Crystal Growth of Si for Solar Cells Using Cast Furnaces - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780128197486

Crystal Growth of Si for Solar Cells Using Cast Furnaces

1st Edition

Authors: Kazuo Nakajima
Paperback ISBN: 9780128197486
Imprint: Elsevier
Published Date: 1st October 2019
Page Count: 304
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Crystal Growth of Si for Solar Cells Using Cast Furnaces is the first book written to both comprehensively describe these concepts and technologies and compare the strengths and weaknesses of various techniques. Readers will learn about the basic growth and characterization of Si crystals, including sections on the history of cast methods for Si ingots for solar cells. Methods discussed include the dendrite cast method, as well as other significant technologies, including the high-performance (HP) cast and mono-like cast methods. These concepts, growth mechanisms, growth technologies, and the problems that still need to be solved are all included in this comprehensive volume.

Key Features

  • Covers the concept of crystal growth, providing an understanding of each growth method
  • Discusses the quality of Si ingot, mainly from the viewpoint of crystal defects and their control
  • Reviews fundamental characterization concepts to discern the quality of ingots and wafers
  • Discusses concepts and technologies to establish a low-temperature region in a Si melt using the NOC method in order to obtain a uniform and large Si single ingot with low stress


Materials Scientists, industrial engineers, students, as well as young researchers involved in the R & D of solar cells

Table of Contents

  1. Basic growth and crystallographic quality of Si crystals for solar cells 
    1.1. Si single and multi-crystals
    1.2. Basic growth of Si crystals
    1.3. Crystallographic structure and defects of Si crystals
    1.4. Impurities and their activities in defects
    1.5. Strain and stress
    2. Basic characterization and electrical properties of Si crystals 
    2.1. Methods to measure electrical properties
    2.2. Electrical properties
    2.3. Optical measurement method and optical properties of Si crystals
    2.4. Processes to control electrical and optical properties of Si crystals
     2.5. Si crystal solar cells 
    3. Growth of Si multicrystalline ingots using the conventional cast method
    3.1. Unidirectional growth of Si multicrystalline ingots 
    3.2 Growth behavior of Si multicrystalline ingots
     3.3. Crystal defects and impurities in Si multicrystalline ingots
    3.4. Si3N4 coating materials
    3.5. Electrical properties and solar cells of Si multicrystalline ingots
    3.6. Growth of large scale ingots in industry
    3.7. Key points for improvement
    4. Dendritic cast method
    4.1. Motivation to develop the dendritic cast method
    4.2. Growth and behavior of dendrite crystals using the in-situ observation system
    4.3. Ingot growth controlled by dendrite crystals grown along the bottom of a crucible
    4.4. Arrangement of dendrite crystals 
    4.5. Generation of dislocations
    4.6. Quality and solar-cell performance of Si ingots using the dendritic cast method
    4.7. Pilot furnace for manufacturing industrial scale ingots 
    4.8. Key points for improvement and impact  
    5. High performance (HP) cast method
    5.1 Concept of the HP cast method
    5.2. Control of grain size, grain orientation and grain boundaries using particles
    5.3. Behavior and control of dislocations and dislocation clusters in ingots 
    5.4. Quality of Si ingots using the HP method 
    6. Mono-like cast method
    6.1. Concept of the mono-like cast method
    6.2. How to control to obtain a large single grain 
    6.3. Growth and control of small grains appeared from crucible wall
    6.4. Behavior of dislocations and precipitates in mono-like ingots
    6.5. Quality of Si ingots using the mono-like cast method
    6.6. Key points for improvement
    7. Growth of Si ingots using cast furnaces by the NOC method
    7.1. Development of the NOC method
    7.2. Establishment of the low-temperature region in a Si melt
    7.3. Growth of Si ingots using Si3N4 coated crucibles by the NOC method
    7.4. Growth of Si single ingots using the NOC method
    7.5. Electrical properties and solar cells of Si single ingots 7.
    7.6. Key points for improvement of the NOC method
    8. Future technologies of Si ingots for solar cells
    8.1. Proper grain size and stress in Si multicrystalline ingots
    8.2. Novel technologies for dislocation-free single ingots with large volume using the NOC method
    8.3. Growth of square-shaped ingots using the NOC method
    8.4. Si-Ge multicrystalline ingots


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© Elsevier 2020
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About the Author

Kazuo Nakajima

Professor Kazuo Nakajima is the professor emeritus of IMR Tohoku University, Japan as well as the Pao Yu-Kong Chair with Zhejiang University’s State Key Laboratory of Silicon Materials, China. He is a member of the Japan Society of Applied Physics and the Japanese Association for Crystal Growth and series on the Editorial Board of the Journal of Crystal Growth. In 2006, Dr. Nakajima founded and chaired the 1st International Workshop on Science and Technology of Crystalline Si Solar Cells, a workshop that continues to be held annually. In 2007-2008, he chaired the 4th Asian Conference on Crystal Growth and Crystal Technology (CGCT-4). For his achievements of the crystal growth, the Japanese Association for Crystal Growth awarded him “The 12th Achievement Award & Isamu Akasaki Award” at 2017. He has written over 16 books and handbooks and published over 350 papers, as well as being the inventor or co-inventor of 64 registered patents in the areas of III-V liquid phase epitaxial growth, crystal growth for semiconductors, optical devices, solar cells and plastic deformation.

Affiliations and Expertise

Professor Emeritus, Tohoku University, Japan and Pao Yu-Kong Chair Professor of Zhejiang University’s State Key Laboratory of Silicon Materials, China

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