Table of Contents

1 Evidence-based medicine

What is evidence-based medicine?

Formulating clinical questions

Identifying relevant evidence

Critically appraising the evidence

Assessing the results

Implementing the results

Evaluating performance

Creating guideline recommendations

2 Handling data

Types of variables

Displaying the distribution of a single variable

Displaying the distribution of two variables

Describing the frequency distribution: central tendency

Describing the frequency distribution: variability

Theoretical distributions


Choosing the correct summary measure

3 Investigating hypotheses

Hypothesis testing

Choosing a sample

Extrapolating from ‘sample’ to ‘population’

Comparing means and proportions: confidence intervals

The P-value

Statistical significance and clinical significance

Statistical power

4 Systematic review and meta-analysis

Why do we need systematic reviews?

Evidence synthesis


Presenting meta-analyses

Evaluating meta-analyses

Advantages and disadvantages

Key example of a meta-analysis

Reporting a systematic review

5 Research design

Obtaining data

Interventional studies

Observational studies

Clinical trials

Bradford-Hill criteria for causality

Choosing the right study design

Writing up a research study

6 Randomised controlled trials

Why choose an interventional study design?

Parallel randomised controlled trials

Confounding, causality and bias

Interpreting the results

Types of randomised controlled trials

Advantages and disadvantag


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About the author

Amit Kaura

Affiliations and Expertise

Core Medical Trainee, King's College Hospital, London, UK