Crash Course Evidence-Based Medicine: Reading and Writing Medical Papers Updated Print + eBook edition - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780723438694, 9780723439424

Crash Course Evidence-Based Medicine: Reading and Writing Medical Papers Updated Print + eBook edition

1st Edition

Authors: Amit Kaura
eBook ISBN: 9780723439424
Paperback ISBN: 9780723438694
Imprint: Mosby Ltd.
Published Date: 12th January 2015
Page Count: 272

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Table of Contents

1 Evidence-based medicine

What is evidence-based medicine?

Formulating clinical questions

Identifying relevant evidence

Critically appraising the evidence

Assessing the results

Implementing the results

Evaluating performance

Creating guideline recommendations

2 Handling data

Types of variables

Displaying the distribution of a single variable

Displaying the distribution of two variables

Describing the frequency distribution: central tendency

Describing the frequency distribution: variability

Theoretical distributions


Choosing the correct summary measure

3 Investigating hypotheses

Hypothesis testing

Choosing a sample

Extrapolating from ‘sample’ to ‘population’

Comparing means and proportions: confidence intervals

The P-value

Statistical significance and clinical significance

Statistical power

4 Systematic review and meta-analysis

Why do we need systematic reviews?

Evidence synthesis


Presenting meta-analyses

Evaluating meta-analyses

Advantages and disadvantages

Key example of a meta-analysis

Reporting a systematic review

5 Research design

Obtaining data

Interventional studies

Observational studies

Clinical trials

Bradford-Hill criteria for causality

Choosing the right study design

Writing up a research study

6 Randomised controlled trials

Why choose an interventional study design?

Parallel randomised controlled trials

Confounding, causality and bias

Interpreting the results

Types of randomised controlled trials

Advantages and disadvantages

Key example of a randomised controlled trial

Reporting a randomised controlled trial

7 Cohort studies

Study design

Interpreting the results

Confounding, causality and bias

Advantages and disadvantages

Key example of a cohort study

8 Case-control studies

Study design

Interpreting the results

Confounding, causality and bias

Advantages and disadvantages

Key example of a case-control study

9 Measures of disease occurrence and cross-sectional studies

Measures of disease occurrence

Study design

Interpreting the results

Confounding, causality and bias

Advantages and disadvantages

Key example of a cross-sectional study

10 Ecological studies

Study design

Interpreting the results

Sources of error in ecological studies

Advantages and disadvantages

Key example of an ecological study

11 Case report and case series


Conducting a case report

Conducting a case series

Critical appraisal of a case series

Advantages and disadvantages

Key examples of case reports

Key example of a case series

12 Qualitative research

Study design

Organising and analysing the data

Validity, reliability and transferability

Advantages and disadvantages

Key example of qualitative research

13 Confounding

What is confounding?

Assessing for potential confounding factors

Controlling for confounding factors

Reporting and interpreting the results

Key example of study confounding

14 Screening, diagnosis and prognosis

Screening, diagnosis and prognosis

Diagnostic tests

Evaluating the performance of a diagnostic test

The diagnostic process

Examples of diagnostic tests

Bias in diagnostic studies

Screening tests

Prognostic tests

15 Statistical techniques

Choosing appropriate statistical tests

Comparison of one group to a hypothetical value

Comparison of two groups

Comparison of three or more groups

Measures of association


16 Clinical audit

Introduction to clinical audit

Planning the audit

Choosing the standards

Audit protocol

Define the sample

Data collection

Analysing the data

Evaluating the findings

Implementing change

Example of a clinical audit

17 Quality improvement

Quality improvement vs audit

The model for quality improvement

The aim statement

Measures for improvement

Developing the changes

The Plan-Do-Study-Act (PDSA) cycle

Repeating the cycle

Example of a quality improvement project

18 Economic evaluation

What is health economics?

Economic question and study design

Cost-minimisation analysis

Cost-utility analysis

Cost-effectiveness analysis

Cost-benefit analysis

Sensitivity analysis

19 Critical appraisal checklists

Critical appraisal

Systematic reviews and meta-analyses

Randomised controlled trials

Diagnostic studies

Qualitative studies

20 Crash Course in statistical formulae

Describing the frequency distribution

Extrapolating from ‘sample’ to ‘population’

Study analysis

Test performance

Economic evaluation

21 Careers in academic medicine

Career pathway

Getting involved

Pros and cons


The (printed) ‘Updated Edition’ now comes with added value access to the complete, downloadable eBook version via Student Consult.  Search, read and revise whilst on the move and use the interactive self-assessment to test your understanding.  Crash Course - a more flexible, practical learning package than ever before.

Crash Course – your effective everyday study companion PLUS the perfect antidote for exam stress! Save time and be assured you have all the core information you need in one place to excel on your course and achieve exam success.

A winning formula now for over 15 years, each volume has been fine-tuned to make your life easier. Especially written by junior doctors – those who understand what is essential for exam success – with all information thoroughly checked and quality assured by expert Faculty Advisers, the result is a series of books which exactly meets your needs and you know you can trust.

This essential recent addition to the series clearly brings together the related disciplines of evidence-based medicine, statistics, critical appraisal and clinical audit – all so central to current study and to modern clinical practice. It starts with the basics that every student needs to know and continues into sufficient detail to satisfy anyone contemplating their own research studies. Excel in Student Selected Component (SSC) assessments and that dreaded evidence-based medicine and statistics exam! Ensure you know how to prepare the highest quality reports and maximize your chances of getting published.

If you are not sure:

  • why you need to know the standard deviation of a sample
  • when to use a case-control study and when a cohort study
  • what to say to your patient who asks about the benefits and harms of a drug
  • how to argue the case for the inclusion of a drug on the hospital formulary
  • how to make audit and quality improvement work for you,

…then this groundbreaking book is for you! Answer these and hundreds of other questions and lay a foundation for your clinical practice that will inform every consultation over a lifetime in medicine.


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Mosby Ltd.
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About the Authors

Amit Kaura Author

Affiliations and Expertise

Specialist Registrar in Cardiology, Imperial College Healthcare NHS Trust; NIHR Academic Clinicl Fellow in Cardiology, Imperial College London; National Heart and Lung Institute, Hammersmith Hospital, London UK