Crop Safeners for Herbicides  - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780123329103, 9780323151450

Crop Safeners for Herbicides

1st Edition

Development, Uses, and Mechanisms of Action

Editors: Kriton Hatzios
eBook ISBN: 9780323151450
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 28th November 1988
Page Count: 414
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Crop Safeners for Herbicides aims to discuss the issue of chemical manipulation of crop tolerance to herbicides. This book resulted from a symposium titled ""Chemical Manipulation of Crop Tolerance to Herbicides"". Several chapters included herein are added contributions from experts outside of the symposium.
The book not only serves as reference for the knowledge of the agronomic uses, development, chemistry, and mechanisms of action herbicide safeners, but it also assesses the impact of safeners all around the world. It also presents a discussion on alternative approaches that increases herbicide selectivity and explores future trends. Comprised of 16 chapters and divided into four parts, the book starts with a section on the development and uses of herbicide safeners. The text also offers a critical and extensive review of academic and industrial perspectives in the development of herbicide safeners in different parts of the world. Part 2 of this book starts with an overview of the physiological, biochemical, and molecular aspects of the mechanisms, and then further delves in to the prevalent mechanisms of action of selected classes of herbicide safeners. The third part of this book provides data on the potential use of alternative approaches for the manipulation of crop tolerance to herbicides. The last part is a summary of the progress and prospects of the topic of crop safening against herbicide injury.
The book serves as an important resource for students and professionals interested in the field of agriculture, agronomy, pest research, weed science, and plant pathology and physiology.

Table of Contents



Part One. Development and Uses of Herbicide Safeners

1. Development of Herbicide Safeners: Industrial and University Perspectives

I. Introduction and Terminology

II. Need for Herbicide Safeners

III. Development of Herbicide Safeners

IV. Application of Herbicide Safeners in the Field

V. Factors Affecting Field Performance of Herbicide Safeners

VI. Residues and Adverse Effects of Herbicide Safeners

VII. Concluding Remarks


2. Crop Safening against Herbicides in Japan

I. Introduction

II. Improvements of Herbicide Formulations for Crop Safening

III. Structural Modification of Herbicides for Crop Safening

IV. Use of Crop Safener/Herbicide Combinations in Japan

V. Concluding Remarks


Part Two. Physiological and Biochemical Mechanisms of Action of Herbicide Safeners

3. Mechanisms of Action of Herbicide Safeners: An Overview

I. Introduction

II. Mechanisms of Safener Action: Fundamentals

III. Mechanisms of Safener Action: Physiological and Biochemical Aspects

IV. Mechanisms of Safener Action: Molecular Aspects

V. Concluding Remarks


4. Influence of Herbicide Safeners on Herbicide Metabolism

I. Introduction

II. Metabolism of Thiocarbamate Herbicides in Plants

III. Effect of Safeners on Thiocarbamate Metabolism

IV. Metabolism of Chloroacetanilide Herbicides in Plants

V. Effect of Safeners on Chloroacetanilide Metabolism

VI. Discussion


5. Effects of Herbicide Safeners on Levels and Activity of Cytochrome P-450 and Other Enzymes of Corn

I. Introduction

II. Cytochrome P-450 Levels and Activity

III. Cellular Thiols and Glutathione-Related Enzymes

IV. Other Selected Enzymes

V. Concluding Remarks


6. Mechanisms of Action of Dichloroacetamide Safeners

I. Introduction

II. Theories on the Mode of Action of Dichlormid

III. Subtoxic Herbicide Pretreatments

IV. Studies with the Safener BAS 145 138

V. Discussion and Concluding Remarks


7. Mechanisms of Action of Thiazole Safeners

I. Introduction

II. Results and Discussion

III. Concluding Remarks


8. Differential Effects of Oxabetrinil and Fenclorim against Metolachlor and Pretilachlor Injury on Various Grasses

I. Introduction

II. Effect of Safeners on Herbicidal Activity

III. Physiological Interactions of Acetanilide Herbicides and Their Safeners in Plants

IV. Influence of Safeners on Herbicide Uptake

V. Influence of Oxabetrinil and Fenclorim on the Depletion Rate of [14C]Metolachlor in Four Grasses

VI. Discussion and Concluding Remarks


9. Protection of Grass Crops from Sulfonylurea and Imidazolinone Toxicity

I. Introduction

II. Mechanism of Action of Sulfonylurea and Imidazolinone Herbicides

III. Selectivity Mechanisms for Sulfonylurea and Imidazolinone Herbicides

IV. Protection from Herbicide Toxicity

V. Concluding Remarks


10. Terpenoid Biosynthesis as a Site of Action for Herbicide Safeners

I. Introduction

II. Plant Growth Responses to Carbamothioates and Chloroacetanilide Herbicides

III. Total Terpenoid Synthesis

IV. Inhibition of Gibberellic Acid Precursor Biosynthesis by Herbicides

V. Structure-Activity Relationships

VI. Enzyme Requirements

VII. Carotenogenic Inhibition

VIII. Concluding Remarks


Part Three. Alternative Approaches for Crop Safening against Herbicide Injury

11. The Use of Activated Carbon and Other Adsorbents as Herbicide Safeners

I. Introduction

II. History

III. Manufacture of Activated Carbon

IV. Characteristics of Carbon as an Adsorbent

V. Soil-Herbicide-Activated Carbon Adsorption Interactions

VI. Effects of Activated Carbon on Plant Growth in Soils and Nutrient Culture

VII. Uses of Activated Carbon as a Herbicide Safener

VIII. Methods of Activated Carbon Application

IX. Other Agriculturally Related Applications of Activated Carbon as a Pesticide Adsorbent

X. Herbicide Adsorbents Other than Activated Carbon

XI. Concluding Remarks


12. Controlled Release as a Factor for Protection of Crop Species from Herbicide Injury

I. Introduction

II. Controlled Release Technology

III. Candidate Herbicides and Their Uses

IV. Case History: Lignin as a Controlled Release Agent

V. Concluding Remarks


13. Growth Regulators, Fungicides, and Other Agrochemicals as Herbicide Safeners

I. Introduction

II. Growth Regulators as Herbicide Safeners

III. Fungicides as Herbicide Safeners

IV. Other Agrochemicals as Herbicide Safeners

V. Case History: Triapenthenol and BAS 140 810 as Safeners against Metribuzin Injury in Soybeans

VI. Concluding Remarks


14. Herbicide Prosafeners: Chemistry, Safening Activity, and Mode of Action

I. Introduction

II. N-Phenylmaleamic Acids and Their Progenitors as Herbicide Safeners

III. Safening Properties of Af-Phenylmaleamic Acids and Their Progenitors

IV. Mode of Safening Action of TV-Phenylmaleamic Acids

V. Concluding Remarks


15. Microbial Herbicide Safeners

I. Introduction

II. Microbial Degradation of Major Classes of Herbicides

III. Prospects for the Use of Microbes as Herbicide Safeners

IV. Concluding Remarks


Part Four. Summary

16. Herbicide Safeners: Progress and Prospects

I. Introduction

II. Expansion of the Safener Concept

III. Mechanisms of Safener Action: The Challenge Continues

IV. Development of Safeners in the Future

V. Concluding Remarks


Appendix. Common or Code Names and Corresponding Chemical Names of Herbicides, Safeners, and Other Agrochemicals Mentioned in the Text



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Academic Press
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Kriton Hatzios

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