Current Developments in Biotechnology and Bioengineering

Current Developments in Biotechnology and Bioengineering

Environmental and Health Impact of Hospital Wastewater

1st Edition - March 31, 2020

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  • Editors: R. Tyagi, Balasubramanian Sellamuthu, Bhagyashree Tiwari, Song Yan, Patrick Drogui, Xiaolei Zhang, Ashok Pandey
  • Paperback ISBN: 9780128197226
  • eBook ISBN: 9780128217191

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Current Developments in Biotechnology and Bioengineering: Environmental and Health Impact of Hospital Wastewater narrates the origin (history) of pharmaceuticals discoveries, hospital wastewater and its environmental and health impacts. It covers microbiology of hospital wastewater (pathogens, multi-drug resistance development, microbial evolution and impacts on humans, animals, fish), advanced treatment options (including biological, physical and chemical methods), and highlights aspects required during hospital wastewater treatment processes. This book provides an amalgamation of all recent scientific information on hospital wastewater which is not available in the current literature.

Key Features

  • Introduces physical, chemical and molecular testing methods for the analysis and characterization of hospital wastewater
  • Discusses the environmental impact and health hazards of hospital wastewater
  • Describes the microbiological aspects of the hospital wastewater, like microbial community, metagenomics, pathogens, VBNC and mechanism of antibiotic resistance development
  • Explains hospital wastewater and its role in microbial evolution
  • Highlights future treatment options, guidelines and drug disposal tactics


Undergraduates, graduate students, researchers, wastewater treatment professionals

Table of Contents

  • 1. Introduction to wastewater microbiology: special emphasis on hospital wastewater

    1.1 Introduction

    1.2 History of wastewater origin and treatment

    1.3 History of microbiology and pathogens discovery

    1.4 Antibiotic discovery

    1.5 Pharmaceuticals in hospital wastewater

    1.6 Presence of pharmacological substances in aquatic environment

    1.7 Conclusion and future perspectives



    2. Pharmaceutical metabolites and their by-products in hospital wastewater

    2.1 Introduction

    2.2 Pharmaceutical metabolites and their classification

    2.3 Route of entry and fate of pharmaceutical compounds

    2.4 Metabolism and transformation mechanism of pharmaceutical compounds

    2.5 Ecotoxicity of pharmaceutical compounds

    2.6 Detection of pharmaceutical compounds

    2.7 Conclusions and perspectives



    3. Physical, chemical, and biological impact (hazard) of hospital wastewater on environment: presence of pharmaceuticals, pathogens, and antibiotic-resistance genes

    3.1 Introduction

    3.2 Pharmaceuticals and pathogens in hospital wastewater

    3.3 The development of antibiotic resistance genes

    3.4 The transportation of pharmaceuticals and pathogens in the environment

    3.5 The prevention of pharmaceuticals and pathogens into environment

    3.6 Conclusions and perspectives


    4. Microbiology of hospital wastewater

    4.1 Introduction

    4.2 Microorganisms and pathogens originating from hospital wastewater

    4.3 Antibiotic-resistance genes prevalence in environment

    4.4 Tools used to identify antibiotic-resistance genes

    4.5 Metagenomics of hospital wastewater

    4.6 Horizontal gene transfer

    4.7 Emerging infectious particles

    4.8 Conclusions and perspectives


    5. Fate of pathogens and viruses in hospital wastewater and their treatment methods

    5.1 Introduction

    5.2 Pathogen surveillance and detection in hospital wastewater

    5.3 Types of pathogens present in hospital wastewater

    5.4 Treatment methods available for pathogens present in hospital wastewater

    5.5 Treated water monitoring and analysis

    5.6 Summary

    5.7 Conclusions and perspectives



    6. Multidrug-resistant genes and pathogenic bacteria in hospital wastewater

    6.1 Introduction

    6.2 Origin and mechanism of drug resistance

    6.3 Antifungal drug resistance

    6.4 Antibiotic-resistance bacteria

    6.5 Antibiotic-resistance genes

    6.6 Conclusions and perspectives



    7. Cancer treatment drugs and endocrine-disrupting chemicals release and fate in hospital wastewater

    7.1 Introduction

    7.2 List of chemicals released in the hospital wastewater

    7.3 Endocrine-disrupting chemicals

    7.4 Challenges in hospital wastewater treatment

    7.5 Conclusions and perspectives



    8. Pharmaceuticals roles in microbial evolution

    8.1 Introduction

    8.2 Microbial evolution and adaptation

    8.3 Aquatic environment microbiology

    8.4 Soil microbiology

    8.5 Effect on plants, animals, and humans in long run

    8.6 Conclusions and perspectives



    9. Present scenario of antibiotic use in veterinary practice: importance of wastewater microbiology

    9.1 Introduction

    9.2 Antibiotic released in veterinary applications

    9.3 Microbial association with animals

    9.4 Dissemination of animal pathogens to environment

    9.5 Animal viruses in wastewater

    9.6 Recent studies on wastewater associated with animals

    9.7 Molecular detection of veterinary pathogens

    9.8 Policy interventions in animal health

    9.9 Conclusions and perspectives



    10. Bacteriophages isolated from hospital wastewater and its role in controlling drug-resistant pathogens

    10.1 Introduction

    10.2 Background of bacteriophages (Φ)

    10.3 Classification of bacteriophages

    10.4 Phages commonly found in hospital wastewater

    10.5 Role of phages in drug-resistance gene transfer

    10.6 General (vast) applications of bacteriophages in different fields

    10.7 Limitations of phage use in real world applications

    10.8 Removal of phages from wastewater treatment plant

    10.9 Conclusions and perspectives



    11. Development of molecular methods to detect and control emerging drug-resistance pathogens

    11.1 Introduction

    11.2 Antibiotic-resistance gene-carrying plasmidome in the cultivable microbial community

    11.3 Molecular tools/biosensors development for detection

    of drug-resistance bacteria and genes

    11.4 Recent approaches to control drug resistance development

    11.5 Conclusions and perspectives



    12. Riboswitches and aptamers: potential future targets

    to control drug-resistant bacteria

    12.1 Introduction

    12.2 History of riboswitches and aptamers

    12.3 Role of riboswitches

    12.4 Applications of aptamers

    12.5 Engineering bacteria using riboswitches and aptamers

    12.6 Conclusions and perspectives



    13. Treatment of wastewater containing pharmaceuticals: biological treatment

    13.1 Introduction

    13.2 Activated sludge process

    13.3 Sequential batch reactor

    13.4 Membrane bioreactor

    13.5 Fluidized bed biofilm reactor and moving bed biofilm


    13.6 The impact of property of pharmaceuticals on the removal

    13.7 Novel methods and advanced treatment options

    13.8 Engineering aspects to improve pharmaceuticals removal with biological process of wastewater treatment

    13.9 Technical and economical evaluation of biological processes

    13.10 Treatment systems for small flows

    13.11 Effect of climate change on the microbiology of the biological treatment process in removing the pharmaceuticals

    13.12 Conclusions and perspectives



    Further reading

    14. Role of chemical treatments in pharmaceuticals degradation and its consequences and environmental risks

    14.1 Introduction

    14.2 Photocatalysis

    14.3 Fenton-type processes

    14.4 The electrochemical advance oxidation process

    14.5 Treatment of pharmaceutical pollutants by combined wastewater treatment processes

    14.6 By-products identification

    14.7 Technoeconomic comparison for various hospital wastewater treatment processes

    14.8 Challenges in the treatment process

    14.9 Conclusion and perspectives


    Further reading

    15. Hospital wastewater treatment scenario around the globe

    15.1 Introduction

    15.2 Global scenario of hospital wastewater treatment

    15.3 Status of hospital wastewater management in developed countries

    15.4 Status of hospital wastewater management in developing countries

    15.5 Other countries

    15.6 Conclusions and perspectives



    16. Guidelines for hospital wastewater discharge

    16.1 Introduction

    16.2 Guideline of hospital wastewater discharge to municipal sewer

    16.3 On-site treatment of hospital wastewater

    16.4 Worker’s health and safety principles

    16.5 Conclusions and perspectives



    17. Future impacts and trends in treatment of hospital wastewater

    17.1 Introduction

    17.2 Emerging infectious diseases

    17.3 Threats

    17.4 Required research action and proposed remedies

    17.5 Effect of global warming on pathogens survival

    17.6 Conclusions and perspectives



Product details

  • No. of pages: 668
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Elsevier 2020
  • Published: March 31, 2020
  • Imprint: Elsevier
  • Paperback ISBN: 9780128197226
  • eBook ISBN: 9780128217191

About the Editors

R. Tyagi

Prof. R. D. Tyagi is an internationally recognized Professor of Biochemical Engineering and biotransformation with ‘Institut national de la recherché Scientifique - Eau, terre, et environnement’, (INRS-ETE), University of Québec, Canada. He also holds Adjunct Professor position at the University of Missouri-Columbia, USA. Prof Tyagi has published over 600 papers/communications, which include 21 books, 75 book chapters, 10 research reports, nine patents, etc. He is Associate Editor of ‘‘Practice Periodical of Hazardous, Toxic & Radioactive Waste Management- Am.Soc.Civil Engineering’’ and serves on the editorial board of Process Biochemistry and Bioresource Technology. He has been recognised by many national and international awards and honours. He is member of ‘‘European Academy of Sciences and Arts’’. He conducts research on hazardous/solids waste management, water/wastewater treatment, and wastewater sludge treatment/disposal, bioconversion of wastewater and wastewater sludge into value added products.

Affiliations and Expertise

Biochemical Engineering and Biotransformation, Institut national de la recherché scientifique – Eau, terre, et environnement (INRS-ETE), University of Québec, Canada

Balasubramanian Sellamuthu

Balasubramanian Sellamuthu is currently working as a "principal investigator” in life science domain at the company “Security and Protection international (SPI),” Ottawa, Canada. At SPI, Dr. Sellamuthu developing “fiber optic and screen printed electrodes” based biosensors for detection of illicit drugs, toxins, and pathogens present in diverse environment and water. Additionally, Dr. Sellamuthu is working as a research agent at "Centre de recherche du Centre Hospitalier de l’Universite de Montreal (CRCHUM)," Montreal, Canada Dr. Sellamuthu has 17 years of research experience in Microbiology, molecular biology and green biotechnology at both academic and industries (BioTEPP, HET, and MDDEP) in Canada. He has one patent, published 24 papers, 14 papers in conferences proceedings, 18 book chapters and 6 industrial/scientific reports.

Affiliations and Expertise

Microbiology, Molecular Biology and Environmental (Green) Biotechnology, Centre de Recherche du CHUM, University of Montreal, Montréal, Québec, Canada

Bhagyashree Tiwari

Dr. Bhagyashree Tiwari received her Ph.D. in water sciences from Institut national de la recherche Scientifique (INRS), Université du Québec, Canada in 2020. Her research work focuses on the development as well as optimization of various water and wastewater treatment techniques, production of value-added products, such as, biopolymers from waste, identification, and characterization of microscopic organisms and on molecular biology approach for emerging contaminant removal. Previously, Dr. Tiwari was a MITACS-ELEVATE Postdoctoral Fellow at INRS, Université du Québec, Canada. She has published several peer-reviewed journal papers, over 15 book chapters, edited 1 book and has presented in many national and international conferences. She is also the recipient of several awards, prominent among them are the Philip Jones award from Canadian Association on Water Quality in 33rd Eastern Canadian Symposium on Water Quality Research, best oral research presentation award in 7th International forum on Industrial Bioprocess in Wuxi, China. She received the prestigious mobility grant from Venice International University, Italy.

Affiliations and Expertise

Industrial and Environmental Biotechnology, Institut national de la recherche scientifique – Eau, terre, et environnement (INRS-ETE), Universite of Quebec, Canada

Song Yan

Dr Yan Song research focuses on: the production of bioplastics, biodiesel, value added products using wastewater and sludge (biosolids), greenhouse gas emissions from wastewater and sludge treatment processes; and wastewater and sludge treatment process control. Dr. Yan has published 76 papers in refereed journals and presented 60 papers in national and international conferences. She is author of 2 books, 40 book chapters, and many scientific reports. Dr. Yan was part of the team which received the Superior Achievement Award for Excellence in Environmental Engineering and Science in 2010 and 2015 from American Academy of Environmental Engineers and Scientists (AAEES) for University Research work. She was selected as an Outstanding Reviewer of the ASCE’s Journal of Environmental Engineering in 2012, and is the member of Canadian Association for Water Quality (CAWQ) and International Water Association (IWA).

Affiliations and Expertise

Wastewater Treatment and Biotechnology, Institut national de la recherché scientifique – Eau, terre, et environnement (INRS-ETE), Université of Québec, Canada

Patrick Drogui

Patrick Drogui is professor and researcher at the Institut national de la recherche scientifique’s Centre Eau Terre Environnement. He is an internationally recognized expert in electrochemical and membrane technologies, and oxidative processes for different applications in water treatment from industrial wastewater to potable water. The originality of his research work lies in the development of advanced electrolytic processes for water and wastewater treatment requiring no or minimum addition of chemical products. Co-inventor on 8 patents, Dr. Drogui is currently working on new electrolytic and/or membrane, photo-catalytic, and electro-photo-catalytic processes for water treatment, and the removal of phosphate and emerging contaminants. Prof. Drogui is the author of more than 260 papers published in scientific refereed journals. He is an author of 16 book chapters and 54 industrial and scientific reports. Prof. Patrick Drogui received 4 fellowships and 2 awards for the best research project from Pollutec and for the best paper published in Water Environment Federation, delivered 17 invited conferences and 119 communications and conferences. Prof. Patrick Drogui is a director of CREATE-Program in Environmental Decontamination Technologies and Integrated Water and Wastewater Management (TEDGIEER). Collaborative Research and Training Experience Program (CREATE) from National Science Engineering Research Council (NSERC) of Canada.

Affiliations and Expertise

Professor and researcher, Institut national de la recherche scientifique’s Centre Eau Terre Environnement, Canada

Xiaolei Zhang

Dr. Xiaolei Zhang is currently working in Harbin Institute of Technology (Shenzhen) as assistant professor. She received her Ph.D in Water Science from INRS University of Quebec in 2014. Her research work focuses on municipal wastewater and industrial wastewater treatment; micro-electrolysis for wastewater treatment; advanced oxidation. Dr. Zhang has published more than 40 peer-reviewed journal papers, 9 book chapters, and many conference presentations.

Affiliations and Expertise

Wastewater Treatment and Biotechnology, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology (Shenzhen), China

Ashok Pandey

Ashok Pandey
Professor Ashok Pandey is currently Distinguished Scientist at the Centre for Innovation and Translational Research, CSIR-Indian Institute of Toxicology Research, Lucknow, India and Executive Director (Honorary) at the Centre for Energy and Environmental Sustainability – India. Formerly, he was Eminent Scientist at the Center of Innovative and Applied Bioprocessing, Mohali and Chief Scientist & Head of Biotechnology Division and Centre for Biofuels at CSIR’s National Institute for Interdisciplinary Science and Technology, Trivandrum. His major research and technological development interests are industrial & environmental biotechnology and energy biosciences, focusing on biomass to biofuels & chemicals, waste to wealth & energy, industrial enzymes, etc. Professor Pandey is Adjunct/Visiting Professor/Scientist in universities in France, Brazil, Canada, China, Korea, South Africa, and Switzerland and also in several universities several in India. He has ~1425 publications/communications, which include 16 patents, 90 books, >700 papers and book chapters, etc with h index of 105 and ~48,800 citations (Goggle scholar). He has transferred several technologies to industries and has done industrial consultancy for about a dozen projects for Indian/international industries. Professor Pandey is the recipient of many national and international awards and honours, which include Highest Cited Researcher (Top 1% in the world), Clarivate Analytics, Web of Science (2020, 2019 & 2018); Top scientist in Biotechnology (#1 in India and #8 in the world), Stanford University world ranking (2020); Fellow, World Society of Sustainable Energy Technologies (2020); Fellow, Indian Chemical Society (2020); Distinguished Scientist, VDGOOD Professional Association, India (2020); Distinguished Professor of Eminence with global impact in the area of Biotechnology, Precious Cornerstone University, Nigeria (2020); IconSWM Life-time Achievement Award 2019, International Society for Solid Waste Management, KIIT, Bhubaneshwar, India (2019); Yonsei Outstanding Scholar, Yonsei University, Seoul, Korea (2019); Life-Time Achievement Award from the Biotech Research Society, India (2018); Life-Time Achievement Award from Venus International Research Awards (2018), Most Outstanding Researcher Award from Career360 (2018), Life-Time Achievement Award from the International Society for Energy, Environment and Sustainability (2017); Fellow, Royal Society of Biology, UK (2016); Felow, International Society for Energy, Environment and Sustainability (2016); Academician of European Academy of Sciences and Arts, Austria (2015); Fellow, National Academy of Sciences, India (2012); Fellow, Association of Microbiologists of India (2008); Honorary Doctorate degree from Univesite Blaise Pascal, France (2007); Fellow, International Organization of Biotechnology and Bioengineering (2007); Thomson Scientific India Citation Laureate Award, USA (2006); Fellow, the Biotech Research Society, India (2005); UNESCO Professor (2000); Raman Research Fellowship Award, CSIR (1995); GBF, Germany and CNRS, France Fellowships (1992) and Young Scientist Award (1989), etc. Professor Pandey is Founder President of the Biotech Research Society, India (; Founder & International Coordinator of International Forum on Industrial Bioprocesses, France (, Chairman of the International Society for Energy, Environment & Sustainability (, Editor-in-chief of Bioresource Technology (, Honorary Executive Advisor of Journal of Energy and Environmental Sustainability (, Journal of Systems Microbiology and Biomanufacturing (, Journal of Environmental Sciences and Engineering (, Subject Editor, Proceedings of National Academy of Sciences, India ( and Associate Editor, Biologia – Section Cellular and Molecular Biology ( and editorial board member of several international and Indian journals.

Affiliations and Expertise

Distinguished Scientist, Centre for Innovation and Translational Research, CSIR-Indian Institute of Toxicology Research, Lucknow, India

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  • Student Sun Apr 05 2020


    Interesting book