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Cryogenic Valves for Liquefied Natural Gas Plants - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780323995849

Cryogenic Valves for Liquefied Natural Gas Plants

1st Edition

Author: Karan Sotoodeh
Paperback ISBN: 9780323995849
Imprint: Gulf Professional Publishing
Published Date: 1st May 2022
Page Count: 350
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Natural gas, and liquefied natural gas (LNG), continues to grow as a part of the sustainable energy mix. While oil and gas companies look to lower emissions, one key refinery component that contributes up to 60% of emissions are valves, mainly due to poor design, sealing, and testing. Cryogenic Valves for Liquefied Natural Gas Plants delivers a much-needed reference that focuses on the design, testing, maintenance, material selection, and standards needed to stay environmentally compliant at natural gas refineries.

Covering technical definitions, case studies, and Q&A, the reference includes all ranges of natural gas compounds including LPG, CNG, NGL, and PNG. Key design considerations are included that are specific for cryogenic services, including a case study on cryogenic butterfly valves. The material selection process can be more complex for cryogenic services, so the author goes into more detail about materials that adhere to cryogenic temperature resistance. Most importantly, testing of valves is included in depth, including shell test, closure or seat test, and thermal shock tests, preventing dangerous cryogenic leaks which are very harmful to the environment. Cryogenic Valves for Liquefied Natural Gas Plants is a vital resource for today’s natural gas engineers.

Key Features

  • Learn LNG valve design like sealing selection, wall thickness calculation of the valve body and bonnet, and proper material selection
  • Prevent cryogenic leaks with compliant valve testing
  • Apply natural gas calculations to better support the LNG supply chain
  • Understand valve standards including EN, ISO, and MSS SP


Natural gas engineers, LNG researchers, valve engineers, LNG plant managers

Table of Contents

Chapter 1: Terms and definitions

Chapter 2: Natural gas technology

2.1 Chemical composition

2.2 Gas definitions

2.3 Physical properties

2.3.1 Specific gravity of gas

2.3.2 Gas viscosity

2.3.3 Gas density

2.4 Natural gas laws and calculations

2.4.1 Ideal gas laws

2.4.2 Real gas laws Z-factor calculation Gas formation volume factor and expansion factor

2.5 Natural gas formation and affective parameters

2.6 History of natural gas

2.7 Gas flaring and environmental impacts

2.8 Natural gas applications

2.9 Questions and answers

Chapter 3: LNG Technology

3.1 Introduction to liquified gases

3.1.1. Introduction to LNG

3.1.2 LNG history

3.1.3 LNG value chain exploration and production Liquefaction (Inlet gas reception unit, Gas treatment and sweetening unit, gas dehydration, gas mercury removal, liquefaction, condensate stabilization and fractioning, LNG storage) LNG exportation and transportation LNG import terminals and storage LNG regasification

3.2 Natural gas compounds

3.3 Questions and answers

Chapter 4: Cryogenic valves design features

4.1 Introduction

4.2 Essential cryogenic valves design feature

4.2.1 Extended bonnet and stem

4.4.2 Stem seal and soft seat design

4.2.3 Drip plate

4.2.4. Body/bonnet and extension wall thickness

4.2.5 Body / bonnet connections

4.2.6 Fire safe design

4.2.7 Stem design (Buckling prevention, torsional deflection prevention, general sizing requirement, Blow out prevention)

4.2.8 Cavity relief mechanism

4.2.9 operator design vs required force and torque

4.3 Case study of butterfly valves for cryogenic service

4.3.1 Introduction

4.3.2 End connections

4.3.3 Seat design

4.4. Questions and answers

Chapter 5: Corrosion types and material selection for cryogenic valves in an LNG plant

5.1 Introduction

5.2 Corrosion mechanism in an LNG plant

5.2.1 Carbon dioxide corrosion

5.2.2 Hydrogen sulfide corrosion

5.2.3 Amine corrosion and cracking

5.2.4 Caustic corrosion

5.2.5 pitting and chloride stress cracking corrosion

5.2.6. Microbial induced cracking corrosion (MIC)

5.2.7. Liquid metal embrittlement (LME)

5.2.8. Brittle fracture and low temperature service

5.3 Valves’ materials

5.3.1 Carbon steel

5.3.2 Low temperature carbon steel

5.3.3 Stainless steels

5.3.1 Martensitic stainless steels

5.3.2 austenitic stainless steels

5.3.3 duplex stainless steels

5.3.4 Nickel alloys

5.3.5 Non-metallic materials

5.4 Questions and answers

Chapter 6: Piping, Valves and Actuators Coating Case Studies in Offshore

6.1 Introduction

6.2 BS 6364

6.2.1 General requirements and scope

6.2.2 Design requirements (Extended bonnet and stem, Valve positioning for installation, Cavity pressure relief mechanism, Marking the flow direction on the valve body, Body and bonnet connections, Bonnet extension fabrications and connections, Stem design, Stuffing box design, Globe valve disk design, Required operating force, Fire safe design, Material requirements)

6.2.3 Non-destructive testing (NDT)

6.2.4 Testing

6.2.5 Marking

6.3 MSS SP 134

6.3.1 Scope

6.3.2 Materials

6.3.3 Design

6.3.4 Testing

6.4 ISO 28921-1

6.4.1 Materials

6.4.2 Design (Body and bonnet wall thickness, Extended bonnet, Stem/drip plate design, cavity relief mechanism, Operation means, Fire safe design and electrical continuity)

6.4.3 Valve testing

6.4.4 Valve marking

6.4.5 Valve packing and preservation

6.5 ISO 28921-2

6.6 EN12567

6.6.1 Scope

6.6.2 Testing

6.6.3 Design requirements (Consideration of thermal conditions in transient state, protection against thermal expansion of LNG, Extension due to cryogenic service, External sealing of the valve, Materials, valve operability, attachment of the actuator to the valve, Anti blow out shaft, etc.)

6.7 ISO 21011

6.7.1 Material

6.7.2. Design

6.7.3 Testing

6.8 Questions and answers

Chapter 7: Cryogenic valve testing

7.1 Introduction

7.2 Valve testing

7.2.1 Production testing (Ambient pressure testing, Test location, Test equipment, Pressure measuring equipment, painting or coating of tested valves, test fluid, Extension of test / test failure, Pressure type tests, body or shell test with water, body or shell test with gas, backseat test, closure test)

7.3 Cryogenic tests

7.4 Fire test

7.5 Anti-static test

7.6 Questions and answers


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© Gulf Professional Publishing 2022
1st May 2022
Gulf Professional Publishing
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About the Author

Karan Sotoodeh

Karan Sotoodeh recently earned his PhD in Safety and Reliability in Mechanical Engineering from the University of Stavanger. Previously, Karan was the Senior / Lead Engineer in valves and actuators for Baker Hughes, one of the world’s largest oil field services company. He was responsible for engineering and delivering valves and actuators in subsea manifolds, working with valve suppliers, R&D activities, and maintaining the company’s valve database. He has also worked for AkerSolutions, NLI Engineering, and Nargan Engineers as a senior specialist in piping and valves, assisting with many projects around the world. He is the author of Prevention of Valve Fugitive Emissions in the Oil and Gas Industry and Subsea Valves and Actuators for the Oil and Gas Industry, both published by Elsevier. Karan earned a Master of Research in Mechanical Engineering and a Masters in Oil and Gas Engineering, both from Robert Gordon University of Aberdeen, and a Bachelors in Industrial Engineering from the Iran University of Science and Technology.

Affiliations and Expertise

Senior Lead Engineer, Valves and Actuators, Valve Engineering Group, Manifold department, Baker Hughes, Oslo, Norway

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