Crisis Negotiations - 4th Edition - ISBN: 9781422463239, 9781437755060

Crisis Negotiations

4th Edition

Managing Critical Incidents and Hostage Situations in Law Enforcement and Corrections

Authors: Michael McMains Wayman Mullins
eBook ISBN: 9781437755060
Imprint: Anderson
Published Date: 2nd April 2010
Page Count: 572


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Crisis Negotiations: Managing Critical Incidents and Hostage Situations in Law Enforcement and Corrections, Fourth Edition, discusses the fundamentals of crisis management for crisis and hostage negotiators. It features the contributions of negotiators from all over the United States who share their experiences, lessons, successes, and failures. Much of the material in this book is also consistent with FBI teaching and practice. The book first traces the history of crisis management. It then covers the elements of a crisis response team, the model of intervention in crisis/hostage negotiations, risk assessment in negotiations, communication in crisis negotiations, guidelines for negotiating with emotionally disturbed or mentally ill individuals, negotiating with suicidal persons, negotiating with special populations (e.g. juveniles, gang members, elderly), crisis negotiations in prisons and correctional facilities, and hostage dynamics. The book contains eleven chapters, each of which begins with an outline of learning objectives and concludes with discussion questions.

Key Features

  • McMains and Mullins are leading authorities on crisis negotiations.
  • Learning objectives, discussion questions, and real-life negotiation situations expand on the text.


Students and professionals in the criminal justice field. Crisis negotiation/hostage trainers.

Table of Contents


Chapter 1 Crisis Management: History and Overview

Learning Objectives

Forming the Field

Munich—1972: The Defining Incident

The Williamsburg Incident—1973: Trying It Out

FBI Hostage Negotiations Program—1973: Bringing It To The National Level

Barbary Coast

Santo Tomas

Development of Negotiations in Police Work—The Context


Defining the Field



A Hostage Incident

Downs v. United States: The Legal Foundation—1971

Sveriges Kredit Bank, Stockholm: Impact on the Hostages—1973

The South Moluccans: Success After the First Loss—1975

The Hanafi Muslim Incident: The Role and the Impact of the Media—1977

Refining the Field

From Hostage Negotiations to Crisis Intervention

Crisis: Definition

Stages of a Crisis Incident


Rochester, New York: Suicide by Cop—1981

The Anatomy of a Siege: Post-Traumatic Stress—1981

The Oakdale and Atlanta Prison Sieges: Application to Corrections—1987


Talladega: Dealing with “Non-Negotiable” Incidents—1991

Ruby Ridge: Third-Party Intermediaries—1992

Branch Davidians—Waco: Coordinated Response—1993

Lucasville Prison Riot: Raising Awareness in Corrections—1993

The Freemen Standoff: Pre-Incident Planning, TPIs, and Coordinated Action—1996

Columbine High School: Need For Violence Prevention—1999


World Trade Center—2001

Nord-Ost—The Moscow Theater Siege: Costs of a Tactical Response—2002

Lewis State Prison (Arizona Department of Corrections): Refining Issues in Corrections—2004

Beslan School Siege: The Need to Return to Negotiations and Bargaining—2004

A False Dichotomy

The Development of the Phoenix, Arizona, Special Assignments Unit

Refining the Field

Expanding on Crisis—The S.A.F.E. Model: An Integrated Model

Best Practices

Professional Organizations

People Management Skills in Policing—CIT

Resources: Literature and Books

Resources: Computers and the Internet

Hostage Barricade Database System (HOBAS)

Negotiator Central



Discussion Questions

Chapter 2 Crisis Management: Crisis Response Team Elements

Learning Objectives

Definition of Team

Crisis Management Team

The Crisis Response Team

Communication within the Crisis Response Team

Establishing the Negotiation Area

The Negotiating Team

Selection of Negotiators

Selection Model for Negotiators

Team Training Issues

Types of Training

External Training

Internal Training

Crisis Negotiating Equipment

Necessary Equipment

An Exercise in Team Building: Building a Negotiator Vehicle

Situation Boards

Optional Equipment

Obtaining Equipment

Incident Commander

The Incident Command System in a Crisis Negotiations Situation

The NIMS Incident Command System

The Tactical Team

Linear Versus Parallel Approach to Crisis Response

Selection of Tactical Team Members

Tactical Team Structure

Intelligence Needs

Situation Security

Assault Operations

Sniper Operations

Outside Agency Support

The Ten Most Common Mistakes

Negotiator Skills and Techniques

Negotiation Team Management

Critical Incident Management



Discussion Questions

Chapter 3 Crisis Management: Goals, Tasks and Skills—The REACT Model

Learning Objectives

REACT: An Integration


Principles from Behavioral Science



Frames or Triggers: SAFE Model

The S.A.F.E. Model: Developing Crisis/Hostage Negotiation Strategy

Stages of Change



Managing Resistance

The REACT Matrix


Initial Risk

Characteristics of a Negotiable Incident

Time, Deadlines, Demands, and Decisionmaking

Hostage Incidents versus Non-Hostage Incidents

Types of Sieges

Deliberate Sieges

Spontaneous Sieges

Anticipated Sieges

Type of Person




Initial Focus


Control and Contracting


Influence Techniques

Active Listening Skills

Reinforce Movement Toward Resolution

Selective Attention

Symbolic Modeling






Discussion Questions/Exercises

Chapter 4 Crisis Management: Risk Assessment

Learning Objectives

Risk Assessment and Negotiations

Current Knowledge

Violent Offenders

Domestic Violence

The Mentally Ill

Research Specific to Negotiations

Imminent Risk

Estimating Risk: A Process

Risk Assessment

Intelligence and Threat Assessment

Purposes of Intelligence

Intelligence: The Process

Understanding Motivation

Definition of Intelligence

Process of Intelligence Management

Intelligence Gathering

At the Scene: The Chaos Phase

Stabilization Phase

Post-Incident Phase

Intelligence Sources

Interviewing Intelligence Sources

Assessing the Credibility of the Source



Discussion Questions

Chapter 5 Crisis Management: Communication in Crisis Negotiations

Learning Objectives

Principles of Basic Communication

Principles of Effective Communication

Components of the Communication Process

Barriers to Effective Communication

Crisis Communication

Basic Patrol Officer Communications

Verbal Tactics in Crisis Communications

Active Listening

Active Listening: Types

A Horse-Sense Approach to Active Listening

Getting Past No

Go to The Balcony

Step to Their Side

Change the Game

Build a “Golden Bridge”

Make it Hard to Say No

Advanced Communication Topics for the Negotiator

Influence and Compliance

Perceptual Contrast Principle

Rule of Reciprocity


Social Proofs


Scarcity Principle

Behavioral Theories of Persuasion

Suggestion Techniques



Discussion Questions

Chapter 6 Crisis Management: Negotiating with Emotionally Disturbed and Mentally Ill Individuals: Recognition and Guidelines

Learning Objectives

Emotionally Disturbed People and Negotiations

Mental Illness Defined

Defining the Problem versus Diagnosing the Problem

A Continuum

Domestic Violence and Negotiations

General Guidelines for Dealing with Emotionally Disturbed People

Guidelines from CIT Training—Mentally Ill

Consulting with a Mental Health Professional

Character and Behavior Problems

Inadequate/Dependent Persons

Managing Dependent Individuals

Borderline Personalities

Antisocial (Angry/Rebellious) Persons

Narcissistic Personality

Histrionic Personality

Compulsive/Perfectionistic Personalities

Paranoid Personality


Paranoid Schizophrenia

Managing Paranoia

Negotiating with the Mentally Ill

Cognitively Impaired Persons

Developmental Disorders

Alcohol Dependence and Abuse

Substance Dependence/Abuse



Discussion Questions

Chapter 7 Crisis Management: Negotiating with Suicidal Persons

Learning Objectives

Suicidal Persons

Definition and Characteristics

Managing Suicidal Individuals



Assessing/Estimating Suicide Potential

Coping with the Suicide of a Team Member


Transferring Responsibility

Sidebar: Thoughts on Suicide

Suicide By Cop: Victim-Precipitated Suicide

Suicide Bombers



Discussion Questions

Chapter 8 Crisis Management: Negotiating with Special Populations

Learning Objectives

Juvenile Issues for Negotiators

Characteristics of Juveniles

Developmental Issues for Juveniles

Negotiations Guidelines for Juveniles


Reasons for Gang Membership

Considerations when Negotiating with Gang Members

Negotiating Guidelines with Gang Members

Negotiating with a Juvenile: Lessons from a Case Study

Negotiating With the Elderly

General Issues Affecting the Elderly

CNS Diseases


Other CNS Diseases

Suicide and the Elderly

Negotiating with the Elderly



PTSD Issues

Traumatic Brain Injury

Military Sexual Trauma

Guidelines for Negotiating with Warfighters

Police Officers

Considerations in Officer-Involved Crises

Issues Because They Are Officers

Negotiating with Police Officers



Discussion Questions

Chapter 9 Crisis Management: Crisis Negotiations in Prisons and Correctional Facilities

Learning Objectives

Negotiations Specific to the Prison Situation

Situational Dynamics in the Prison Situation

The Prison Negotiating Team

Lessons Learned from History

Negotiator Skills in Everyday Police Work

Aggression Among Inmates

Veterans in Prison

Inmate Cultural Trends



Discussion Questions

Chapter 10 Crisis Management: Hostage Dynamics

Learning Objectives

Hostages and Victims


The Stockholm Syndrome

Etiology and Description of the Stockholm Syndrome

The Stockholm Syndrome Revisited

Hostage Dynamics

Psychological Effect of Captivity

Defense Mechanisms

Coping Mechanisms

Survivors and Succumbers

Post Traumatic Stress and Hostages

Emotional Aftereffects

Cognitive Aftereffects

Behavioral Aftereffects

Physical Aftereffects

Medical Aftereffects

Positive Aftereffects

Sidebar: Hostages

Recovery From PTSD and The Role of Negotiators



Discussion Questions

Chapter 11 Crisis Management: Managing Stress and Trauma

Learning Objectives

Definitions of Stress

Transactional Model for Negotiators


Perception of Abilities

Coping and “Feed Forward”


Yerkes-Dodson Law

Effects of Stress

Stress in the Hostage Situation

Stress on the Hostage Taker

Stress on the Hostages

Stress on the Negotiator

Stress Management in Hostage Negotiations

Stress Management

Post-Incident Debriefing

Operational Debriefing of Hostage Incidents

Critical Decision Debriefing: A Methodology for Debriefing Crisis Intervention

Emotional Debriefing

Post-Incident Stress for the Negotiator

Emotional Impact on the Negotiator

Debriefing Negotiators

Stages of a Trauma

Goals of Debriefing

Debriefing the Impact



Discussion Questions

Name Index

Subject Index


No. of pages:
© Anderson 2010
eBook ISBN:

About the Author

Michael McMains

Michael McMains consults with local, state, and federal law enforcement agencies, and private and public organizations, on crisis management issues. He has developed and presents training on workplace violence, hostage/crisis negotiations, family violence, crisis intervention for first responders, suicide intervention, hostage survival strategies, and traumatic stress. From 1982-2004, he was the Chief Psychologist and Director of the Victims Advocacy Section of the San Antonio Police Department. In 2010, he co-wrote curricula on negotiation with terrorists for the United States Department of State. In the course of his career he has consulted on more than 400 hostage/barricaded subject incidents. He is a certified Master Peace Officer in Texas and a certified Police Instructor.

Affiliations and Expertise

Bexar County, Texas Sheriff's Department

Wayman Mullins

Wayman C. Mullins has taught at Texas State University-San Marcos, where he is a Professor in the Department of Criminal Justice, since 1984. He has researched, written, and published extensively in the areas of crisis negotiations, terrorism, stress and PTSD, and other police issues. He has served as a consultant to law enforcement and correction agencies at the federal, state, and local levels; private businesses; and international corporations. He also helped start the Crisis Negotiation Team at Hays County Sheriff’s Office and is still an active member of that team. Mullins is a licensed peace officer in Texas.

Affiliations and Expertise

Texas State University, San Marcos