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Environmental and Health Impact of Hospital Wastewater narrates the origin (history) of pharmaceuticals discoveries, hospital wastewater and its environmental and health impacts. It covers in detail microbiology of hospital wastewater (pathogens, multi-drug resistance development, microbial evolution and impacts on humans, animals, fish), advanced treatment options (including biological, physical and chemical methods), and highlights aspects required during hospital wastewater treatment processes. This book provides an amalgamation of all recent scientific information on hospital wastewater which is not available in the current literature.
- Introduces physical, chemical and molecular testing methods for the analysis and characterization of hospital wastewater
- Discusses the environmental impact and health hazards of Hospital Wastewater
- Describes in detail the microbiological aspects of the hospital wastewater, like microbial community, metagenomics, pathogens, VBNC and mechanism of antibiotic resistance development
- Includes prevalence of antibiotic resistance genes in the human gut, river, lake, and the ocean
- Explains hospital wastewater and its role in microbial evolution
- Highlights future treatment options, guidelines, and drug disposal is an essential aspect of this book
Undergraduate, graduate students, researchers, wastewater treatment professionals
1. Introduction to Wastewater Microbiology – Special emphasis on Hospital wastewater
a. History of wastewater origin and treatment
b. History of Microbiology and pathogens discovery
c. Antibiotic discovery
d. Pharmaceuticals in Hospital wastewater (Figure_1: Mode of release into environment (detailed
picture). A text to explain the process and quantity released).
e. Presence of pharmacological substance in aquatic environment (Table_1: explaining the name and
amount of antibiotics detected)
i. Natural water bodies: River, Ocean
ii. Wastewater treatment plant
4. Domestic or household
f. Summary and important aspects in HWW microbiology, treatment options
2. Occurrence of Pharmaceuticals metabolites and byproducts in hospital wastewater
a. Transformation pathway
b. Eco-toxicity analysis
c. Parent compound d. Drug metabolite e. Methods and tests used to detect the pharmaceutics in the HWW f. Role of microbes in biodegradation & biosorption of pharmaceuticals g. Case study on pharmaceuticals and its byproducts in HWW h. Future directions and summary i. Reference 3. Physical, chemical and biological Impact (Hazard) of Hospital wastewater: possessing pharmaceuticals, pathogens and antibiotic resistance genes a) Effects on Environment b) Effect on human and animals c) Effects on aquatic organisms d) Physical effect (like radiation and X-ray compounds) on e) Chemical effects like non-biodegradable and persistent compounds (EDC) f) Biological effects (drug resistance development, DNA modifications in non pathogenic organisms, also other biological effects) g) Effect on microscopic organisms h) Prevalence of antibiotic resistance genes in environment i) Development of antibiotic resistance gene j) Change in gene expression and horizontal gene transfer k) Effects on wastewater microbial community l) Reference 4. Microbiology of hospital wastewater a. Introduction b. Microorganisms and pathogens originating from hospital wastewater i. Fungi ii. Algae iii. bacteria iv. viruses 1. Molecular characterization of adenoviruses 2. infectious Enterovirus living in amoebae 3. Norwalk virus 4. Rotavirus A 5. hepatitis A 6. HIV v. protozoa and parasites vi. bacteriophages c. Antibiotic resistance genes prevalence in environment (brief, as already discussed in chapter 3 in detail) d. Tools used to identify antibiotic resistance genes e. Metagenomics of hospital wastewater f. Microbial community of hospital wastewater g. Horizontal gene transfer h. Reference 5. Fate of pathogens and viruses in hospital wastewater and its treatment methods a. Introduction b. Genomics-based, real-time, global pathogen surveillance c. Complete of list of pathogens in HWW i. Including brief summary of Bacteria, Fungi and viruses d. Treatment options i. UVC- based advanced oxidation processes ii. Electro-peroxone pretreatment iii. Removal of pathogenic bacteria iv. Removal of antibiotic resistance genes v. Bioremediation of HWW using hydrolytic bacteria e. Monitoring treated water prior to release i. Viromic analysis ii. Metagenomics analysis iii. Regular monitoring approaches
iv. Monitoring viable viruses f. References 6. Multidrug resistance genes and pathogenic bacteria in HWW a. Introduction b. Drug resistance bacteria i. multidrug-resistant Aeromonas spp. ii. Bacteroides fragilis group iii. S. aureus MRSA iv. enterobacteriaceae v. influence of HWW on the microbiome and resistome c. Drug resistance genes i. Persistence of antibiotic resistance genes and bacterial community: From source to tap water ii. Presence of antibiotic resistance genes in aerosols and human gut d. Origin and mechanism of drug resistance development i. Model organism or case study ii. Proposed/proof of drug resistance mechanism e. References 7. Cancer treatment chemicals and EDC (hormones) release and fate in HWW a. Introduction b. List of chemicals released in the HWW i. Types and classification ii. Health hazards iii. Radioactive substances iv. Half-life and stability of chemicals released in HWW c. Hormones release i. EDC ii. Their fate and effects on living organisms iii. List of treatment options available d. Guidelines and summary of chemicals concern in HWW e. Challenges in treatment f. References 8. Pharmaceuticals roles in microbial evolution: a. Introduction b. Marine microbiology c. Soil microbiology d. Freshwater microbiology e. References 9. Present scenario in veterinary hospital (research-institute) wastewater microbiology a. Introduction b. Microbes and pathogens associated with animals c. List of animals treated at veterinary hospital or farms word-wide i. Cow ii. Horses iii. Poultry/Chicken farms iv. Pigs v. Sheep farm vi. Fish Farm vii. Pet animals viii. Antibiotic resistance in Pet animals and their convection to human d. Antibiotics released in veterinary hospitals i. Commonly used antibiotics ii. Possible release route to wastewater iii. Antibiotic resistance origin occurs in animal farms or in wastewater e. veterinary hospitals waste disposal and treatment options f. solid waste disposal methods and regulations g. recent studies on veterinary hospitals waste/wastewater h. molecular approaches to detect animal pathogens i. future directions and guidelines
j. References 10. Bacteriophages isolated from HWW and its role in controlling antibiotic resistance bacterial pathogens a. Introduction b. List and classification of bacteriophages c. Phages commonly found in HWW i. Yersinia enterocolitica Bacteriophage From Hospital Wastewater ii. Coli-phages iii. Phage-K for S.aureus d. Role of phages in drug-resistance gene transfer i. Gene transfer mechanism ii. Pathogenicity island iii. Life cycle of phages iv. How do bacteriophages promote antibiotic resistance in the environment? e. Use of phages to control pathogens f. Use in pathogens detection (as bio-receptor in biosensor) g. References 11. Development of molecular methods to control emerging drug resistance pathogens. a. Introduction b. ARG-carrying plasmidome in the cultivable microbial community c. Molecular tools/Biosensors development for drug-resistance bacteria i. PCR ii. Micro-array iii. DNA/DNA hybridization d. Recent approaches to control drug resistance development i. UV-based inactivation of DNA ii. Radiotherapy iii. Advanced studies and proposed methodologies e. References 12. Riboswitch and aptamers: Potential future targets to control drug resistance bacteria a. Introduction b. History of riboswitches and aptamers c. Role of riboswitches i. Mechanism of gene expression control ii. Model study on gene and pathogen control d. Use of aptamers i. Aptamers for pathogen control ii. Aptamers for biosensor development 1. for pathogen detection 2. toxin detection e. Engineering bacteria suing riboswitches and aptamers f. Future directions and summary g. references 13. Treatment of wastewater containing pharmaceuticals – Biological treatment a. Introduction b. Activated sludge process c. Sequential batch reactor d. Membrane bioreactor e. Fluidized bed bioreactor f. Impact on biological treatments g. Novel methods and advanced treatment options h. Removal mechanisms in biological process i. Engineering aspects to improve the treatment efficiency of HWW. j. Technical and Economical evaluation of biological processes. k. Treatment systems for small flows (for ex: Pathology laboratories, private dental establishment., etc.) l. Challenges 14. Role of Chemical treatments in pharmaceuticals degradation and its consequences and environmental risks a. Photocat
b. Photo-fenton process c. Electro-chemical advance oxidation process d. Coupled treatment strategy i. Physico-chemical treatment ii. Biological - chemical treatment iii. Biological – advance oxidation treatment strategy iv. In-situ and Ex-situ coupled treatment process e. Techno-economic comparison for various HWW treatment processes f. Challenges in treatment process 15. HWW treatment scenarios around the globe a. Developed countries i. US ii. UK iii. Europe iv. Australia b. Developing countries i. Asia (China and India) ii. Africa 16. Guidelines for hospital wastewater discharge a. Introduction b. Wastewater discharge to municipal sewer c. On-site treatment d. Worker’s health and safety principles: e. References 17. Future impacts and trends in treatment of HWW a. Emergence of monster bug b. Threats c. Required research action and Proposed remedies d. Summary References
- No. of pages:
- © Elsevier 2020
- 4th May 2020
- Paperback ISBN:
Prof. R. D. Tyagi is an internationally recognized Professor of Biochemical Engineering and biotransformation with ‘Institut national de la recherché Scientifique - Eau, terre, et environnement’, (INRS-ETE), University of Québec, Canada. He also holds Adjunct Professor position at the University of Missouri-Columbia, USA. Prof Tyagi has published over 600 papers/communications, which include 21 books, 75 book chapters, 10 research reports, nine patents, etc. He is Associate Editor of ‘‘Practice Periodical of Hazardous, Toxic & Radioactive Waste Management- Am.Soc.Civil Engineering’’ and serves on the editorial board of Process Biochemistry and Bioresource Technology. He has been recognised by many national and international awards and honours. He is member of ‘‘European Academy of Sciences and Arts’’. He conducts research on hazardous/solids waste management, water/wastewater treatment, and wastewater sludge treatment/disposal, bioconversion of wastewater and wastewater sludge into value added products.
Professor of Biochemical Engineering and biotransformation, Institut national de la recherché scientifique – Eau, terre, et environnement (INRS-ETE), University of Québec, Canada
Xiaolei Zhang is a lecturer at the Clean Energies research group in the school of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Queens University, Belfast UK. She earned her B.Sc and M.Sc from North China Electric Power University, China, 2007 and 2009, respectively, both in thermal engineering. She received her Ph.D. in 2013 from the Royal Institute of Technology-KTH, Stockholm, Sweden. Her doctoral study was macro- and micro-scale modelling of the biomass thermal conversion process. After graduation from Sweden, She worked for one year at the University of Alberta, Canada, as a post-doctoral fellow, on the integral techno-economic and life cycle assessment (energy analysis, economic analysis, and GHG emissions calculation) on processes of biomass gasification, liquifaction, co-firing, etc.
Queens University Belfast, UK
Prof. Ashok Pandey is currently Distinguished Scientist at the Centre for Innovation and Translational Research, CSIR-Indian Institute of Toxicology Research, Lucknow, India and Executive Director (Honorary) at the Centre for Energy and Environmental Sustainability – India. His major research and technological development interests are industrial & environmental biotechnology and energy biosciences, focusing on biomass to biofuels & chemicals, waste to wealth & energy, industrial enzymes, etc. Professor Pandey is Adjunct/Visiting Professor/Scientist in universities in France, Brazil, Canada, China, South Africa, South Korea, Switzerland, etc and also in several universities several in India. He has ~ 1300 publications/communications, which include 16 patents, 83 books, ~ 700 papers and book chapters, etc with h index of 93 and > 38,000 citations (Goggle scholar). Professor Pandey is Editor-in-chief of Bioresource Technology, Honorary Executive Advisor of Journal of Water Sustainability and Journal of Energy and Environmental Sustainability, Subject Editor of Proceedings of National Academy of Sciences, India.
Distinguished Scientist, Centre for Innovation and Translational Research, CSIR-Indian Institute of Toxicology Research, Lucknow, India