone customizing or aligning data management systems, taking the Zen-like idea of data architecture to an attainable reality.

The book presents fundamental concepts of enterprise architecture with definitions and real-world applications and scenarios. It teaches data managers and planners about the challenges of building a data architecture roadmap, structuring the right team, and building a long term set of solutions. It includes the detail needed to illustrate how the fundamental principles are used in current business practice. The book is divided into five sections, one of which addresses the software-application development process, defining tools, techniques, and methods that ensure repeatable results.

Data Architecture is intended for people in business management involved with corporate data issues and information technology decisions, ranging from data architects to IT consultants, IT auditors, and data administrators. It is also an ideal reference tool for those in a higher-level education process involved in data or information technology management.

Key Features

    • Presents fundamental concepts of enterprise architecture with definitions and real-world applications and scenarios
    • Teaches data managers and planners about the challenges of building a data architecture roadmap, structuring the right team, and building a long term set of solutions
    • Includes the detail needed to illustrate how the fundamental principles are used in current business practice


    Data architects; systems analysts, data modelers, IT Directors, managers and CxOs, IT governance employees, business process management strategists; IT consultants, IT auditors, data administrators

    Table of Contents


    Section 1 The Principles

    Chapter 1 Understanding Architectural Principles

    Defining Architecture

    Design Problems

    Patterns and Pattern Usage

    Concepts for Pattern Usage

    Information Architecture

    Structure Works!

    Problems in Architecture

    Architectural Solutions

    The “Form Follows Function” Concept

    Guideline: Composition and Environment

    Guideline: Evolution

    Guideline: Current and Future

    Data Policies (Governance), the Foundation Building Codes

    Data Policy Principles

    Chapter 2 Enterprise Architecture Frameworks and Methodologies

    Architecture Frameworks

    Brief History of Enterprise Architecture

    The Zachman Framework for Enterprise Architecture

    The Open Group Architecture Framework

    The Federal Enterprise Architecture


    Enterprise Data Architectures

    Enterprise Models

    The Enterprise Data Model

    The Importance of the Enterprise Data Model

    Object Concepts: Types and Structures Within Databases


    Object Life Cycles

    Relationships and Collections

    Object Frameworks

    Object Framework Programming

    Pattern-Based Frameworks

    Architecture Patterns in Use

    U.S. Treasury Architecture Development Guidance

    TADG Pattern Content

    TADG Architecture Patterns

    IBM Patterns for e-Business

    Enterprise Data Model Implementation Methods

    Chapter 3 Enterprise-Level Data Architecture Practices

    Enterprise-Level Architectures

    System Architectures

    Enterprise Data Architectures

    Enterprise Technology Architectures

    Enterprise Architecture Terminology—Business Terms

    The Enterprise Model

    The Enterprise Data Architecture from a Development Perspective

    Subject Area Drivers

    Naming and Object Standards

    Data Sharing

    Data Dictionary–Metadata Repository

    Domain Constraints in Corporate and Non-Corporate Data

    Organizational Control Components

    Data Administration

    Database Administration

    Setting Up a Database Administration Group

    Repository Management Areas and Model Management

    Chapter 4 Understanding Development Methodologies

    Design Methods

    Why Do We Need Development Methodologies?

    The Beginnings

    Structured Methods

    Structured Programming

    Structured Design

    Structured Analysis

    Still Having Problems

    Requirements Definitions

    Problems with Structured Approaches

    Personal Computers and the Age of Tools

    Engineering Concepts Applied

    Other Principles Utilized

    The Birth of Information Engineering

    Information Engineering as a Design Methodology

    The Synergy of Tools and Information Engineering

    Problems with Information Engineering

    Implementing the Best of IE while Minimizing Expense

    Section 2 The Problem

    Chapter 5 Business Evolution

    The Problem of Business Evolution

    Expansion and Function Separation

    Separate Function Communication

    Manual Data Redundancy

    Data Planning and Process Planning

    Corporate Architecture

    Using Nolan’s Stages of Growth

    Problems with Older Organizations

    Business Today

    When Will It End?

    What Can We Do about It?

    Generic Subject Areas for Corporate Architectures

    Corporate Information Groupings or Functional Areas

    Corporate Knowledge

    Chapter 6 Business Organizations

    Purpose and Mission of the Organization

    Ideology, Mission, and Purpose

    Design with the Future of the Organization in Mind

    Generalize for Future Potential Directions

    Organizational Structure

    What Are the Basic Functions in an Organization?

    The Information Needs of Management

    Organizations Don’t Know What They Don’t Know

    Information Strategy for Modern Business

    Maximizing the Value of Information

    Forces in the Organization

    Chapter 7 Productivity Inside the Data Organization

    Information Technology

    What Is Information Technology?

    Trends in Information Technology

    Vendor Software Development

    The Other Option

    Trends in Organizational Change


    Explanations for the Anomaly in Productivity

    Information Technology and Its Impact on Organizations

    Why Invest in Information Technology?

    Ineffective Use of Information Technology

    Other Impediments to Organizational Efficiency

    Organizational Impediments to Information Technology

    Technological Solutions for Information Technology

    Human Resource Issues in Information Technology

    Quality of the Workforce


    Maximizing the Use of Information Technology

    Chapter 8 Solutions That Cause Problems

    Downsizing and Organizational Culture

    Downsizing Defined

    Culture Change

    Organizational-Level Analysis

    Organizational/Individual-Level Analysis

    Downswing’s Impact on Culture

    A Different Approach to Culture Change and Downsizing



    Rapid Application Development

    Section 3 The Process

    Chapter 9 Data Organization Practices

    Fundamentals of All Data Organization Practices

    Corporate Data Architecture

    Corporate Data Policy

    Architecture Team

    Design Team

    Develop the Project Structure

    Scope Definition

    Project Plan

    Data Architecture and Strategic Requirements Planning

    Data Gathering and Classification

    Business Area Data Modeling

    Current Data Inventory Analysis

    Data and Function Integration

    Event Identification

    Procedure Definition via Functional Decomposition

    Process Use Identification

    New Function Creation

    Utilization Analysis via Process Use Mapping

    Access Path Mapping

    Entity Cluster Development and Logical Residence Planning

    Application Development Templates

    Quality Assurance Metrics

    Maintenance Control Process

    The Software Development Methods

    Architectural Development Methods

    Atomic Process Models

    Entity Process Models

    The Unified Method

    Chapter 10 Models and Model Repositories

    What Are Models and How Did They Come About?

    Data Models Introduction

    What Does Modeling Do for Us?

    Process Models Introduction

    Process Models—Why?

    How Are Automated Models Developed?

    How Are Models Retained?

    Model Repository Policy and Approach

    Shared Repository Objects

    Model-Driven Releases

    Supporting an Application Release

    Version Type: Participation

    Seamless Development Control Process

    Test Environments, Releases, and Databases

    Release Stacking

    Emergency Corrections

    Emergency Correction Procedures

    PTF Implementation for Shared Batch and Online Objects

    Chapter 11 Model Constructs and Model Types

    Data Model Constructs

    Application Audience and Services




    Primary Identifiers

    Entity Types

    Entity Relationship Diagrams

    Types of Relationships

    Model Types

    Physical-Level Design

    Primary Keys





    Domain Constraints

    Reference Data

    Generic Domain Constraint Constructs

    Chapter 12 Time as a Dimension of the Database

    What Is to Be Done with Historical Data?

    Application History

    Classes and Characteristics

    Current Occurrence

    Simple History

    Bounded Simple History

    Complex History

    Logically Modeling History

    Physical Design of History

    Physical Implementation of History

    Performance Tuning

    Finding Patterns

    Tips and Techniques for Implementing History

    Types of Systems

    Physical Structure

    Dimensional History

    Section 4 The Product

    Chapter 13 Concepts of Clustering, Indexing, and Structures

    Cluster Analysis

    What Is a Cluster?

    Cluster Properties

    Cluster Theory Applied




    Physical Structure

    Key History and Development

    Primary Keys

    Foreign Keys

    Foreign Key Propagation

    Candidate Keys

    Natural Keys

    Engineered Keys

    Surrogate Keys

    High Water Keys

    One of a Kind Keys

    Other Specialized Keys

    Chapter 14 Basic Requirements for Physical Design

    Requirements for Physical Design

    How Much Data?


    Population Quantification of Application Data






    Sort/Search Requirements

    Reorganization and Restructuring

    Data Integrity

    Referential Integrity

    Data Access

    Privacy Requirements

    Chapter 15 Physical Database Considerations

    Three-Level Architecture

    Data Independence

    Database Languages

    Classification of Database Management Systems

    Factors Impacting Physical Database Design

    Analysis of Queries, Reporting, and Transactions

    Queries, Reports, and Transactions

    Interpreting the Functional Decomposition

    Event Identification

    Process Use Identification Reviewed

    Utilization Analysis via Process Use Mapping

    Time Constraints of Queries and Transactions

    Analysis of Expected Frequency of Insert, Delete, Update

    Other Physical Database Design Considerations

    Population on the Database

    Chapter 16 Interpreting Models

    Physical Design Philosophy


    The Entity Relationship Model

    Interaction Analysis

    The CRUD Matrix

    Entity Life Cycle Analysis/Entity State Transition Diagrams

    Process Dependency Scope and Process Dependency Diagram

    Event Analysis

    Process Logic Diagrams

    Interaction Analysis Summary

    Changes to ER Models

    ERD Denormalization

    Actions on Super Type–Subtype Constructs

    Actions on Multiple Relationships

    Resolution of Circular References

    Resolution of Duplicate Propagated Keys

    Access-Level Denormalization

    Movement of Attributes

    Consolidation of Entities

    Derived Attributes and Summary Data

    Implement Repeating Groups

    Introduce Redundancy

    Introduce Surrogate or Synthetic Keys

    Vertical or Horizontal Segmentation

    Access Path Mapping


    Section 5 Specialized Databases

    Chapter 17 Data Warehouses I

    Early Analysis in this Area

    Keen and Scott-Morton

    Decision Discussion

    Components of Decisions


    Report Writers and Query Engines

    Warehouses versus Reporting Databases

    Higher Level of Abstraction

    Based on Perceived Business Use

    Structure Evolution

    Warehouse Components

    Why Can’t OLTP Data Stores Be Used?

    DSS Requirements

    Warehouse Characteristics

    Warehouse Modeling

    Warehouse Modeling Depends on Architectures

    Enterprise-Level Data Architecture

    Chapter 18 Data Warehouses II



    The Many Types and Levels of Data

    Data Modeling: Definitions

    Logical to Physical Transformation

    Entity Relational Models

    Placement of Models

    Dimensional Modeling: Definitions

    Denormalization and the Dimensional Model

    Dimensional Model Evaluation

    Data Evolution

    What Are the Choices?

    Applicability of the Dimensional and Relational and Hybrid Models

    Dimensional Architecture

    Where Is the Relational Data Warehouse Best Suited?

    Where Is the Dimensional Best Suited?

    Hybrid ER-Dimensional

    Problems Associated with the Hybrid Approach

    Target Enterprise Architecture

    Building an Enterprise Data Model

    Current Data Inventory

    Standard or Corporate Business Language

    Conclusion of Hybrid Approach

    Chapter 19 Dimensional Warehouses from Enterprise Models

    Dimensional Databases from Enterprise Data Models

    Warehouse Architecture

    Dimensional Model Concepts

    Review of Basic Components of Dimensional Models

    Differences between Dimension and Fact Tables

    Star Schemas

    Star Schema Design Approach

    Enterprise Data Warehouse Design

    Structure Design

    Categorize the Entities

    Identify Dependency Chains

    Produce Dimensional Models

    Options for Dimensional Design

    The Flat Table Schema

    The Stepped Table Schema

    Simple Star Schemas

    Snowflake Schemas

    Star Schema Clusters

    Review of Design Options

    Chapter 20 The Enterprise Data Warehouse

    Enterprise Data Warehouses

    Why Would You Want an Enterprise Data Warehouse?

    Enterprise Data Warehouse Defined

    What Are the Important EDW Driving Forces?

    The Best Practices for EDW Implementation

    Enterprise Data Architecture Implementation Methods

    The Top-Down Approach

    The Bottom-Up Approach

    Your Choices

    Preliminary Conclusion

    The Hybrid Approach

    Implementation Summary

    Chapter 21 Object and Object/Relational Databases

    Object Oriented Data Architecture

    Sample Object Oriented Design Concept: Wiring Money

    Examples of Different Actions

    Elements of Object Oriented Design: Overriding

    Analogy and Problem Solving

    Coping with Complexity

    Interconnections: The Perpetrator of Complexity

    Assembler Languages

    Procedures and Functions


    Parameter Passing

    Abstract Data Types

    Objects with Parameter Passing

    Object Oriented Architectures Summary

    Enhanced Entity Relationship Concepts

    Subclasses and Superclasses

    Attribute Inheritance



    Generalization Hierarchies

    Physical Data Design Considerations


    Object Identity

    Type “Generators” and Type Constructors


    Chapter 22 Distributed Databases

    Some Distributed Concepts

    The Distributed Model

    How Does It Work?

    Distributed Data Design Concepts



    Homogeneous Distributed Model

    Federated or Heterogeneous Distributed Model

    Distributed DBMSs

    Reliability and Availability

    Controlled Data Sharing


    Qualities Required in a DDBMS

    Other Factors

    An Overview of Client Server

    Functionality within Client Server

    A Typical DDBMS

    Distribution Transparency

    Types of DDBMSs

    Individual Site Failure’s Effect on Data Integrity

    Individual Site Failure‘s Effect on Traffic Flow

    Communication Failure

    Distributed Commitment

    Distributed Deadlocks




    No. of pages:
    © Morgan Kaufmann 2011
    Morgan Kaufmann
    eBook ISBN:
    Paperback ISBN:

    About the Author

    Charles Tupper


    I am extremely thrilled that Mr. Tupper has decided to write this book. This book would fill a void in knowledge and know-how in the area of data administration and architecture. Mr. Tupper built over the years an impressive expertise and authority on the subject of enterprise data architecture.

    Daniel Fitzpatrick, Principal Consultant, Nakama Consulting Group

    I see a wealth of information ranging from technical reference information to higher level concepts and principles. Overall a very comprehensive guide where some sections can be read in a flowing manner to enhance understanding of the topic and other sections can be flipped to/from to provide greater detail and context.

    Lynn Rivera, Consultant, LMR Consulting

    Ratings and Reviews