Corticotrophin (ACTH) - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780124472136, 9780323160124

Corticotrophin (ACTH)

1st Edition

Editors: Choh Hao Li
eBook ISBN: 9780323160124
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 12th February 1987
Page Count: 212
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Description

Hormonal Proteins and Peptides: Corticotrophin (ACTH) is a collection of papers dealing with the chemistry and biology of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH). One paper describes the structure-function studies made on ACTH, with reference to the steroidogenic activity of synthetic ACTH fragments and analogs. The paper also discusses the melanocyte-stimulating hormone (MSH) activity, as well as the behavioral effects among the extraadrenal properties of ACTH. Some problems related to ACTH receptors include the role of extracellular calcium and the characterization of ACTH receptors in fetal and adult human adrenocortical cells. Another paper describes ACTH synthesis in the pituitary and extrapituitary tissues. One paper analyzes the role of ACTH in the regulation process concerning the production of steroid hormones, particularly, on the generation of glucocorticoids. Glucocorticoids are the characteristic products of the zona fasciculata. Another paper shows that the steady-state level of ACTH synthesis and release are due to the effects of stimulatory factors such as CRF and inhibitory hormones (namely, the glucocorticoids on the corticotroph). The maintenance of responsiveness of ACTH-secreting cells (as a response to individual stress in humans) can be a manifestation of an inherent molecular characteristic. This collection will prove valuable to microbiologists, biotechnologists, and academicians connected with the biological sciences.

Table of Contents


Preface

1 ACTH: Structure—Function Relationship

I. Introduction

II. Structure of ACTH

III. Structure—Function Relationships

IV. Conclusions

References

2 ACTH Receptors

I. Introduction

II. Detection of ACTH Receptors

III. Characterization of ACTH Receptors in Rat Adrenocortical Cells

IV. ACTH Receptors in Human Adrenocortical Cells

V. ACTH Receptors in Rat Adipocytes

VI. ACTH Receptors in 3T3-L1 Cells

References

3 Biosynthesis of ACTH and Related Peptides

I. Introduction

II. Structure of POMC Gene and Protein in Different Species

III. Distribution and Site of Synthesis of POMC-Derived Peptides

IV. Regulation of Expression of POMC Genes

V. Processing of POMC in the Pituitary and Brain

VI. Processing Pathways of POMC in the Anterior and Neurointermediate Lobes of the Pituitary and the Brain

VII. Approaches to the Identification of Prohormone Processing Enzymes

VIII. Conclusions

References

4 ACTH and Corticosteroidogenesis

I. Introduction

II. Production of Steroids by the Adrenal Cortex

III. Stimulation of Steroid Synthesis

IV. Site of Action of ACTH in the Steroidogenic Pathway: Cholesterol Transport

V. The Role of Cyclic AMP

VI. The Role of Protein Synthesis

VII. The Role of Phosphorylation

VIII. The Role of Ca2+

IX. The Possible Role of Protein Kinase C

X. The Possible Role of Phospholipids

XI. The Roles of Subcellular Components of the Adrenal Cell

XII. Synthesis and Conclusions

References

5 Effect of ACTH and Other Proopiomelanocortin-Derived Peptides on Aldosterone Secretion

I. Introduction

II. Aldosterone Biosynthetic Pathway

III. ACTH Action on Aldosterone Biosynthesis

IV. Non-ACTH Pituitary Factors Controlling Aldosterone Secretion

References

6 Behavioral Actions of ACTH and Related Peptides

I. Introduction

II. Stress

III. Opiate-Like Behavioral Effects

IV. Learning, Attention, and Memory

V. Behavioral Studies in Human Beings

VI. Electrophysiological Effects

VII. Developmental Studies: Organizational Influences of Neuropeptides on the Brain

VIII. Endogenous Levels

IX. Conclusion

References

7 Regulation of ACTH Secretion and Synthesis

I. Introduction

II. Multireceptor Release of ACTH

III. Intracellular Mechanisms of ACTH Release

IV. Inhibition of ACTH Release

V. Interactions of Corticotropin Releasing Factors

VI. Desensitization

VII. The Multireceptor Release of ACTH In Vivo

VIII. Regulation of ACTH Synthesis

IX. Conclusion

References

Index

Details

No. of pages:
212
Language:
English
Copyright:
© Academic Press 1987
Published:
Imprint:
Academic Press
eBook ISBN:
9780323160124

About the Editor

Choh Hao Li