Crop Safeners for Herbicides

Crop Safeners for Herbicides

Development, Uses, and Mechanisms of Action

1st Edition - November 28, 1988

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  • Editor: Kriton Hatzios
  • eBook ISBN: 9780323151450

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Crop Safeners for Herbicides aims to discuss the issue of chemical manipulation of crop tolerance to herbicides. This book resulted from a symposium titled ""Chemical Manipulation of Crop Tolerance to Herbicides"". Several chapters included herein are added contributions from experts outside of the symposium. The book not only serves as reference for the knowledge of the agronomic uses, development, chemistry, and mechanisms of action herbicide safeners, but it also assesses the impact of safeners all around the world. It also presents a discussion on alternative approaches that increases herbicide selectivity and explores future trends. Comprised of 16 chapters and divided into four parts, the book starts with a section on the development and uses of herbicide safeners. The text also offers a critical and extensive review of academic and industrial perspectives in the development of herbicide safeners in different parts of the world. Part 2 of this book starts with an overview of the physiological, biochemical, and molecular aspects of the mechanisms, and then further delves in to the prevalent mechanisms of action of selected classes of herbicide safeners. The third part of this book provides data on the potential use of alternative approaches for the manipulation of crop tolerance to herbicides. The last part is a summary of the progress and prospects of the topic of crop safening against herbicide injury. The book serves as an important resource for students and professionals interested in the field of agriculture, agronomy, pest research, weed science, and plant pathology and physiology.

Table of Contents

  • Contributors


    Part One. Development and Uses of Herbicide Safeners

    1. Development of Herbicide Safeners: Industrial and University Perspectives

    I. Introduction and Terminology

    II. Need for Herbicide Safeners

    III. Development of Herbicide Safeners

    IV. Application of Herbicide Safeners in the Field

    V. Factors Affecting Field Performance of Herbicide Safeners

    VI. Residues and Adverse Effects of Herbicide Safeners

    VII. Concluding Remarks


    2. Crop Safening against Herbicides in Japan

    I. Introduction

    II. Improvements of Herbicide Formulations for Crop Safening

    III. Structural Modification of Herbicides for Crop Safening

    IV. Use of Crop Safener/Herbicide Combinations in Japan

    V. Concluding Remarks


    Part Two. Physiological and Biochemical Mechanisms of Action of Herbicide Safeners

    3. Mechanisms of Action of Herbicide Safeners: An Overview

    I. Introduction

    II. Mechanisms of Safener Action: Fundamentals

    III. Mechanisms of Safener Action: Physiological and Biochemical Aspects

    IV. Mechanisms of Safener Action: Molecular Aspects

    V. Concluding Remarks


    4. Influence of Herbicide Safeners on Herbicide Metabolism

    I. Introduction

    II. Metabolism of Thiocarbamate Herbicides in Plants

    III. Effect of Safeners on Thiocarbamate Metabolism

    IV. Metabolism of Chloroacetanilide Herbicides in Plants

    V. Effect of Safeners on Chloroacetanilide Metabolism

    VI. Discussion


    5. Effects of Herbicide Safeners on Levels and Activity of Cytochrome P-450 and Other Enzymes of Corn

    I. Introduction

    II. Cytochrome P-450 Levels and Activity

    III. Cellular Thiols and Glutathione-Related Enzymes

    IV. Other Selected Enzymes

    V. Concluding Remarks


    6. Mechanisms of Action of Dichloroacetamide Safeners

    I. Introduction

    II. Theories on the Mode of Action of Dichlormid

    III. Subtoxic Herbicide Pretreatments

    IV. Studies with the Safener BAS 145 138

    V. Discussion and Concluding Remarks


    7. Mechanisms of Action of Thiazole Safeners

    I. Introduction

    II. Results and Discussion

    III. Concluding Remarks


    8. Differential Effects of Oxabetrinil and Fenclorim against Metolachlor and Pretilachlor Injury on Various Grasses

    I. Introduction

    II. Effect of Safeners on Herbicidal Activity

    III. Physiological Interactions of Acetanilide Herbicides and Their Safeners in Plants

    IV. Influence of Safeners on Herbicide Uptake

    V. Influence of Oxabetrinil and Fenclorim on the Depletion Rate of [14C]Metolachlor in Four Grasses

    VI. Discussion and Concluding Remarks


    9. Protection of Grass Crops from Sulfonylurea and Imidazolinone Toxicity

    I. Introduction

    II. Mechanism of Action of Sulfonylurea and Imidazolinone Herbicides

    III. Selectivity Mechanisms for Sulfonylurea and Imidazolinone Herbicides

    IV. Protection from Herbicide Toxicity

    V. Concluding Remarks


    10. Terpenoid Biosynthesis as a Site of Action for Herbicide Safeners

    I. Introduction

    II. Plant Growth Responses to Carbamothioates and Chloroacetanilide Herbicides

    III. Total Terpenoid Synthesis

    IV. Inhibition of Gibberellic Acid Precursor Biosynthesis by Herbicides

    V. Structure-Activity Relationships

    VI. Enzyme Requirements

    VII. Carotenogenic Inhibition

    VIII. Concluding Remarks


    Part Three. Alternative Approaches for Crop Safening against Herbicide Injury

    11. The Use of Activated Carbon and Other Adsorbents as Herbicide Safeners

    I. Introduction

    II. History

    III. Manufacture of Activated Carbon

    IV. Characteristics of Carbon as an Adsorbent

    V. Soil-Herbicide-Activated Carbon Adsorption Interactions

    VI. Effects of Activated Carbon on Plant Growth in Soils and Nutrient Culture

    VII. Uses of Activated Carbon as a Herbicide Safener

    VIII. Methods of Activated Carbon Application

    IX. Other Agriculturally Related Applications of Activated Carbon as a Pesticide Adsorbent

    X. Herbicide Adsorbents Other than Activated Carbon

    XI. Concluding Remarks


    12. Controlled Release as a Factor for Protection of Crop Species from Herbicide Injury

    I. Introduction

    II. Controlled Release Technology

    III. Candidate Herbicides and Their Uses

    IV. Case History: Lignin as a Controlled Release Agent

    V. Concluding Remarks


    13. Growth Regulators, Fungicides, and Other Agrochemicals as Herbicide Safeners

    I. Introduction

    II. Growth Regulators as Herbicide Safeners

    III. Fungicides as Herbicide Safeners

    IV. Other Agrochemicals as Herbicide Safeners

    V. Case History: Triapenthenol and BAS 140 810 as Safeners against Metribuzin Injury in Soybeans

    VI. Concluding Remarks


    14. Herbicide Prosafeners: Chemistry, Safening Activity, and Mode of Action

    I. Introduction

    II. N-Phenylmaleamic Acids and Their Progenitors as Herbicide Safeners

    III. Safening Properties of Af-Phenylmaleamic Acids and Their Progenitors

    IV. Mode of Safening Action of TV-Phenylmaleamic Acids

    V. Concluding Remarks


    15. Microbial Herbicide Safeners

    I. Introduction

    II. Microbial Degradation of Major Classes of Herbicides

    III. Prospects for the Use of Microbes as Herbicide Safeners

    IV. Concluding Remarks


    Part Four. Summary

    16. Herbicide Safeners: Progress and Prospects

    I. Introduction

    II. Expansion of the Safener Concept

    III. Mechanisms of Safener Action: The Challenge Continues

    IV. Development of Safeners in the Future

    V. Concluding Remarks


    Appendix. Common or Code Names and Corresponding Chemical Names of Herbicides, Safeners, and Other Agrochemicals Mentioned in the Text


Product details

  • No. of pages: 414
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Academic Press 1988
  • Published: November 28, 1988
  • Imprint: Academic Press
  • eBook ISBN: 9780323151450

About the Editor

Kriton Hatzios

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