Control System Technology

Control System Technology

1st Edition - January 1, 1982

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  • Author: C. J. Chesmond
  • eBook ISBN: 9781483183299

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Description

Control System Technology focuses on the processes, methodologies, and techniques employed in control system technology, including digital computers, transducers, actuators, and amplifiers. The book first takes a look at classification, terminology, and definitions, displacement, reference, and velocity of transducers, and strain, force, torque, acceleration, load, and tension of transducers. Discussions focus on strain gauges and measuring bridges, other transducers for measuring force, torque, acceleration, and tension, displacement and velocity transducers, natural control systems, classification of control systems, and generalized single loop continuous feedback control system. The monograph examines electric amplifiers and final control elements, hydraulic and pneumatic amplifiers and final control elements, flow control valves, actuators and positioners, and signal and data conversion. The publication also ponders on interfacing control systems to digital computers, control system performance and commissioning, and experimental testing of plant, system elements, and systems. The manuscript is a valuable reference for engineers and researchers interested in control system technology.

Table of Contents


  • 1. Classification, Terminology and Definitions

    1.1 Natural Control Systems

    1.2 History

    1.3 The Future

    1.4 Generalised Single Loop Continuous Feedback Control System

    1.5 Classification of Control Systems

    1.6 Choice of System Hardware

    2. Transducers - Displacement, Reference and Velocity

    2.1 Introduction

    2.2 Displacement Transducers

    2.2.1 Servo Potentiometers

    2.2.2 Differential Inductors and Transformers

    2.2.3 Capacitive Displacement Transducers

    2.2.4 Synchros

    2.2.5 Resolvers

    2.2.6 The Inductosyn

    2.2.7 Shaft Encoders

    2.2.8 Diffraction Gratings

    2.2.9 Coarse-Fine (Dual-Speed) Measuring Systems

    2.2.10 On-Off Displacement Transducers

    2.3 Reference Transducers

    2.3.1 Potentiometric References

    2.3.2 Synchro and Resolver Transmitters

    2.3.3 Rotary Switch Networks

    2.4 Velocity Transducers

    2.4.1 DC Tachogenerator

    2.4.2 AC Drag-Cup Tachogenerator

    2.4.3 AC Signal Alternator

    2.4.4 Digital Velocity Transducers

    2.4.5 Bridges to Measure Back-E M F

    3. Transducers - Strain, Force, Torque, Acceleration, Load and Tension

    3.1 Strain Gauges and Measuring Bridges

    3.1.1 Strain Gauges

    3.1.2 Strain Gauge Bridges

    3.2 Use of Strain Gauges in Transducers

    3.2.1 Force Transducers

    3.2.2 Torque Transducers

    3.2.3 Acceleration Transducers

    3.2.4 Pressure Transducers

    3.2.5 Load Cells

    3.3 Other Transducers for Measuring Force, Torque, Acceleration and Tension

    3.3.1 Force, Torque and Acceleration Transducers

    3.3.2 Tension Transducers

    4. Transducers - Temperature, Pressure, Flow, Level, Density, pH, Humidity, Moisture and Thickness

    4.1 Introduction

    4.2 Transmitters

    4.3 Temperature Transducers

    4.3.1 Thermocouples

    4.3.2 Resistance Thermometers and Thermistors

    4.3.3 The Filled-System Bourdon Tube

    4.3.4 Semiconductor Temperature Transducers

    4.4 Pressure Transducers

    4.4.1 Manometers

    4.4.2 Bourdon Tubes

    4.4.3 Bellows

    4.4.4 Diaphragms

    4.5 Flow Transducers

    4.5.1 Orifice, Venturi, Dall Tube and Nozzle

    4.5.2 Rotameters

    4.5.3 Magnetic Flowmeters

    4.5.4 Turbine Meters

    4.5.5 Pitot Tubes

    4.5.6 Target Meters

    4.5.7 Vortex Meters

    4.6 Level Transducers

    4.7 Density Transducers

    4.7.1 Air Bubble Type

    4.7.2 Displacement Type

    4.7.3 Displacement U-Tube Type

    4.7.4 Vibrating U-Tube Type

    4.7.5 Radiation Type

    4.8 pH Transducers

    4.9 Humidity Transducers

    4.9.1 The Hygrometer

    4.9.2 The Wet and Dry Bulb Thermometer

    4.9.3 The Dew Point Thermometer

    4.10 Moisture Transducers

    4.11 Thickness Transducers

    5. Electric Amplifiers and Final Control Elements

    5.1 Introduction

    5.2 Preamplifiers

    5.3 Transistor Power Amplifiers

    5.4 High-Power Power Output Stages

    5.4.1 DC Generators

    5.4.2 Triac Networks

    5.4.3 Converters

    5.4.4 Inverters

    5.4.5 Frequency Converters

    5.5 The Use of Minor Negative Feedback Loops

    5.5.1 Negative Feedback to Linearise a Nonlinear Static Characteristic

    5.5.2 Negative Feedback to Enhance the Speed of Response of an Element

    5.5.3 Negative Feedback to Change a Voltage Source into a Current Source

    5.5.4 Negative Feedback to Improve Signal-to-Noise Ratio

    5.6 Servomotors

    5.6.1 AC Servomotor

    5.6.2 DC Servomotors

    5.6.3 Stepper Motors

    5.7 Conventional Motors

    5.7.1 DC Drives

    5.7.2 AC Drives

    6. Hydraulic and Pneumatic Amplifiers and Final Control Elements

    6.1 Single-Stage Fluid Amplifiers

    6.1.1 Liquid Amplifiers

    6.1.2 Gas Amplifiers

    6.2 Multi-Stage Fluid Amplifiers with Feedback

    6.2.1 Servovalves

    6.2.2 Pneumatic Amplifiers

    6.3 Hydraulic Pumps

    6.3.1 Gear Pumps

    6.3.2 Vane Pumps

    6.3.3 Piston Pumps

    6.4 Final Control Elements

    6.4.1 Linear Actuators

    6.4.2 Rotary Actuators

    6.4.3 Hydraulic Motors

    6.5 Block Diagrams for Hydraulic Drives

    6.6 Selection of Equipment

    6.6.1 Advantages and Disadvantages of Hydraulic and Pneumatic Systems

    6.6.2 Selection of Hydraulic and Pneumatic Systems

    6.7 Power Supplies

    6.7.1 Hydraulic Power Supplies

    6.7.2 Pneumatic Power Supplies

    7. Flow Control Valves, Actuators and Positioners; Pneumatic Process Controllers

    7.1 Flow Control Valves

    7.1.1 Valve Inherent Characteristic

    7.1.2 Valve Installed Characteristic

    7.1.3 Control Valve Actuators

    7.1.4 Valve Positioners for Pneumatic Actuators

    7.2 Pneumatic Process Controllers

    8. Electronic and Electrical Controllers

    8.1 Classification

    8.2 On-Off Temperature Controllers

    8.2.1 Temperature Sensors

    8.2.2 Control Laws

    8.2.3 Heat Control

    8.3 General Purpose Process Controllers

    8.3.1 History

    8.3.2 Types of Control Action

    8.3.3 Signal Levels

    8.3.4 PID Feedback Controller Configuration

    8.3.5 Auto/Manual Transfer

    8.3.6 Analog Controller Displays

    8.3.7 Digital Process Controllers

    8.4 Speed Controllers

    8.4.1 General Purpose Speed Controllers for DC Motors

    8.4.2 General Purpose Speed Controllers for AC Motors

    8.4.3 Incremental Controllers for Stepper Motors

    8.5 Sequence Controllers

    8.5.1 Motor Driven Electromechanical Timers

    8.5.2 Relay and Contactor Networks

    8.5.3 Programmable Logic Controllers (PLCs)

    9. Hardware to Generate Sum and Difference Data; Mechanical Components

    9.1 The Combination of Data

    9.2 Electrical Methods for Combining Analog Signals

    9.2.1 Inverting Summer Configuration

    9.2.2 Non-Inverting Summer Configuration

    9.2.3 Differential Amplifier Configuration

    9.2.4 Series Addition and Subtraction

    9.2.5 Analog Comparators

    9.2.6 Use of Bridge Networks for Subtracting Signals

    9.2.7 Use of Tapped Continuous Track Potentiometers for Subtracting Signals

    9.2.8 Use of Electromagnetic Fields for Adding and Subtracting Signals

    9.2.9 Additional Techniques with AC Signals

    9.3 Electronic Networks for Combining Digital Data

    9.3.1 Natural Binary Representation

    9.3.2 Hardwired Logic for Forming the Two's Complement

    9.3.3 Hardwired Logic for Comparing Two Binary Words

    9.3.4 Hardwired Logic for Adding Two Natural Binary Words

    9.3.5 Hardwired Logic for Multiplying Two 4-Bit Natural Binary Words

    9.4 Mechanical Methods for Combining Signals

    9.4.1 The Lever and the Walking Beam

    9.4.2 The Differential Gear

    9.5 Gear Trains

    9.6 Brakes, Clamps and Clutches

    10. Signal and Data Conversion

    10.1 Introduction

    10.2 Voltage to Current Converters

    10.3 Current to Voltage Converters

    10.4 Modulators

    10.5 Demodulators

    10.6 Analog-Digital Converters (ADCs)

    10.6.1 Single Slope ADC

    10.6.2 Dual Slope ADC

    10.6.3 Feedback ADC

    10.6.4 Successive Approximations ADC

    10.6.5 Voltage/Frequency ADC

    10.6.6 Typical ADC External Circuitry

    10.7 Digital-Analog Converters (DACs) and Digital-Analog Multipliers (DAMs)

    10.8 Resolver-Digital Converters

    10.8.1 Tracking Resolver-Digital Converters

    10.8.2 Sampling Resolver-Digital Converters

    10.9 Digital-Resolver Converters

    10.10 Scott-Tee Transformers

    10.11 Synchro-Digital Converters (SDCs)

    10.12 Digital-Synchro Converters (DSCs)

    10.13 RMS-to-DC Converters

    10.14 Shift Registers and Counters

    10.15 Code Converters

    10.16 Frequency-Voltage Converters

    10.17 Voltage-Frequency Converters

    10.18 Air-to-Current Converters

    10.19 Current-to-Air Converters

    11. Networks Sensitive to Signal Amplitude

    11.1 Introduction

    11.2 Simple Active Networks of Resistors and Signal Diodes

    11.3 Active Resistive Ladder Networks

    11.4 Networks Using Analog Multipliers and Dividers

    11.4.1 Multiplier and Divider Characteristics

    11.4.2 External Circuitry Required with Analog Multipliers

    11.4.3 Generation of Power Laws

    11.4.4 Other Applications of Analog Multipliers

    11.5 Networks Using Logarithmic Amplifiers

    11.6 Special-Purpose Servo Potentiometers

    11.7 Digitally-Synthesised Amplitude Sensitive Networks

    12. Networks Sensitive to Signal Frequency

    12.1 Introduction

    12.2 Passive R-C Networks

    12.3 Active R-C Networks

    12.4 Filter Networks for DC Power Supplies

    12.5 Compensation Networks for AC-Carrier Systems

    12.6 Phaselocked Loops

    12.7 Digital Compensators

    13. Development of Complete Systems and the Construction of Schematic Diagrams

    13.1 Development of Complete Systems

    13.2 Construction of Schematic Diagrams

    13.3 Example of the Development of a Control System and its Schematic Diagram

    13.3.1 Requirements for the Example System

    13.3.2 Selection of the Feedback Transducer

    13.3.3 Reference and Error Data Generation

    13.3.4 Selection of the Final Control Element

    13.3.5 Selection of the Amplifiers

    13.3.6 Development of the Schematic Diagram

    13.4 Further Examples of Position Control Systems

    13.4.1 Typical DC Position Control System

    13.4.2 Typical AC-Carrier Position Control Systems

    13.4.3 Typical Numerical Position Control Systems

    13.5 Examples of Speed Control Systems

    13.5.1 Speed Control of a Typical Small DC Motor Drive

    13.5.2 Speed Control of a Typical Small AC Motor Drive

    13.5.3 Speed Control of Stepper Motors

    13.6 Examples of Electrohydraulic Drives

    13.7 Examples of Process Control Systems

    13.7.1 Typical Process Loop Using a Feedback Controller

    13.7.2 Typical Use of a Cascade Controller

    13.7.3 Typical Use of a Feedforward Controller

    13.7.4 Typical Process Loop Using a Ratio Controller

    14. Experimental Testing of Plant, System Elements, and Systems

    14.1 The Need for Characterisation

    14.2 Experimental Procedures for Obtaining Static Characteristics

    14.3 Experimental Procedures for Measuring Basic Plant Parameters

    14.4 Characterisation by Step Response Testing

    14.4.1 Experimental Techniques for Obtaining Step Responses

    14.4.2 The Order of the Response

    14.4.3 Examples of Simple First Order Step Responses

    14.4.4 Examples of Simple Second Order Step Responses

    14.4.5 Treatment of Third Order Step Responses

    14.4.6 Limitations of Step Response Testing

    14.5 Characterisation from the Impulse Response

    14.5.1 Experimental Techniques for Obtaining Impulse Responses

    14.5.2 Examples of Simple First and Second Order Impulse Responses

    14.6 Characterisation from the Frequency Response

    14.6.1 Experimental Techniques for Obtaining Frequency Responses

    14.6.2 Interpretation of Experimental Bode Plots

    14.6.3 Open Loop versus Closed Loop Testing, for Characterisation

    14.7 Characterisation by Random Signal Testing

    14.7.1 The Correlation Function and Power Spectral Density Function

    14.7.2 The Application to Characterisation

    14.7.3 The Hardware

    14.7.4 PRBN Correlation

    14.7.5 PRBN and Frequency Response Computation

    14.8 The Use of Correlation for Direct Frequency Response Measurement

    14.9 Special Techniques for the Testing of AC-Carrier Systems

    14.10 Special Techniques for the Testing of Digital Systems

    14.11 Special Techniques for the Testing of Pneumatic Systems

    15. Control System Performance and Commissioning

    15.1 The Need for Specification Formulation

    15.2 Steady State Accuracy

    15.2.1 Factors Affecting Steady State Accuracy

    15.2.2 System Type Number

    15.3 Frequency Domain Behaviour

    15.4 Time Domain Behaviour

    15.5 Noise Performance

    15.6 Analytical Design Techniques

    15.6.1 Time Domain Analysis

    15.6.2 Frequency Domain Analysis

    15.6.3 s-Domain Analysis

    15.6.4 Transformation of Data Between Time and Frequency Domains

    15.6.5 Computer Simulation

    15.7 Commissioning Procedures

    15.7.1 Commissioning of Custom Designed Controllers

    15.7.2 Commissioning of General Purpose Process Controllers

    16. Interfacing Control Systems to Digital Computers

    16.1 Introduction

    16.2 Analog Input Channels

    16.2.1 Signal Conditioning

    16.2.2 Analog Multiplexers

    16.2.3 Analog Input Systems

    16.3 Analog Output Channels

    16.4 Single Digital Input Channels

    16.5 Single Digital Output Channels

    16.6 Standard Bus Formats

    16.6.1 Parallel Bus Standards

    16.6.2 Serial Bus Standards

    17. On-Stream Analysers

    17.1 Introduction

    17.2 Chromatographs

    17.2.1 Gas Chromatographs

    17.2.2 Liquid Chromatographs

    17.2.3 Thermal Conductivity Detector

    17.2.4 Flame Ionisation Detector

    17.3 Mass Spectrometers

    17.4 Ultra-Violet and Visible Light Photometers (Spectrophotometers)

    17.5 Non-Dispersive Infra-Red (NDIR) Analysers

    17.6 Colorimeters and Turbidimeters

    17.6.1 Spectrophotometric Types of Colorimeter

    17.6.2 Tristimulus Types of Colorimeter

    17.6.3 Turbidimeters

    17.7 Oxygen Analysers

    17.7.1 Combustion Type Oxygen Analysers

    17.7.2 Paramagnetic Oxygen Analysers

    17.7.3 Dissolved Oxygen Analysers

    17.8 Refractometers

    17.9 Radiation Techniques

    17.9.1 Radiation and Radioactive Sources

    17.9.2 Radiation Detectors

    Bibliography

    Index

Product details

  • No. of pages: 480
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Arnold 1984
  • Published: January 1, 1982
  • Imprint: Arnold
  • eBook ISBN: 9781483183299

About the Author

C. J. Chesmond

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