Control System Technology - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780713135084, 9781483183299

Control System Technology

1st Edition

Authors: C. J. Chesmond
eBook ISBN: 9781483183299
Imprint: Arnold
Published Date: 1st January 1982
Page Count: 480
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Control System Technology focuses on the processes, methodologies, and techniques employed in control system technology, including digital computers, transducers, actuators, and amplifiers.

The book first takes a look at classification, terminology, and definitions, displacement, reference, and velocity of transducers, and strain, force, torque, acceleration, load, and tension of transducers. Discussions focus on strain gauges and measuring bridges, other transducers for measuring force, torque, acceleration, and tension, displacement and velocity transducers, natural control systems, classification of control systems, and generalized single loop continuous feedback control system.

The monograph examines electric amplifiers and final control elements, hydraulic and pneumatic amplifiers and final control elements, flow control valves, actuators and positioners, and signal and data conversion. The publication also ponders on interfacing control systems to digital computers, control system performance and commissioning, and experimental testing of plant, system elements, and systems.

The manuscript is a valuable reference for engineers and researchers interested in control system technology.

Table of Contents

1. Classification, Terminology and Definitions

1.1 Natural Control Systems

1.2 History

1.3 The Future

1.4 Generalised Single Loop Continuous Feedback Control System

1.5 Classification of Control Systems

1.6 Choice of System Hardware

2. Transducers - Displacement, Reference and Velocity

2.1 Introduction

2.2 Displacement Transducers

2.2.1 Servo Potentiometers

2.2.2 Differential Inductors and Transformers

2.2.3 Capacitive Displacement Transducers

2.2.4 Synchros

2.2.5 Resolvers

2.2.6 The Inductosyn

2.2.7 Shaft Encoders

2.2.8 Diffraction Gratings

2.2.9 Coarse-Fine (Dual-Speed) Measuring Systems

2.2.10 On-Off Displacement Transducers

2.3 Reference Transducers

2.3.1 Potentiometric References

2.3.2 Synchro and Resolver Transmitters

2.3.3 Rotary Switch Networks

2.4 Velocity Transducers

2.4.1 DC Tachogenerator

2.4.2 AC Drag-Cup Tachogenerator

2.4.3 AC Signal Alternator

2.4.4 Digital Velocity Transducers

2.4.5 Bridges to Measure Back-E M F

3. Transducers - Strain, Force, Torque, Acceleration, Load and Tension

3.1 Strain Gauges and Measuring Bridges

3.1.1 Strain Gauges

3.1.2 Strain Gauge Bridges

3.2 Use of Strain Gauges in Transducers

3.2.1 Force Transducers

3.2.2 Torque Transducers

3.2.3 Acceleration Transducers

3.2.4 Pressure Transducers

3.2.5 Load Cells

3.3 Other Transducers for Measuring Force, Torque, Acceleration and Tension

3.3.1 Force, Torque and Acceleration Transducers

3.3.2 Tension Transducers

4. Transducers - Temperature, Pressure, Flow, Level, Density, pH, Humidity, Moisture and Thickness

4.1 Introduction

4.2 Transmitters

4.3 Temperature Transducers

4.3.1 Thermocouples

4.3.2 Resistance Thermometers and Thermistors

4.3.3 The Filled-System Bourdon Tube

4.3.4 Semiconductor Temperature Transducers

4.4 Pressure Transducers

4.4.1 Manometers

4.4.2 Bourdon Tubes

4.4.3 Bellows

4.4.4 Diaphragms

4.5 Flow Transducers

4.5.1 Orifice, Venturi, Dall Tube and Nozzle

4.5.2 Rotameters

4.5.3 Magnetic Flowmeters

4.5.4 Turbine Meters

4.5.5 Pitot Tubes

4.5.6 Target Meters

4.5.7 Vortex Meters

4.6 Level Transducers

4.7 Density Transducers

4.7.1 Air Bubble Type

4.7.2 Displacement Type

4.7.3 Displacement U-Tube Type

4.7.4 Vibrating U-Tube Type

4.7.5 Radiation Type

4.8 pH Transducers

4.9 Humidity Transducers

4.9.1 The Hygrometer

4.9.2 The Wet and Dry Bulb Thermometer

4.9.3 The Dew Point Thermometer

4.10 Moisture Transducers

4.11 Thickness Transducers

5. Electric Amplifiers and Final Control Elements

5.1 Introduction

5.2 Preamplifiers

5.3 Transistor Power Amplifiers

5.4 High-Power Power Output Stages

5.4.1 DC Generators

5.4.2 Triac Networks

5.4.3 Converters

5.4.4 Inverters

5.4.5 Frequency Converters

5.5 The Use of Minor Negative Feedback Loops

5.5.1 Negative Feedback to Linearise a Nonlinear Static Characteristic

5.5.2 Negative Feedback to Enhance the Speed of Response of an Element

5.5.3 Negative Feedback to Change a Voltage Source into a Current Source

5.5.4 Negative Feedback to Improve Signal-to-Noise Ratio

5.6 Servomotors

5.6.1 AC Servomotor

5.6.2 DC Servomotors

5.6.3 Stepper Motors

5.7 Conventional Motors

5.7.1 DC Drives

5.7.2 AC Drives

6. Hydraulic and Pneumatic Amplifiers and Final Control Elements

6.1 Single-Stage Fluid Amplifiers

6.1.1 Liquid Amplifiers

6.1.2 Gas Amplifiers

6.2 Multi-Stage Fluid Amplifiers with Feedback

6.2.1 Servovalves

6.2.2 Pneumatic Amplifiers

6.3 Hydraulic Pumps

6.3.1 Gear Pumps

6.3.2 Vane Pumps

6.3.3 Piston Pumps

6.4 Final Control Elements

6.4.1 Linear Actuators

6.4.2 Rotary Actuators

6.4.3 Hydraulic Motors

6.5 Block Diagrams for Hydraulic Drives

6.6 Selection of Equipment

6.6.1 Advantages and Disadvantages of Hydraulic and Pneumatic Systems

6.6.2 Selection of Hydraulic and Pneumatic Systems

6.7 Power Supplies

6.7.1 Hydraulic Power Supplies

6.7.2 Pneumatic Power Supplies

7. Flow Control Valves, Actuators and Positioners; Pneumatic Process Controllers

7.1 Flow Control Valves

7.1.1 Valve Inherent Characteristic

7.1.2 Valve Installed Characteristic

7.1.3 Control Valve Actuators

7.1.4 Valve Positioners for Pneumatic Actuators

7.2 Pneumatic Process Controllers

8. Electronic and Electrical Controllers

8.1 Classification

8.2 On-Off Temperature Controllers

8.2.1 Temperature Sensors

8.2.2 Control Laws

8.2.3 Heat Control

8.3 General Purpose Process Controllers

8.3.1 History

8.3.2 Types of Control Action

8.3.3 Signal Levels

8.3.4 PID Feedback Controller Configuration

8.3.5 Auto/Manual Transfer

8.3.6 Analog Controller Displays

8.3.7 Digital Process Controllers

8.4 Speed Controllers

8.4.1 General Purpose Speed Controllers for DC Motors

8.4.2 General Purpose Speed Controllers for AC Motors

8.4.3 Incremental Controllers for Stepper Motors

8.5 Sequence Controllers

8.5.1 Motor Driven Electromechanical Timers

8.5.2 Relay and Contactor Networks

8.5.3 Programmable Logic Controllers (PLCs)

9. Hardware to Generate Sum and Difference Data; Mechanical Components

9.1 The Combination of Data

9.2 Electrical Methods for Combining Analog Signals

9.2.1 Inverting Summer Configuration

9.2.2 Non-Inverting Summer Configuration

9.2.3 Differential Amplifier Configuration

9.2.4 Series Addition and Subtraction

9.2.5 Analog Comparators

9.2.6 Use of Bridge Networks for Subtracting Signals

9.2.7 Use of Tapped Continuous Track Potentiometers for Subtracting Signals

9.2.8 Use of Electromagnetic Fields for Adding and Subtracting Signals

9.2.9 Additional Techniques with AC Signals

9.3 Electronic Networks for Combining Digital Data

9.3.1 Natural Binary Representation

9.3.2 Hardwired Logic for Forming the Two's Complement

9.3.3 Hardwired Logic for Comparing Two Binary Words

9.3.4 Hardwired Logic for Adding Two Natural Binary Words

9.3.5 Hardwired Logic for Multiplying Two 4-Bit Natural Binary Words

9.4 Mechanical Methods for Combining Signals

9.4.1 The Lever and the Walking Beam

9.4.2 The Differential Gear

9.5 Gear Trains

9.6 Brakes, Clamps and Clutches

10. Signal and Data Conversion

10.1 Introduction

10.2 Voltage to Current Converters

10.3 Current to Voltage Converters

10.4 Modulators

10.5 Demodulators

10.6 Analog-Digital Converters (ADCs)

10.6.1 Single Slope ADC

10.6.2 Dual Slope ADC

10.6.3 Feedback ADC

10.6.4 Successive Approximations ADC

10.6.5 Voltage/Frequency ADC

10.6.6 Typical ADC External Circuitry

10.7 Digital-Analog Converters (DACs) and Digital-Analog Multipliers (DAMs)

10.8 Resolver-Digital Converters

10.8.1 Tracking Resolver-Digital Converters

10.8.2 Sampling Resolver-Digital Converters

10.9 Digital-Resolver Converters

10.10 Scott-Tee Transformers

10.11 Synchro-Digital Converters (SDCs)

10.12 Digital-Synchro Converters (DSCs)

10.13 RMS-to-DC Converters

10.14 Shift Registers and Counters

10.15 Code Converters

10.16 Frequency-Voltage Converters

10.17 Voltage-Frequency Converters

10.18 Air-to-Current Converters

10.19 Current-to-Air Converters

11. Networks Sensitive to Signal Amplitude

11.1 Introduction

11.2 Simple Active Networks of Resistors and Signal Diodes

11.3 Active Resistive Ladder Networks

11.4 Networks Using Analog Multipliers and Dividers

11.4.1 Multiplier and Divider Characteristics

11.4.2 External Circuitry Required with Analog Multipliers

11.4.3 Generation of Power Laws

11.4.4 Other Applications of Analog Multipliers

11.5 Networks Using Logarithmic Amplifiers

11.6 Special-Purpose Servo Potentiometers

11.7 Digitally-Synthesised Amplitude Sensitive Networks

12. Networks Sensitive to Signal Frequency

12.1 Introduction

12.2 Passive R-C Networks

12.3 Active R-C Networks

12.4 Filter Networks for DC Power Supplies

12.5 Compensation Networks for AC-Carrier Systems

12.6 Phaselocked Loops

12.7 Digital Compensators

13. Development of Complete Systems and the Construction of Schematic Diagrams

13.1 Development of Complete Systems

13.2 Construction of Schematic Diagrams

13.3 Example of the Development of a Control System and its Schematic Diagram

13.3.1 Requirements for the Example System

13.3.2 Selection of the Feedback Transducer

13.3.3 Reference and Error Data Generation

13.3.4 Selection of the Final Control Element

13.3.5 Selection of the Amplifiers

13.3.6 Development of the Schematic Diagram

13.4 Further Examples of Position Control Systems

13.4.1 Typical DC Position Control System

13.4.2 Typical AC-Carrier Position Control Systems

13.4.3 Typical Numerical Position Control Systems

13.5 Examples of Speed Control Systems

13.5.1 Speed Control of a Typical Small DC Motor Drive

13.5.2 Speed Control of a Typical Small AC Motor Drive

13.5.3 Speed Control of Stepper Motors

13.6 Examples of Electrohydraulic Drives

13.7 Examples of Process Control Systems

13.7.1 Typical Process Loop Using a Feedback Controller

13.7.2 Typical Use of a Cascade Controller

13.7.3 Typical Use of a Feedforward Controller

13.7.4 Typical Process Loop Using a Ratio Controller

14. Experimental Testing of Plant, System Elements, and Systems

14.1 The Need for Characterisation

14.2 Experimental Procedures for Obtaining Static Characteristics

14.3 Experimental Procedures for Measuring Basic Plant Parameters

14.4 Characterisation by Step Response Testing

14.4.1 Experimental Techniques for Obtaining Step Responses

14.4.2 The Order of the Response

14.4.3 Examples of Simple First Order Step Responses

14.4.4 Examples of Simple Second Order Step Responses

14.4.5 Treatment of Third Order Step Responses

14.4.6 Limitations of Step Response Testing

14.5 Characterisation from the Impulse Response

14.5.1 Experimental Techniques for Obtaining Impulse Responses

14.5.2 Examples of Simple First and Second Order Impulse Responses

14.6 Characterisation from the Frequency Response

14.6.1 Experimental Techniques for Obtaining Frequency Responses

14.6.2 Interpretation of Experimental Bode Plots

14.6.3 Open Loop versus Closed Loop Testing, for Characterisation

14.7 Characterisation by Random Signal Testing

14.7.1 The Correlation Function and Power Spectral Density Function

14.7.2 The Application to Characterisation

14.7.3 The Hardware

14.7.4 PRBN Correlation

14.7.5 PRBN and Frequency Response Computation

14.8 The Use of Correlation for Direct Frequency Response Measurement

14.9 Special Techniques for the Testing of AC-Carrier Systems

14.10 Special Techniques for the Testing of Digital Systems

14.11 Special Techniques for the Testing of Pneumatic Systems

15. Control System Performance and Commissioning

15.1 The Need for Specification Formulation

15.2 Steady State Accuracy

15.2.1 Factors Affecting Steady State Accuracy

15.2.2 System Type Number

15.3 Frequency Domain Behaviour

15.4 Time Domain Behaviour

15.5 Noise Performance

15.6 Analytical Design Techniques

15.6.1 Time Domain Analysis

15.6.2 Frequency Domain Analysis

15.6.3 s-Domain Analysis

15.6.4 Transformation of Data Between Time and Frequency Domains

15.6.5 Computer Simulation

15.7 Commissioning Procedures

15.7.1 Commissioning of Custom Designed Controllers

15.7.2 Commissioning of General Purpose Process Controllers

16. Interfacing Control Systems to Digital Computers

16.1 Introduction

16.2 Analog Input Channels

16.2.1 Signal Conditioning

16.2.2 Analog Multiplexers

16.2.3 Analog Input Systems

16.3 Analog Output Channels

16.4 Single Digital Input Channels

16.5 Single Digital Output Channels

16.6 Standard Bus Formats

16.6.1 Parallel Bus Standards

16.6.2 Serial Bus Standards

17. On-Stream Analysers

17.1 Introduction

17.2 Chromatographs

17.2.1 Gas Chromatographs

17.2.2 Liquid Chromatographs

17.2.3 Thermal Conductivity Detector

17.2.4 Flame Ionisation Detector

17.3 Mass Spectrometers

17.4 Ultra-Violet and Visible Light Photometers (Spectrophotometers)

17.5 Non-Dispersive Infra-Red (NDIR) Analysers

17.6 Colorimeters and Turbidimeters

17.6.1 Spectrophotometric Types of Colorimeter

17.6.2 Tristimulus Types of Colorimeter

17.6.3 Turbidimeters

17.7 Oxygen Analysers

17.7.1 Combustion Type Oxygen Analysers

17.7.2 Paramagnetic Oxygen Analysers

17.7.3 Dissolved Oxygen Analysers

17.8 Refractometers

17.9 Radiation Techniques

17.9.1 Radiation and Radioactive Sources

17.9.2 Radiation Detectors




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© Arnold 1982
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C. J. Chesmond

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