Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design

Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design

3rd Edition - June 19, 2013

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  • Authors: Timothy Crowe, Lawrence Fennelly
  • eBook ISBN: 9780124116337
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9780124116351

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Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design, 3e is a vital book for anyone involved in architectural design, space management, and urban planning. The concepts presented in this book explain the link between design and human behavior. Understanding this link can enable a planner to use natural environmental factors to minimize loss and crime and to maximize productivity. This practical guide addresses several environmental settings, including major event facilities, small retail establishments, downtown streets, residential areas, and playgrounds. A one-stop resource with explanations of criminal behavior and the historical aspects of design, it teaches both the novice and the expert in crime prevention how to use the environment to affect human behavior in a positive manner.

Key Features

  • Fully updated with substantial new material in each chapter
  • Useful illustrations describe the design and layout concepts in an easy to understand manner
  • Written by a well-qualified author in the field of crime prevention


An ideal resource for security managers, urban planners, and general security and law enforcement professionals responsible for securing localized environments as well as loss and crime prevention

Table of Contents

  • Dedication

    Timothy D. Crowe




    Part 1

    1. Introduction to CPTED


    Asking the Right Questions

    The Need for CPTED

    Competing Crime Prevention Strategies

    CPTED and Contemporary Planning Models

    Scope and Content of this Book

    2. Twenty Most Frequently Asked Questions

    3. CPTED Concepts and Strategies


    CPTED Concepts

    CPTED Strategies

    Some Benefits of CPTED Planning Activities

    An Ounce of Prevention: A New Role for Law Enforcement Support of Community Development

    “Clean and Well-Lighted Places”: A Natural Approach to Retail Security

    CPTED in Low-Income, Public, and Three-Generation Housing

    CPTED Planning and Design Review

    Achieving the Right Perspective

    4. Behavioral Precedents of CPTED: From Caves to Fast Food


    Greek Temples

    Medieval Cities

    Baroque Mannerism

    Louis XIV

    Napoleon III

    Contemporary Situations

    5. Using the Environment to Affect Behavior

    Human/Environment Relationships

    Use of Light and Color

    Feng Shui

    6. Aesthetics, Environmental Cues, and Territorial Behavior: Implications for CPTED Planning

    Form Versus Function: The Battle with Aesthetics

    Environmental Cues

    Territorial Behavior

    Visual Bubbles, Landscape, and Art

    7. Crime and Loss Prevention



    Levels of Crime

    Explanations of Crime

    Implications for Public Action

    Contemporary Crime Prevention and Interagency Concepts

    Criminal Justice: A Misperceived Concept

    Productivity Tools for the Crime- and Loss-Prevention Specialist

    Crime Versus Loss Prevention

    Two Types of Risk

    Risk Management


    8. Examples of CPTED Strategies and Applications

    CPTED Strategies

    CPTED Applications

    9. CPTED Implementation Program Planning


    Evaluation and Monitoring

    10. CPTED Training Outline


    Learning Objectives

    11. Objectives for a School Environment


    School Campus Control

    High-School Parking Lots

    Student Parking and Driver Education Relationships

    Courtyards and Corridors

    School Lunchtime Hallway Use

    Safe Activities in Unsafe Locations

    Convention Center and Stadium

    Part 2

    12. Tackling Crime and Fear of Crime Through Urban Planning and Architectural Design

    Urbanization and Crime

    Safety and Security as Serious Problems

    From Old School to More Sophisticated Approaches

    CPTED/DOC in Europe: Policies and Concepts

    Theory: From Offender to Situation; From Reaction to Prevention

    The Fear of Crime

    Tackling Crime and the Fear of Crime by Urban Planning and Architectural Design: Examples and Instruments

    European Standard on Designing Out Crime


    About the Author


    Important Websites:

    13. Checklist for a Program of Successful Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design

    Signs of a Successful CPTED Program

    Broader Planning Strategies

    14. CPTED in the Twenty-First Century

    Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design

    The Transition to the Future of CPTED

    CPTED Definitions

    CPTED in the New Millennium

    Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design



    Appendix A. Broward County School CPTED Matrix

    Appendix B. School CPTED Survey

    School Security Survey/Assessment


    Appendix C. CPTED Design Directives for Dormitory and Student Lounges

    Appendix D. Convenience Stores and Gas Stops CPTED Assessment Form

    Twenty-Six Risk Assessment Points

    Appendix E. Malls and Shopping Centers CPTED Assessment Form

    Appendix F. Apartments, Condos, and Public Housing CPTED Assessment Form


Product details

  • No. of pages: 376
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Butterworth-Heinemann 2013
  • Published: June 19, 2013
  • Imprint: Butterworth-Heinemann
  • eBook ISBN: 9780124116337
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9780124116351

About the Authors

Timothy Crowe

Timothy Crowe, Editor Emeritus, was an international crime-prevention expert and criminologist specializing in consulting and training services in law enforcement, crime prevention, juvenile delinquency and control, and major event law enforcement services planning. He served in state government and with several consulting firms and provided security services for Republican and Democratic national conventions. He authored the first and second editions of Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design, the standard textbook in the field of CPTED. Mr. Crowe was formerly the director of the National Crime Prevention Institute at the University of Louisville and created NCPI's CPTED training program.

Affiliations and Expertise

Formerly the Director of the National Crime Prevention Institute at the University of Louisville, USA

Lawrence Fennelly

Lawrence J. Fennelly is an internationally recognized authority on crime prevention, security planning and analysis, and on the study of how environmental factors (CPTED), physical hardware, alarms, lighting, site design, management practices, litigation consultants, security policies and procedures, and guard management contribute to criminal victimization.

Mr. Fennelly was previously employed with Apollo Security, Computershare, Inc., as well as a sergeant at Harvard College, employed by the Harvard University Police Department in Cambridge, Massachusetts. He was trained as a crime prevention specialist and served in this capacity for over 21 years at Harvard. He was also the department’s training officer and assistant court officer. As part of his role as an officer at Harvard, Larry also was a deputy sheriff in both Suffolk and Middlesex counties (Massachusetts). Mr. Fennelly is a frequent speaker and lecturer on CPTED, physical security, school crime, and other issues. He serves as an expert witness who works closely with attorneys in defense as well as plaintiff cases, assisting in case preparation, offering knowledgeable questions to ask the opposing side, etc. He has also done a considerable amount of consultant work throughout the United States. His experience ranges from identifying vulnerabilities to conducting security and lighting surveys, working with architects to design and implement security, and developing long range guard training programs and risk assessments of various facilities. He is also a prolific author. His titles include such well-known security books as "Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design," "Effective Physical Security," and "Handbook of Loss Prevention and Crime Prevention."

Affiliations and Expertise

Expert witness and consultant in security, Litigation Consultants Inc., Massachusetts, USA

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