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Dams, Dam Foundations, and Reservoir Sites - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780444412362, 9780444601681

Dams, Dam Foundations, and Reservoir Sites

1st Edition

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Author: Ernest Wahlstrom
eBook ISBN: 9780444601681
Imprint: Elsevier
Published Date: 1st January 1974
Page Count: 290
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Developments in Geotechnical Engineering 6: Dams, Dam Foundations, and Reservoir Sites explores the design and construction of dams and reservoirs, and the foundations on which they rest. It discusses the theory and practice of geology and geophysics as they are applied to the study of proposed sites on which to build dams and reservoirs, the measures taken to ensure the continued safety of a dam during construction, and geological processes and features of foundations. Comprised of 10 chapters, this volume begins with an overview of the geotechnical aspects of planning and construction of dams and reservoirs, along with the origin, nature, and magnitude of problems associated with the foundation materials to be used. It then looks at the geological classification of natural substances and the strengths of these substances in terms of their origin, fabric, and mineralogy; excavation and filling of valleys; the influence of geologic structure in the development of erosional and depositional features in valleys; and the flow of water (seepage) beneath dams and around abutments. The reader is also introduced to groundwater hydrology as it relates to the movement of water through anisotropic materials beneath standing or running bodies of water at the Earth's surface and beneath dams; the mechanics of dam foundations; and excavations and dam construction in unconsolidated deposits. This book will be of interest to geologists, geophysicists, and engineers, as well as those involved in hydrology, geosciences, and rock and soil mechanics.

Table of Contents


Chapter 1. About dams and reservoirs


Planning for dams and reservoirs

Kinds of dams

Embankment dams

Concrete arch and dome dams

Concrete gravity and gravity-arch dams

Concrete slab and buttress dams

Appurtenant features of dams

Kinds and uses of reservoirs

Safety of dams and reservoirs



Chapter 2. Rocks and unconsolidated deposits: origin, composition, and properties


Mineral components of rocks and unconsolidated deposits

Processes of formation of rock bodies

Igneous rocks

Sedimentary rocks

Metamorphic rocks

Disintegration and decomposition of rocks

Unconsolidated deposits

Rock fabric and composition related to strength

Strength of clastic rocks

Strength of crystalline (nonclastic) rocks


Chapter 3. Excavation and filling of valleys


Erosion, transportation, and deposition by running water

Channel patterns and cross-sections in stream-cut valleys

Terraced valleys

Glaciated valleys

Transported valley fill

Valley fill of local derivation

Slope stability and slope failure in valleys

Shear failure in weak materials

Gravity-slip dislocations in steep-walled valleys

Obstructions in stream valleys

Lakes and lake basins in valleys


Chapter 4. Valleys in anisotropic rocks


Anisotropism in rocks

Valleys in flat-lying layered rocks

Valleys in folded rocks

Fractures in rocks

Fractures associated with folds

Valleys in fractured rocks

Slope development in anisotropic bedrock

Slope failure dependent on rock anisotropism

Chapter 5. Groundwater hydrology of uniformly permeable media


Some definitions

Properties of water

Porosity and permeability

Laminar flow of water through permeable media

Hydrodynamic flow nets beneath dams

Flow surfaces and equipotential surfaces

Unconfined flow through uniformly permeable media

Groundwater in slopes of reservoirs


Chapter 6. Groundwater hydrology of anisotropic media


Hydrology of anisotropic unconsolidated valley fill

Processes tending to modify permeabilities of unconsolidated deposits

Permeability and seepage in unconsolidated deposits

Hydrology of anisotropic bedrocks

Hydrology of filled reservoirs

Chapter 7. Geology and groundwater hydrology of soluble rocks


Geohydrology of initially homogeneous soluble rocks

Dissolution openings in anisotropic soluble rocks

Landforms in soluble rocks


Chapter 8. Mechanics of dam foundations


Stress and strain

Effects of confining pressure on strength

Pressures associated with dams and reservoirs

Mechanisms of foundation failure

Geologic conditions promoting foundation failure

Testing of strength of foundation materials

Dynamic methods for laboratory measurement of elastic constants

Field testing of foundation rocks

Seismic methods for measurement of elastic constants in the field


Chapter 9. Geological and geophysical investigations of dam and reservoir sites


Geological and geophysical investigations and materials inventory

Remote sensing imagery in geotechnical investigations

Graphical aids

Borehole operations

Logs of boreholes

Field permeability tests in boreholes

Core-hole surveys and oriented cores

Borehole patterns

Seismic methods of subsurface investigation

Resistivity geophysical investigations

Rock- and soil-mechanics investigations

Earthquake hazards

Construction-stage geotechnical investigations

Post-construction geotechnical investigations


Chapter 10. Geotechnical aspects of dam and reservoir construction


Foundation excavation

Dam construction on unconsolidated deposits

Grouting operations in bedrock

Interval grouting with packers

Pattern grouting

Blanket grouting

Curtain grouting

Examples of curtain grouting

Off-pattern, special-purpose grouting

Grout consistency and grouting pressures

Drainage and observation holes, wells, and porous prisms

Rock reinforcement by rock bolts and steel cables

Reservoir slope stabilization

Final construction report




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© Elsevier 1974
1st January 1974
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About the Author

Ernest Wahlstrom

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