Crop Physiology - 2nd Edition - ISBN: 9780124171046, 9780124169791

Crop Physiology

2nd Edition

Applications for Genetic Improvement and Agronomy

Authors: Victor Sadras Daniel Calderini
Hardcover ISBN: 9780124171046
eBook ISBN: 9780124169791
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 15th September 2014
Page Count: 564
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Description

  • List of contributors
  • Preface
  • Acknowledgments
  • Chapter 1: Crop physiology: applications for breeding and agronomy
    • Abstract
    • 1. Introduction
    • 2. Levels of organization and scalability
    • 3. Book structure and themes
  • Part I: Farming systems
    • Chapter 2: High-yield maize–soybean cropping systems in the US Corn Belt
      • Abstract
      • 1. Introduction
      • 2. Cropping systems
      • 3. Productivity and resource-use efficiency
      • 4. Challenges to higher yields and efficiencies
      • 5. Concluding remarks
    • Chapter 3: Farming systems in China: Innovations for sustainable crop production
      • Abstract
      • 1. Introduction
      • 2. The abiotic environments for crop production
      • 3. Farming system diversity and spatial distribution
      • 4. Yield enhancement via genetic improvement and agronomic innovation
      • 5. Attempts to improve resource-use efficiency
      • 6. Cropping responses and adaptations to warming
      • 7. Concluding remarks
    • Chapter 4: Improving farming systems in northern Europe
      • Abstract
      • 1. Special features of northern European conditions for crop production
      • 2. Adaptation: a matter of crop responses when coping with northern conditions
      • 3. Gaps between potential and actual yields
      • 4. Challenges and practices in attempting to improve sustainability
      • 5. The future and climate change
      • 6. Concluding remarks
    • Chapter 5: Raising productivity of maize-based cropping systems in eastern and southern Africa: Step-wise intensification options
      • Abstract
      • 1. Introduction
      • 2. Maize-based farming systems in eastern and southern Africa
      • 3. Sustainable intensification of sub-Saharan agriculture
      • 4. Methods
      • 5. Results
      • 6. Discussion and conclusions
      • Acknowledgements
    • Chapter 6: Cropping systems in environments with high yield potential of southern Chile
      • Abstract
      • 1. Introduction
      • 2. Environmental and agricultural features of southern Chile
      • 3. Cereal-based cropping systems at high yield potential conditions
      • 4. The potato-based cropping systems; between subsistence agriculture and high input production
      • 5. Rapeseed and lupin in current farming systems
      • 6. Challenges and opportunities for cropping systems of southern Chile
      • 7. Concluding remarks
    • Chapter 7: Cereal yield in Mediterranean-type environments: challenging the paradigms on terminal drought, the adaptability of barley vs wheat and the role of nitrogen fertilization
      • Abstract
      • 1. Introduction
      • 2. Terminal drought?
      • 3. Does barley out-yield wheat under severe water deficit?
      • 4. Does nitrogen fertilization reduce yield in low-rainfall conditions?
      • 5. Concluding remarks
  • Part II: Carbon, water and nutrient economies of crops
    • Chapter 8: Quantifying crop responses to nitrogen and avenues to improve nitrogen-use efficiency
      • Abstract
      • 1. Introduction
      • 2. Crop N demand: its regulation at plant and crop levels
      • 3. Response of plants and crops to N deficiency
      • 4. Nitrogen-use efficiency
      • 5. Conclusions
    • Chapter 9: A Darwinian perspective on improving nitrogen-fixation efficiency of legume crops and forages
      • Abstract
      • 1. Nitrogen fixation’s role in agriculture
      • 2. A Darwinian perspective on improving N2 fixation
      • 3. Rationale for focus on efficiency of N2 fixation rather than rate
      • 4. Conclusion
    • Chapter 10: Senescence and crop performance
      • Abstract
      • 1. Introduction
      • 2. Senescence and development
      • 3. Senescence and crop adaptability
      • 4. Senescence and crop production
      • 5. Conclusion: Senescence and its implications for crop improvement
    • Chapter 11: Improving water transport for carbon gain in crops
      • Abstract
      • 1. Introduction
      • 2. Water transport and carbon gain
      • 3. Determinants of water transport
      • 4. Maintenance and regulation of water transport
      • 5. Concluding remarks
  • Part III: Genetic improvement and agronomy
    • Chapter 12: Genetic and environmental effects on crop development determining adaptation and yield
      • Abstract
      • 1. Introduction
      • 2. Crop development
      • 3. Developmental responses to environmental factors
      • 4. Genetic control of development
      • 5. Can we improve crop adaptation and yield potential through fine-tuning developmental rates?
      • 6. Concluding remarks
    • Chapter 13: Characterizing the crop environment – nature, significance and applications
      • Abstract
      • 1. Introduction
      • 2. Characterization of the target population of environments (TPE) – a better understanding of the nature, distribution and frequency of the main environment classes
      • 3. Trial characterization – adding value to field data through improved understanding of the genotypic variability
      • 4. Managed environments – increasing the relevance of phenotyping environments
      • 5. Crop plasticity and environment types – identification of key traits for potential adaptation
      • 6. Concluding remarks – perspective
      • Acknowledgment
    • Chapter 14: Model-assisted phenotyping and ideotype design
      • Abstract
      • 1. Introduction
      • 2. The ideotype concept: its usefulness and limitations for breeding and varietal choice
      • 3. How to deal with genetic control in ecophysiological models?
      • 4. Tools for optimizing trait combinations and model-based ideotyping
      • 5. Future prospects
    • Chapter 15: Crop phenotyping for physiological breeding in grain crops: A case study for maize
      • Abstract
      • 1. Introduction
      • 2. Trait dissection of the general physiological model of grain yield determination in maize crops
      • 3. Gains in maize yield
      • 4. Breeding effects on the physiological determinants of maize yield
      • 5. Field-based phenotyping of physiological traits
      • 6. Genetic structure of maize physiological traits
      • 7. Conclusions
    • Chapter 16: Breeding challenge: improving yield potential
      • Abstract
      • 1. Rationale for raising yield potential
      • 2. Relationship between yield potential and yield under abiotic stress
      • 3. Current rates of progress in yield potential and associated traits
      • 4. Opportunities for future gains in yield potential
      • 5. Trait-based breeding
      • 6. Concluding remarks
    • Chapter 17: Improving grain quality: ecophysiological and modeling tools to develop management and breeding strategies
      • Abstract
      • 1. Introduction
      • 2. Environmental and genetic effects on grain composition
      • 3. Integration of quality traits into crop simulation models
      • 4. Applying crop physiology to obtain a specific quality and high yields
      • 5. Concluding remarks
      • Acknowledgments
    • Chapter 18: Integrated views in plant breeding: from the perspective of biotechnology
      • Abstract
      • 1. Introduction
      • 2. Modern views in plant breeding
      • 3. Pre-breeding: a link between genetic resources and crop improvement
      • 4. DNA technologies boost new knowledge to understand plant diversity
      • 5. Allele mining: explore plant diversity by sequencing
      • 6. GM breeding
      • 7. Beyond GM plants: the new breeding techniques
      • 8. Genomic selection
      • 9. Concluding remarks
      • Acknowledgments
    • Chapter 19: Integration of biotechnology, plant breeding and crop physiology. Dealing with complex interactions from a physiological perspective
      • Abstract
      • 1. Introduction
      • 2. Contributions of crop physiology to plant breeding and biotechnology
      • 3. Contributions of biotechnology to plant breeding and crop physiology
      • 4. Conclusions
    • Chapter 20: Crop modeling for climate change impact and adaptation
      • Abstract
      • 1. Introduction
      • 2. Climate change
      • 3. Crop response to climate change
      • 4. Crop models for climate change
      • 5. Impacts of climate change on crop production
      • 6. Adaptation to climate change
      • 7. Concluding remarks and knowledge gaps
  • Index

Key Features

  • Provides a view of crop physiology as an active source of methods, theories, ideas, and tools for application in genetic improvement and agronomy
  • Written by leading scientists from around the world
  • Combines environment-specific cropping systems and general principles of crop science to appeal to advanced students, and scientists in agriculture-related disciplines, from molecular sciences to natural resources management

Readership

Primary: Agronomists; plant geneticists and plant breeding professionals; crop physiologists, ecologists, and ecophysiologists; plant physiologists

Secondary: horticultural scientists; those involved with grain and cereal crops and sustainable agriculture; environmental microbiologists

Tertiary: Students of plant breeding and crop ecophysiology

Table of Contents

  • List of contributors
  • Preface
  • Acknowledgments
  • Chapter 1: Crop physiology: applications for breeding and agronomy
    • Abstract
    • 1. Introduction
    • 2. Levels of organization and scalability
    • 3. Book structure and themes
  • Part I: Farming systems
    • Chapter 2: High-yield maize–soybean cropping systems in the US Corn Belt
      • Abstract
      • 1. Introduction
      • 2. Cropping systems
      • 3. Productivity and resource-use efficiency
      • 4. Challenges to higher yields and efficiencies
      • 5. Concluding remarks
    • Chapter 3: Farming systems in China: Innovations for sustainable crop production
      • Abstract
      • 1. Introduction
      • 2. The abiotic environments for crop production
      • 3. Farming system diversity and spatial distribution
      • 4. Yield enhancement via genetic improvement and agronomic innovation
      • 5. Attempts to improve resource-use efficiency
      • 6. Cropping responses and adaptations to warming
      • 7. Concluding remarks
    • Chapter 4: Improving farming systems in northern Europe
      • Abstract
      • 1. Special features of northern European conditions for crop production
      • 2. Adaptation: a matter of crop responses when coping with northern conditions
      • 3. Gaps between potential and actual yields
      • 4. Challenges and practices in attempting to improve sustainability
      • 5. The future and climate change
      • 6. Concluding remarks
    • Chapter 5: Raising productivity of maize-based cropping systems in eastern and southern Africa: Step-wise intensification options
      • Abstract
      • 1. Introduction
      • 2. Maize-based farming systems in eastern and southern Africa
      • 3. Sustainable intensification of sub-Saharan agriculture
      • 4. Methods
      • 5. Results
      • 6. Discussion and conclusions
      • Acknowledgements
    • Chapter 6: Cropping systems in environments with high yield potential of southern Chile
      • Abstract
      • 1. Introduction
      • 2. Environmental and agricultural features of southern Chile
      • 3. Cereal-based cropping systems at high yield potential conditions
      • 4. The potato-based cropping systems; between subsistence agriculture and high input production
      • 5. Rapeseed and lupin in current farming systems
      • 6. Challenges and opportunities for cropping systems of southern Chile
      • 7. Concluding remarks
    • Chapter 7: Cereal yield in Mediterranean-type environments: challenging the paradigms on terminal drought, the adaptability of barley vs wheat and the role of nitrogen fertilization
      • Abstract
      • 1. Introduction
      • 2. Terminal drought?
      • 3. Does barley out-yield wheat under severe water deficit?
      • 4. Does nitrogen fertilization reduce yield in low-rainfall conditions?
      • 5. Concluding remarks
  • Part II: Carbon, water and nutrient economies of crops
    • Chapter 8: Quantifying crop responses to nitrogen and avenues to improve nitrogen-use efficiency
      • Abstract
      • 1. Introduction
      • 2. Crop N demand: its regulation at plant and crop levels
      • 3. Response of plants and crops to N deficiency
      • 4. Nitrogen-use efficiency
      • 5. Conclusions
    • Chapter 9: A Darwinian perspective on improving nitrogen-fixation efficiency of legume crops and forages
      • Abstract
      • 1. Nitrogen fixation’s role in agriculture
      • 2. A Darwinian perspective on improving N2 fixation
      • 3. Rationale for focus on efficiency of N2 fixation rather than rate
      • 4. Conclusion
    • Chapter 10: Senescence and crop performance
      • Abstract
      • 1. Introduction
      • 2. Senescence and development
      • 3. Senescence and crop adaptability
      • 4. Senescence and crop production
      • 5. Conclusion: Senescence and its implications for crop improvement
    • Chapter 11: Improving water transport for carbon gain in crops
      • Abstract
      • 1. Introduction
      • 2. Water transport and carbon gain
      • 3. Determinants of water transport
      • 4. Maintenance and regulation of water transport
      • 5. Concluding remarks
  • Part III: Genetic improvement and agronomy
    • Chapter 12: Genetic and environmental effects on crop development determining adaptation and yield
      • Abstract
      • 1. Introduction
      • 2. Crop development
      • 3. Developmental responses to environmental factors
      • 4. Genetic control of development
      • 5. Can we improve crop adaptation and yield potential through fine-tuning developmental rates?
      • 6. Concluding remarks
    • Chapter 13: Characterizing the crop environment – nature, significance and applications
      • Abstract
      • 1. Introduction
      • 2. Characterization of the target population of environments (TPE) – a better understanding of the nature, distribution and frequency of the main environment classes
      • 3. Trial characterization – adding value to field data through improved understanding of the genotypic variability
      • 4. Managed environments – increasing the relevance of phenotyping environments
      • 5. Crop plasticity and environment types – identification of key traits for potential adaptation
      • 6. Concluding remarks – perspective
      • Acknowledgment
    • Chapter 14: Model-assisted phenotyping and ideotype design
      • Abstract
      • 1. Introduction
      • 2. The ideotype concept: its usefulness and limitations for breeding and varietal choice
      • 3. How to deal with genetic control in ecophysiological models?
      • 4. Tools for optimizing trait combinations and model-based ideotyping
      • 5. Future prospects
    • Chapter 15: Crop phenotyping for physiological breeding in grain crops: A case study for maize
      • Abstract
      • 1. Introduction
      • 2. Trait dissection of the general physiological model of grain yield determination in maize crops
      • 3. Gains in maize yield
      • 4. Breeding effects on the physiological determinants of maize yield
      • 5. Field-based phenotyping of physiological traits
      • 6. Genetic structure of maize physiological traits
      • 7. Conclusions
    • Chapter 16: Breeding challenge: improving yield potential
      • Abstract
      • 1. Rationale for raising yield potential
      • 2. Relationship between yield potential and yield under abiotic stress
      • 3. Current rates of progress in yield potential and associated traits
      • 4. Opportunities for future gains in yield potential
      • 5. Trait-based breeding
      • 6. Concluding remarks
    • Chapter 17: Improving grain quality: ecophysiological and modeling tools to develop management and breeding strategies
      • Abstract
      • 1. Introduction
      • 2. Environmental and genetic effects on grain composition
      • 3. Integration of quality traits into crop simulation models
      • 4. Applying crop physiology to obtain a specific quality and high yields
      • 5. Concluding remarks
      • Acknowledgments
    • Chapter 18: Integrated views in plant breeding: from the perspective of biotechnology
      • Abstract
      • 1. Introduction
      • 2. Modern views in plant breeding
      • 3. Pre-breeding: a link between genetic resources and crop improvement
      • 4. DNA technologies boost new knowledge to understand plant diversity
      • 5. Allele mining: explore plant diversity by sequencing
      • 6. GM breeding
      • 7. Beyond GM plants: the new breeding techniques
      • 8. Genomic selection
      • 9. Concluding remarks
      • Acknowledgments
    • Chapter 19: Integration of biotechnology, plant breeding and crop physiology. Dealing with complex interactions from a physiological perspective
      • Abstract
      • 1. Introduction
      • 2. Contributions of crop physiology to plant breeding and biotechnology
      • 3. Contributions of biotechnology to plant breeding and crop physiology
      • 4. Conclusions
    • Chapter 20: Crop modeling for climate change impact and adaptation
      • Abstract
      • 1. Introduction
      • 2. Climate change
      • 3. Crop response to climate change
      • 4. Crop models for climate change
      • 5. Impacts of climate change on crop production
      • 6. Adaptation to climate change
      • 7. Concluding remarks and knowledge gaps
  • Index

Details

No. of pages:
564
Language:
English
Copyright:
© Academic Press 2015
Published:
Imprint:
Academic Press
eBook ISBN:
9780124169791
Hardcover ISBN:
9780124171046

About the Author

Victor Sadras

Affiliations and Expertise

South Australian R&D Institute, Adelaide, Australia

Daniel Calderini

Affiliations and Expertise

Universidad Austral de Chile, Valdivia, Chile