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Crop Physiology - 2nd Edition - ISBN: 9780124171046, 9780124169791

Crop Physiology

2nd Edition

Applications for Genetic Improvement and Agronomy

Authors: Victor Sadras Daniel Calderini
Hardcover ISBN: 9780124171046
eBook ISBN: 9780124169791
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 15th September 2014
Page Count: 564
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From climate change to farming systems to genetic modification of organisms, Crop Physiology, Second Edition provides a practical tool for understanding the relationships and challenges of successful cropping. With a focus on genetic improvement and agronomy, this book addresses the challenges of environmentally sound production of bulk and quality food, fodder, fiber, and energy which are of ongoing international concern. The second edition of Crop Physiology continues to provide a unique analysis of these topics while reflecting important changes and advances in the relevant science and implementation systems.

Contemporary agriculture confronts the challenge of increasing demand in terms of quantitative and qualitative production targets. These targets have to be achieved against the background of soil and water scarcity, worldwide and regional shifts in the patterns of land use driven by both climate change and the need to develop crop-based sources of energy, and the environmental and social aspects of agricultural sustainability.

Key Features

  • Provides a view of crop physiology as an active source of methods, theories, ideas, and tools for application in genetic improvement and agronomy
  • Written by leading scientists from around the world
  • Combines environment-specific cropping systems and general principles of crop science to appeal to advanced students, and scientists in agriculture-related disciplines, from molecular sciences to natural resources management


Primary: Agronomists; plant geneticists and plant breeding professionals; crop physiologists, ecologists, and ecophysiologists; plant physiologists Secondary: horticultural scientists; those involved with grain and cereal crops and sustainable agriculture; environmental microbiologists Tertiary: Students of plant breeding and crop ecophysiology

Table of Contents

  • List of contributors
  • Preface
  • Acknowledgments
  • Chapter 1: Crop physiology: applications for breeding and agronomy
    • Abstract
    • 1. Introduction
    • 2. Levels of organization and scalability
    • 3. Book structure and themes
  • Part I: Farming systems
    • Chapter 2: High-yield maize–soybean cropping systems in the US Corn Belt
      • Abstract
      • 1. Introduction
      • 2. Cropping systems
      • 3. Productivity and resource-use efficiency
      • 4. Challenges to higher yields and efficiencies
      • 5. Concluding remarks
    • Chapter 3: Farming systems in China: Innovations for sustainable crop production
      • Abstract
      • 1. Introduction
      • 2. The abiotic environments for crop production
      • 3. Farming system diversity and spatial distribution
      • 4. Yield enhancement via genetic improvement and agronomic innovation
      • 5. Attempts to improve resource-use efficiency
      • 6. Cropping responses and adaptations to warming
      • 7. Concluding remarks
    • Chapter 4: Improving farming systems in northern Europe
      • Abstract
      • 1. Special features of northern European conditions for crop production
      • 2. Adaptation: a matter of crop responses when coping with northern conditions
      • 3. Gaps between potential and actual yields
      • 4. Challenges and practices in attempting to improve sustainability
      • 5. The future and climate change
      • 6. Concluding remarks
    • Chapter 5: Raising productivity of maize-based cropping systems in eastern and southern Africa: Step-wise intensification options
      • Abstract
      • 1. Introduction
      • 2. Maize-based farming systems in eastern and southern Africa
      • 3. Sustainable intensification of sub-Saharan agriculture
      • 4. Methods
      • 5. Results
      • 6. Discussion and conclusions
      • Acknowledgements
    • Chapter 6: Cropping systems in environments with high yield potential of southern Chile
      • Abstract
      • 1. Introduction
      • 2. Environmental and agricultural features of southern Chile
      • 3. Cereal-based cropping systems at high yield potential conditions
      • 4. The potato-based cropping systems; between subsistence agriculture and high input production
      • 5. Rapeseed and lupin in current farming systems
      • 6. Challenges and opportunities for cropping systems of southern Chile
      • 7. Concluding remarks
    • Chapter 7: Cereal yield in Mediterranean-type environments: challenging the paradigms on terminal drought, the adaptability of barley vs wheat and the role of nitrogen fertilization
      • Abstract
      • 1. Introduction
      • 2. Terminal drought?
      • 3. Does barley out-yield wheat under severe water deficit?
      • 4. Does nitrogen fertilization reduce yield in low-rainfall conditions?
      • 5. Concluding remarks
  • Part II: Carbon, water and nutrient economies of crops
    • Chapter 8: Quantifying crop responses to nitrogen and avenues to improve nitrogen-use efficiency
      • Abstract
      • 1. Introduction
      • 2. Crop N demand: its regulation at plant and crop levels
      • 3. Response of plants and crops to N deficiency
      • 4. Nitrogen-use efficiency
      • 5. Conclusions
    • Chapter 9: A Darwinian perspective on improving nitrogen-fixation efficiency of legume crops and forages
      • Abstract
      • 1. Nitrogen fixation’s role in agriculture
      • 2. A Darwinian perspective on improving N2 fixation
      • 3. Rationale for focus on efficiency of N2 fixation rather than rate
      • 4. Conclusion
    • Chapter 10: Senescence and crop performance
      • Abstract
      • 1. Introduction
      • 2. Senescence and development
      • 3. Senescence and crop adaptability
      • 4. Senescence and crop production
      • 5. Conclusion: Senescence and its implications for crop improvement
    • Chapter 11: Improving water transport for carbon gain in crops
      • Abstract
      • 1. Introduction
      • 2. Water transport and carbon gain
      • 3. Determinants of water transport
      • 4. Maintenance and regulation of water transport
      • 5. Concluding remarks
  • Part III: Genetic improvement and agronomy
    • Chapter 12: Genetic and environmental effects on crop development determining adaptation and yield
      • Abstract
      • 1. Introduction
      • 2. Crop development
      • 3. Developmental responses to environmental factors
      • 4. Genetic control of development
      • 5. Can we improve crop adaptation and yield potential through fine-tuning developmental rates?
      • 6. Concluding remarks
    • Chapter 13: Characterizing the crop environment – nature, significance and applications
      • Abstract
      • 1. Introduction
      • 2. Characterization of the target population of environments (TPE) – a better understanding of the nature, distribution and frequency of the main environment classes
      • 3. Trial characterization – adding value to field data through improved understanding of the genotypic variability
      • 4. Managed environments – increasing the relevance of phenotyping environments
      • 5. Crop plasticity and environment types – identification of key traits for potential adaptation
      • 6. Concluding remarks – perspective
      • Acknowledgment
    • Chapter 14: Model-assisted phenotyping and ideotype design
      • Abstract
      • 1. Introduction
      • 2. The ideotype concept: its usefulness and limitations for breeding and varietal choice
      • 3. How to deal with genetic control in ecophysiological models?
      • 4. Tools for optimizing trait combinations and model-based ideotyping
      • 5. Future prospects
    • Chapter 15: Crop phenotyping for physiological breeding in grain crops: A case study for maize
      • Abstract
      • 1. Introduction
      • 2. Trait dissection of the general physiological model of grain yield determination in maize crops
      • 3. Gains in maize yield
      • 4. Breeding effects on the physiological determinants of maize yield
      • 5. Field-based phenotyping of physiological traits
      • 6. Genetic structure of maize physiological traits
      • 7. Conclusions
    • Chapter 16: Breeding challenge: improving yield potential
      • Abstract
      • 1. Rationale for raising yield potential
      • 2. Relationship between yield potential and yield under abiotic stress
      • 3. Current rates of progress in yield potential and associated traits
      • 4. Opportunities for future gains in yield potential
      • 5. Trait-based breeding
      • 6. Concluding remarks
    • Chapter 17: Improving grain quality: ecophysiological and modeling tools to develop management and breeding strategies
      • Abstract
      • 1. Introduction
      • 2. Environmental and genetic effects on grain composition
      • 3. Integration of quality traits into crop simulation models
      • 4. Applying crop physiology to obtain a specific quality and high yields
      • 5. Concluding remarks
      • Acknowledgments
    • Chapter 18: Integrated views in plant breeding: from the perspective of biotechnology
      • Abstract
      • 1. Introduction
      • 2. Modern views in plant breeding
      • 3. Pre-breeding: a link between genetic resources and crop improvement
      • 4. DNA technologies boost new knowledge to understand plant diversity
      • 5. Allele mining: explore plant diversity by sequencing
      • 6. GM breeding
      • 7. Beyond GM plants: the new breeding techniques
      • 8. Genomic selection
      • 9. Concluding remarks
      • Acknowledgments
    • Chapter 19: Integration of biotechnology, plant breeding and crop physiology. Dealing with complex interactions from a physiological perspective
      • Abstract
      • 1. Introduction
      • 2. Contributions of crop physiology to plant breeding and biotechnology
      • 3. Contributions of biotechnology to plant breeding and crop physiology
      • 4. Conclusions
    • Chapter 20: Crop modeling for climate change impact and adaptation
      • Abstract
      • 1. Introduction
      • 2. Climate change
      • 3. Crop response to climate change
      • 4. Crop models for climate change
      • 5. Impacts of climate change on crop production
      • 6. Adaptation to climate change
      • 7. Concluding remarks and knowledge gaps
  • Index


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© Academic Press 2015
15th September 2014
Academic Press
Hardcover ISBN:
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About the Authors

Victor Sadras

Victor Sadras is a crop ecophysiologist with interest in the adaptation of crops to environmental stresses, including water deficit, extreme temperatures, nutrient deficit, soil physical and chemical constraints, pathogens and insects. He has measured and modelled aspects of the water, carbon and nitrogen economies of annual (wheat, field pea, chickpea, sunflower, maize, soybean, cotton) and perennial crops (grapevine, olive) in rain-fed and irrigated systems.

Affiliations and Expertise

South Australian R&D Institute, The University of Adelaide, Australia

Daniel Calderini

Dr. Daniel Calderini is a full professor of the Plant Production and Plant Protection Institute of Universidad Austral de Chile since 2002. He has specialised in the Physiology of Crops and Cereals. Dr. Calderini was distinguished with The People's Republic of China Friendship Award. He is Coordinator of the Network "Sustainable Intensification of Extensive Crop Production” of the Ibero-American Program of Science and Technology for Development. He was the head of the Graduate School and the Doctorate Program of the Faculty of Agricultural and Food Sciences. His physiological research was carried out on pea, lupin, rapeseed, sunflower and quinoa in addition to temperate cereals.

Affiliations and Expertise

Universidad Austral de Chile, Valdivia, Chile

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