Corrosion Control for Offshore Structures - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780124046153, 9780124046900

Corrosion Control for Offshore Structures

1st Edition

Cathodic Protection and High-Efficiency Coating

Authors: Ramesh Singh
eBook ISBN: 9780124046900
Hardcover ISBN: 9780124046153
Imprint: Gulf Professional Publishing
Published Date: 7th August 2014
Page Count: 254
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A variable game changer for those companies operating in hostile, corrosive marine environments, Corrosion Control for Offshore Structures provides critical corrosion control tips and techniques that will prolong structural life while saving millions in cost. In this book, Ramesh Singh explains the ABCs of prolonging structural life of platforms and pipelines while reducing cost and decreasing the risk of failure.

Corrosion Control for Offshore Structures places major emphasis on the popular use of cathodic protection (CP) combined with high efficiency coating to prevent subsea corrosion. This reference begins with the fundamental science of corrosion and structures and then moves on to cover more advanced topics such as cathodic protection, coating as corrosion prevention using mill applied coatings, field applications, and the advantages and limitations of some common coating systems. In addition, the author provides expert insight on a number of NACE and DNV standards and recommended practices as well as ISO and Standard and Test Methods. Packed with tables, charts and case studies, Corrosion Control for Offshore Structures is a valuable guide to offshore corrosion control both in terms of its theory and application.

Key Features

  • Prolong the structural life of your offshore platforms and pipelines
  • Understand critical topics such as cathodic protection and coating as corrosion prevention with mill applied coatings
  • Gain expert insight on a number of NACE and DNV standards and recommended practices as well as ISO and Standard Test Methods.


Corrosion Engineers, Inspection Engineers, Pipeline Engineers, Pipeline Operators, Pipeline Construction Contractors, Pipeline Designers, Maintenance/Facility Managers, Maintenance Supervisors, Operations Engineers and Managers

Table of Contents

  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgment
  • About the author
  • Preface
  • Section 1: Basics Concept of Corrosion
    • Chapter One: Need for the Study of Corrosion
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Cost of Corrosion
    • Chapter Two: Corrosion Principles and Types of Corrosion
      • Abstract
      • Flow of Energy
      • Measuring the Difference of Energy Levels for Detection of Corrosion Cells
      • Electrochemical Mechanism of Corrosion
      • Galvanic Cell, Anode, and Cathode
      • Cations and Anions
      • Types of Corrosion
      • Area Effect in Galvanic Corrosion
    • Chapter Three: Corrosion Control and Monitoring
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Internal Corrosion
      • Measurement and Monitoring of Internal Corrosion
      • Basic Internal Corrosion Monitoring Techniques
      • Internal Corrosion Monitoring During Pigging Operations
      • External Corrosion
  • Section 2: Anode Materials and Testing
    • Chapter Four: Anode Materials
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Anode Materials
      • Anode Manufacturing
      • Steel Inserts
      • Connections to the Anode
    • Chapter Five: Anode Testing and Quality Control
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Sampling and Testing
      • The Test Analysis and the Test Result
  • Section 3: Cathodic Protection of Offshore Structures
    • Chapter Six: Offshore Structures
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Cathodic Protection of Fixed Offshore Structures
      • Atmospheric Zone
      • Splash Zone
      • Submerged Zone
      • Criteria for CP
      • Designing a CP System
      • Total Protective Current Required
      • Initial or Polarization Current
      • Mean or Maintenance Current
      • Final Current
      • Factors to Be Considered for Current Calculations
      • Design Calculations
      • Surface Area Calculation
      • Initial Current Density
      • Maintenance (Mean) and Final Current Densities
      • Current Demand Calculation
      • Current Drain Calculation
      • Type of Anode Selection
    • Chapter Seven: Cathodic Protection of Offshore Pipeline Risers and Associated Equipment
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Pipeline Survey and Inspection
      • Types of CP System
      • Galvanic or Sacrificial Anode CP System
      • Impressed Current System
      • Objectives of the CP System
      • Factors to Consider When Designing CP Systems for Pipelines
      • Collecting Design Data
      • Designing CP Systems for Offshore Pipelines in Relatively Shallow Water
      • External Corrosion Control of Deep Water Offshore Pipelines
      • Determining the Surface Area to be Protected
      • Determining the Current Demand
      • Selection of Anode Type
      • Anode Mass Calculation
      • Calculation of Number of Anodes Required
      • Checking for the Validation of CP Design
      • Attenuation of Protection
      • SCR Cathodic Protection Sample Calculations
      • Flowline Cathodic Protection Sample Calculations
  • Section 4: Coating and High-Efficiency Coating Systems
    • Chapter Eight: Coating for Corrosion Prevention
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Historical Use of Coatings to Protect Materials
      • Definition of Paint
      • Definition of Coating
      • Corrosion Protection Measures
      • Organic Coating
      • Anodic Blisters
      • Cathodic Blistering and Disbonding
      • Enamel Coating
      • Metallic Coatings
      • Thermal Spray Aluminum Coatings
    • Chapter Nine: High-Efficiency Coating and Cathodic Protection
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Pipeline External Coatings
      • Coating Materials, Surface Preparation, and Application
      • Internal Corrosion Protection
      • Temporary Protection from Corrosion
      • Coatings for Risers
      • What is a Splash Zone?
      • Coating Materials, Surface Preparation, and Application
      • Surface Preparation for the Coating
      • Protection of Splash Zone of Offshore Fixed Structures
      • High-Build Organic Coatings
      • Heat-Shrink Sleeves
      • High-Performance Coatings
      • Thermally Sprayed Aluminum Coating
      • Field-Joint Coatings
      • Coating Materials, Surface Preparation, and Application
      • Surface Preparation for FJC
      • Concrete Weight Coating
      • Concrete Materials and Coating Manufacturing
    • Chapter Ten: Testing of High-Efficiency Coating Materials and Their Efficiency
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Product Tests
      • Sample Preparation for Coating Glass Transition Temperature Measurement
      • Evaluation of Glass Transition Temperature Results
      • Testing for the Gel Time of Epoxy Powder
      • The Test Procedure
      • Total Volatile/Moisture Content of the Epoxy Powder
      • Ultraviolet and Thermal Aging Test
      • Test Procedure
      • Density of Epoxy Powder
      • Production Tests
      • Holiday Test
      • Peel Strength Test
      • Impact Test
      • Hot Water Immersion Test
      • Indentation Test
      • Cathodic Disbondment Test
      • Flexibility Test
  • Section 5: Maintenance of CP System and Retrofitting to Continue Cathodic Protection
    • Chapter Eleven: Introduction to Retrofitting
      • Abstract
      • Economics of Retrofit
    • Chapter Twelve: Corrosion Control for Existing Offshore Pipelines
      • Abstract
      • Aging Offshore Pipelines
      • Cathodic Protection Design for Offshore Structures
      • Pipelines
    • Chapter Thirteen: Corrosion and CP System Assessment Methods
      • Abstract
      • Existing Pipeline Cathodic Protection System Analysis Methods
    • Chapter Fourteen: New Approach to Cathodic Protection Design for New Pipelines
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Sample Calculations
    • Chapter Fifteen: Attenuation Modeling for Offshore Pipelines
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Equations, Terms, and Expressions
      • Critical Issues with the Retrofits
      • Anode Battery Design
      • Appendix to Section 5
  • Section 6: International Bodies that Address Corrosion, Their Specifications, and an Explanation of Symbols, Constants, and Indices
    • Chapter Sixteen: International Bodies that Address Corrosion
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • National Association of Corrosion Engineers International
      • International Organization for Standardization
      • Det Norske Veritas
      • NORSOK
      • American Society for Testing Materials
      • Canadian Standards Association
    • Chapter Seventeen: Commonly Used Constants, Quantities, and Symbols
      • Abstract
      • Symbols
      • Greek Symbols
      • American Wire Sizes
  • Appendix: Reading List and Bibliography for Cathodic Protection, High Efficiency Coating, and Corrosion Control
    • Introduction
    • Bibliography and Additional Recommended Reading
    • Specifications
    • Additional List of Reading on Retrofitting
  • Index


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© Gulf Professional Publishing 2014
Gulf Professional Publishing
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About the Author

Ramesh Singh

Ramesh Singh, MS, IEng, MWeldI, is registered as Incorporated Engineer with British Engineering Council UK and a Member of The Welding Institute, UK. He worked as engineer for various operating and EPC organizations in Middle East, Canada and US. Most recently, he worked for 10 years with Gulf Interstate Engineering, Houston, TX. He is now consulting in the fields of pipeline integrity and related materials and corrosion topics. Ramesh is a graduate from Indian Air Force Technical Academy, with diplomas in Structural Fabrication Engineering and Welding Technology. He has been member and officer of the Canadian Standard Association and NACE and serves on several technical committees. He has worked in industries spanning over aeronautical, alloy steel castings, fabrication, machining, welding engineering, petrochemical, and oil and gas. He has written several technical papers and published articles in leading industry magazines, addressing the practical aspects of welding, construction and corrosion issues relating to structures, equipment and pipelines.

Affiliations and Expertise

Senior Principal Engineer (Materials, Welding and Corrosion) for Gulf Interstate Engineering and Consultant, management of welding, materials, and corrosion, Nadoi Management, Inc.