Cryogenic Technology and Applications - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780750678872, 9780080457970

Cryogenic Technology and Applications

1st Edition

Authors: A.R. Jha
Hardcover ISBN: 9780750678872
eBook ISBN: 9780080457970
Imprint: Butterworth-Heinemann
Published Date: 16th December 2005
Page Count: 296
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Cryogenic Technology and Applications describes the need for smaller cryo-coolers as a result of the advances in the miniaturization of electrical and optical devices and the need for cooling and conducting efficiency. Cryogenic technology deals with materials at low temperatures and the physics of their behavior at these temps. The book demonstrates the ongoing new applications being discovered for cryo-cooled electrical and optical sensors and devices, with particular emphasis on high-end commercial applications in medical and scientific fields as well as in the aerospace and military industries.

This book summarizes the important aspects of cryogenic technology critical to the design and development of refrigerators, cryo-coolers, and micro-coolers needed by various commercial, industrial, space and military systems. Cryogenic cooling plays an important role in unmanned aerial vehicle systems, infrared search and track sensors, missile warning receivers, satellite tracking systems, and a host of other commercial and military systems.

Key Features

  • Provides an overview of the history of the development of cryogenic technology
  • Includes the latest information on micro-coolers for military and space applications
  • Offers detailed information on high-capacity cryogenic refrigerator systems used in applications such as food storage, high-power microwave and laser sensors, medical diagnostics, and infrared detectors


Mechanical engineers working in cryogenics and low temperature material's behavior. Electrical Engineers working in cryo-cooled sensors and optics. Graduate students in mechanical, electrical and optical engineering.

Table of Contents

Chapter 1: Technology advancements and chronological development history of cryogenic technology

1.0 Introduction 1.1 Terms and phenomena associated with cryogenic engineering 1.2 Prominent contributions to the cryogenic technology 1.3 Critical aspects and issues involved in cryogenics 1.4 Benefits from integration of cryogenic technology 1.4.1 Affordability 1.4 2 Availability 1.5 Early applications of cryogenic technology 1.5.1 Cryogenic technology for production of gases 1.5.2 Cryogenic technology for inert gases 1.5.3 Cryogenic technology for aerospace applications 1.5 4 Cryogenic liquid level controller (LLC) 1.5.5 Cryogenic line regulators 1.6 Gas separation process using cryogenic technology 1.7 Industrial applications of cryogenic fluid technology 1.7.1 Liquid neon 1.7.2 Liquid hydrogen 1.7.3 Liquid nitrogen (LIN) 1.8 Heat capacity of commercial refrigerants 1.9 Cryogenic requirements for frozen food industry 1.9.1 Cold storage requirements 1.10 Cryogenic requirements for medical applications 1.10.1 Cryogenic system requirements for high resolution MRI 1.11 Industrial applications of cryogenic technology 1.11.1 Cryopumping 1.11.2 Nuclear radiation testing 1.11.3 Ice-making machines and ice storage systems 1.11.4 Chilled water storage (CWS) systems 1.12 Summary

Chapter Two: Effects of heat flow on heat exchanger performance and cooler efficiency 2.0 Introduction 2.1 Early developments in cryogenic technology 2.2 Impact of thermodynamic aspects on cryogenic technology on cryogenic coolers 2.2.1 Introduction 2.2.2 Symbols and formulas widely used in thermal analysis 2.3 Types of heat flows 2.3.1 Linear heat flow Impact of linear heat flow on heat exchanger performance 2.3.2 Impact of turbulent heat flow on heat exchanger performance 2.4 Two-dimensional heat flow model 2.4.1 Description of modified-two-fluid model 2.5 Heat transfer rates for heat exchangers 2.5.1 Conduction mode of heat transfer 2.5.2 Convection mode of heat transfer 2.5.3 Radiation mode of heat transfer 2.6 Summary

Chapter Three: Thermodynamic aspects and heat transfer capabilities of heat exchangers for high-capacity coolers 3.0 Introduction 3.1 Modes of heat transfer phenomena under high heat-capacity conditions 3.2 Three distinct laws of heat transfer 3.3 Description of heat transfer modes 3.3.1 Conduction 3.3.2 Radiation 3.3.3 Convection 3.4 Impact of heat transfer modes on heat exchanger performance under high heat- capacity environments 3.4.1 Heat transfer in a planar wall 3.4.2 Heat transfer in a composite wall 3.5 Heat transfer through heat exchanger pipes 3.5.1 Heat flow in cylindrical pipes 3.5.2 Heat flow in an insulated pipe 3.6 Fundamental design aspects for a heat exchanger in a high-capacity cooler 3.6.1 Heat load calculations for heavy-duty heat exchangers 3.6.2 Computations of heat load as a function of flow rate and stream temperatures 3.7 Estimates of heat removal by cold water and forced air 3.8 Computation of overall heat transfer coefficient 3.8.1 Computation of overall hear transfer coefficient under fouling conditions Overall hear transfer coefficient under clean environment 3.9 Computation of critical parameters of heat exchanger 3.9.1 Computation of temperature difference for the counter current flow 3.9.2 Computation of outside surface area of the heat exchanger 3.9.3 Estimation of outside surface areas under clean and fouling conditions 3.9.4 Computation of shell diameter 3.9.5 Computation of number of tubes for the heat exchanger 4.0 Preliminary rating of a heat exchanger 5.0 Summary

Chapter Four: Critical design aspects and performance capabilities of cryocoolers and microcollers with low cooling capacities 4.0 Introduction 4.1 Design aspects and operational requirements 4.2 Performance requirements for cryocoolers 4.2.1 Maintenance aspects and reliability requirements for cryocoolers 4.2.2 Cooling power requirements for cryocoolers Cooling power requirements for microcoolers 4.3 Cryocoolers using high-pressure ratios 4.3.1 Advantages of high-pressure expansion ratio 4.4 Cooling capacity of cryocooler 4.5 Temperature stabilization and optimization mass flow rate for cryocoolers 4.6 Advanced technologies for integration in cryocoolers 4.6.1 Pulse Tube Refrigerator PTR (PTR) system design aspects and performance capabilities best suited for cryocooler technology 4.7 Classification of cryocoolers 4.7.1 Stirling-cycle cryocooler 4.7.2 Self-regulated Joule-Thomson (JT) Cryocooler 4.7.3 Boreas-cycloe cryocooler 4.7.4 Closed-cycle cryogenic (CCC) refrigerator 4.7.5 Stirling Cryocooler using advanced technologies 4.7.6 GM cryocoolers employing JT valves 4.7.7 Benefits of GM-cycle cryocoolers 4.7.8 Collin-cycle cryocoolers 4.7.9 High-temperature refrigerator systems Cooling power requirements at higher superconducting temperatures 4.8 Performance capabilities of microcoolers 4.8.1 Potential cooling schemes for microcoolers 4.9 Performance limitations of microcoolers 4.10 Specific weight and power estimates for cryocoolers 4.11 Thermodynamic aspects and efficiency of cryocoolers 4.1.1 Thermal analysis of refrigeration system 4.12 Weight requirements for cryogens used by cryocoolers 4.13 Characteristics and storage requirements for potential cryogens 4.14 Classifications of cryocoolers [10] 4.15 Summary

Chapter Five: Performance requirements for moderate and high capacity refrigeration systems 5.0 Introduction 5.1 Description of high-capacity refrigeration systems 5.1.1 Clause-cycle refrigeration system 5.1.2 Reversed-Brayton cycle refrigeration system 5.2 Refrigeration system with moderate-cooling capacity 5.2.1 GM-cycle refrigeration system 5.2.2 JT-cycle refrigeration system 5.2.3 Brayton-cycle refrigeration system 5.3 Turbo-machinery refrigeration system 5.4 Coefficient of performance for various cooling systems 5.4.1 Coefficient of performance for an ideal Brayton-cycle cooler 5.5. Cryogenic Dewar and storage tank requirements for various cooler applications 5.6 Storage tank requirements for space and missile applications 5.6.1 Liquid-feed requirements for storage systems 5.6.1 Transfer line requirements 5.7 Operating pressure and temperature requirements for storage of liquefied gases 5.8 Cooling agents for various cooling system configurations 5.8.1 Characteristics of various cryogens 5.8.2 Solid cryogen characteristics 5.83 Techniques to reduce heat-leakage and cryogen weight 5.9 Performance comparison of various cryogenic coolers 5.10 Summary

Chapter Six: Cryocoolers and microcoolers requirements best suited for scientific research, military, and space applications 6.0 Introduction 6.1Cryocooler requirements for various applications 6.1.1 Maintenance requirements for cryocoolers 6.2 Performance parameters for various cryocoolers 6.2.1 Dilution-magnetic cryocooler 6.2.2 Collins-helium liquidifier-based cryocooler 6.2.3 Gifford-McMahan (GM)-cryogenic refrigerator 6.2.4 GM/JT refrigerator system 6.2.5 Stirling-cycle cryocooler 6.2.6 Self-regulated JT cryocooler 6.2.7 Closed-cycle, Split-type, Stirling cryocooler 6.3 Cooling schemes used by various systems 6.3.1 Choice of cooling scheme 6.4 Microcooler requirements for critical Military and Space applications 6.5 Unique design concepts and materials for microcoolers and cryocoolers 6.5.1 Microcooler and cryocooler designs incorporating rare-earth materials 6.5.2 Cryocooler design with high-pressure ratio and counterflow heat exchanger 6.6 Critical thermodynamic aspects for cryocoolers requiring rapid cooling time 6.6.1 Impact of thermodynamic efficiency on various cooling cycles 6.7 Techniques to optimize cooling capacity 6.8 Optimization of temperature stability and mass flow rate 6.9 Cryocooler design requirements for Critical Space applications 6.10 Summary

Chapter Seven: Integration of the latest cooler design concepts to improve cooling efficiency, reliability and capacity 7.0 Introduction 7.1 Unique design concepts and advanced materials 7.2 Design concepts for a PTR cryocooler 7.2.1 Performance capabilities of a PTR system 7.2.2 Thermodynamic aspects of pulse cryocooler Derivation of expressions for various operating parameters 7.2.3 Minimum refrigeration temperature (MRT) of a cryocooler 7.3 Ways and means to improve PTR performance 7.3.1 Impact of coolant and regenerative materials on cooler performance 7.3.2 Parametric analysis to predict PTR system performance 7.3.3 Description of regenerative materials Impact of heat leakage on cooler efficiency and cool-down time 7.4 Cryocooler designs for industrial applications 7.4.1 Cooling power and adiabatic efficiency computations 7.5 Multi-bypass and active buffer-stage techniques to improve PTR cooling efficiency and capacity 7.5.1 Implementation of active-buffer stages for efficiency enhancement 7.5.2 Integration of multi-pass technique to improve cooling efficiency 7.6 Cryocooler requirements for microwave, MM-wave, Infrared and laser systems 7.6.1 Cooler requirements for microwave and MM-wave systems 7.6.2 Cryogenic cooler requirements for infrared devices and sensors 7.6.3 Refrigerator requirements for high power laser systems 7.7 Cryogenic coolers for sonar applications 7.8 Cryogenic coolers for medical applications 7.9 Summary

Chapter Eight: Requirements for cryogenic materials and accessories needed for various cryogenic coolers 8.0 Introduction 8.1 Cryocooler requirements for space-based communications, surveillance, and reconnaissance systems 8.1.1 Cooler requirements for front-end components 8.2 Cryocooler requirements for military system applications 8.2.1 Tactical coolers for missiles with MM-wave, Infrared and optical seekers 8.3 Dilution refrigeration systems for scientific research 8.4 Cryocoolers for higher cryogenic temperatures 8.4.1 Mechanical refrigerator (MR) 8.4.2 Magnetic refrigerator systems (MRS) 8.4.3 Thermoelectric (TE) coolers Performance parameters of TE coolers 8.5 Heat pipe concept for higher cryogenic temperatures 8.5.1 Performance limitations due to working fluids in heat pipes 8.6 Impact of material properties on cooler performance 8.6.1 Properties of various materials used in cryogenic coolers 8.6.2 Thermal properties of materials at cryogenic temperatures 8.6.3 Electrical properties of materials at cryogenic temperatures 8.6.4 Mechanical properties of materials at cryogenic temperatures 8.7 Characteristics of potential refrigerants 8.7.1 Cooling capacities of liquid cryogens 8.7.2 Cooling with solid cryogens 8.8 Maintenance requirements for cooler accessories 8.8.1 Requirements for critical accessories 8.8.2 Cryogenic insulation requirements 8.8.3 Impact of cryogenic leak in tubes, fittings, and valves 8.8.4 Impact of thermo-acoustic oscillations on cryogenic coolers 8.9 Summary


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About the Author

A.R. Jha

Affiliations and Expertise

Jha Technical Consulting Services, Cerritos, CA, USA