Coupled Atmosphere-Ocean Dynamics of Climate Variability and Climate Change

Coupled Atmosphere-Ocean Dynamics of Climate Variability and Climate Change

1st Edition - January 2, 2023

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  • Author: Shang-Ping Xie
  • Paperback ISBN: 9780323954907

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Coupled Atmosphere-Ocean Dynamics of Climate Variability and Climate Change presents the patterns, mechanisms, and predictability of climate variability and anthropogenic climate change. Based on a graduate course the author has taught over 25 years, this book provides the physical foundation for those who are interested in fundamental questions such as: why climate varies from one year to another; how predictable climate is; and how climate will change in the face of increasing greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. This is the first comprehensive and systematic treatment of this subject that simultaneously draws on the latest research and is accessible for graduate students. The book takes a step-by-step systematic approach to coupled ocean-atmosphere interactions. This allows a wide range of comparative views: climate modes among and across different tropical ocean basins, ocean feedback on the atmosphere (in and out of the tropics), and spontaneous internal oscillation versus externally forced climate change. Such comparative views offer unprecedented insight into the dynamics of climate variability and predictability. This book can be used as supplementary reading for advanced undergraduate students, as coursework in climate dynamics, modeling, variability, and change, and as a reference book and research monograph for researchers in ocean, atmospheric, climate, and earth system sciences.

Key Features

  • Delivers the first authored textbook on ocean-atmosphere interactions that give rise to climate variability/predictability and shape regional patterns of anthropogenic climate change
  • Contains historical accounts of major breakthroughs in the field
  • Includes homework questions, helping to reinforce key concepts and applications


Graduate and upper-division undergraduate students including meteorologists, oceanographers, atmospheric/climate scientists, climate/earth system modelers Earth system science, environmental science/engineering, geoscience, geography, agriculture, economics. The interest in climate extends far beyond the atmospheric/ocean/climate sciences community

Table of Contents

  • 1. Introduction
    1.1. Role of ocean in climate
    1.2. Climate in the news
    1.3. Fundamentals
    2. Energy balance and transport
    2.1. Planetary energy balance and greenhouse effect
    2.2. Radiative imbalance and energy transport
    2.3. Ocean heat transport
    2.4. Atmospheric energy transport
    Box. Thermodynamic variables of the moist atmosphere
    3. Tropical convection and planetary-scale circulation
    3.1. Water vapor budget
    3.2. Latent heat release in convection
    3.3. Ocean temperature effect on convection
    3.4. Equatorial waves
    3.5. Planetary-scale circulation
    3.6. Weak temperature gradient and SST threshold for convection
    Box 1. Surface salinity
    Box 2. Discovery of equatorial waves
    4. The Madden-Julian Oscillation
    4.1. Convectively coupled waves
    4.2. Madden-Julian Oscillation
    4.3. Moisture mode theory for MJO
    4.4. Seasonality and predictability
    5. Summer monsoons
    5.1. South Asian monsoon
    5.2. East Asian monsoon
    5.3. Asian summer monsoon system
    5.4. West African monsoon
    5.5. North American monsoon
    5.6. Global monsoon
    Box. Measuring the rain
    6. Subtropical climate: Trade winds and low clouds
    6.1. Trade wind climate
    6.2. Cloud-regime transition
    6.3. Cloud-SST feedback.
    6.4. California climate
    6.5. Hawaii climate
    7. Equatorial Oceanography
    7.1. Dynamical models
    7.2. Ocean response to wind stress forcing
    7.3. Mixed-layer heat budget and surface heat flux
    8. Coupled feedbacks and structures of tropical climatology
    8.1. Meridional asymmetry and WES feedback
    8.2. Equatorial cold tongue and Walker circulation
    8.3. Equatorial annual cycle
    Box. Climate on the Galapagos
    9. El Nino/Southern Oscillation and the global influence
    9.1. 1997-1998 El Nino
    9.2. Bjerknes feedback.
    9.3. Mechanisms for oscillation
    9.4. Life cycle
    9.5. Climatic influences
    9.6. Barotropic stationary waves in the westerlies
    9.7. Seasonal prediction
    Box. Road to coupled dynamics
    10. Tropical Atlantic Variability
    10.1. Seasonal cycle
    10.2. Zonal mode: Atlantic Nino
    10.3. Meridional mode
    10.4. Interactions with the Pacific
    10.5. Climate controls of tropical cyclones
    Box. Coupled modes in forecast ensemble spread
    11. Indian Ocean variability
    11.1. Seasonal cycle
    11.2. Zonal mode: Indian Ocean dipole
    11.3. Basin mode
    11.4. Post-ENSO summer capacitor effect
    11.5. Asian summer monsoon variability
    Box 1. An intrinsic mode to the summer monsoon
    Box 2. South China Sea
    12. Extratropical ocean-atmosphere interactions and the influence on the tropics
    12.1. Atmospheric internal variability.
    12.2. Atmospheric forcing of SST: Lagged correlation diagnosis
    12.3. Ocean dynamic effects
    12.4. Extratropical influence on tropical climate
    Box 1. Pacific decadal variability
    Box 2. Evolving views on extratropical variability
    Box 3. Ocean front-atmosphere interaction
    13. Global warming: Thermodynamic effects
    13.1. Climate feedback analysis
    13.2. Robust atmospheric changes due to thermodynamic effects
    13.3. Global warming hiatus
    Box 1. CMIP and radiative forcing scenarios
    Box 2. Evidence for the anthropogenic cause of historical warming
    14. Dynamics of Regional climate change
    14.1. Regional patterns of tropical rainfall change
    14.2. SST pattern dynamics
    14.3. Regional uncertainties
    14.4. Aerosol effects
    14.5. Ocean heat uptake
    14.6. Summary and outlook

Product details

  • No. of pages: 400
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Elsevier 2023
  • Published: January 2, 2023
  • Imprint: Elsevier
  • Paperback ISBN: 9780323954907

About the Author

Shang-Ping Xie

Dr. Xie is the distinguished professor of climate science and Roger Revelle Chair at the Scripps Institution of Oceanography, University of California San Diego, USA. He studies ocean-atmosphere interactions, climate variability and change. Dr. Xie is a lead author of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Fifth Assessment Report, an elected fellow of the American Geophysical Union and American Meteorological Society (AMS), and a Highly Cited Researcher (h-index=87) on the Web of Science. He received the AMS Sverdrup Gold Medal for “fundamental contributions to understanding the coupled ocean-atmosphere feedback processes involved in climate variability and climate change.” He was an editor of J. Climate (2000-2006) and is currently an associate editor of Science Advances. Scripps is one of the top institutes globally for Oceanography and is a target area for authors/ editors for the Oceanography program. Some of our top performing authors are from Scripps, including Lynne Talley, author of the bestselling Descriptive Physical Oceanography now in its 7th edition.

Affiliations and Expertise

Distinguished Professor of Climate Science and Roger Revelle Chair, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, University of California San Diego, USA

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