Control System Design Guide

Control System Design Guide

Using Your Computer to Understand and Diagnose Feedback Controllers

4th Edition - May 15, 2012

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  • Author: George Ellis
  • eBook ISBN: 9780123859211
  • Paperback ISBN: 9780128102411

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Description

Control Systems Design Guide has helped thousands of engineers to improve machine performance. This fourth edition of the practical guide has been updated with cutting-edge control design scenarios, models and simulations enabling apps from battlebots to solar collectors. This useful reference enhances coverage of practical applications via the inclusion of new control system models, troubleshooting tips, and expanded coverage of complex systems requirements, such as increased speed, precision and remote capabilities, bridging the gap between the complex, math-heavy control theory taught in formal courses, and the efficient implementation required in real industry settings. George Ellis is Director of Technology Planning and Chief Engineer of Servo Systems at Kollmorgen Corporation, a leading provider of motion systems and components for original equipment manufacturers (OEMs) around the globe. He has designed an applied motion control systems professionally for over 30 years He has written two well-respected books with Academic Press, Observers in Control Systems and Control System Design Guide, now in its fourth edition. He has contributed articles on the application of controls to numerous magazines, including Machine Design, Control Engineering, Motion Systems Design, Power Control and Intelligent Motion, and Electronic Design News.

Key Features

  • Explains how to model machines and processes, including how to measure working equipment, with an intuitive approach that avoids complex math
  • Includes coverage on the interface between control systems and digital processors, reflecting the reality that most motion systems are now designed with PC software
  • Of particular interest to the practicing engineer is the addition of new material on real-time, remote and networked control systems
  • Teaches how control systems work at an intuitive level, including how to measure, model, and diagnose problems, all without the unnecessary math so common in this field
  • Principles are taught in plain language and then demonstrated with dozens of software models so the reader fully comprehend the material (The models and software to replicate all material in the book is provided without charge by the author at www.QxDesign.com)
  • New material includes practical uses of Rapid Control Prototypes (RCP) including extensive examples using National Instruments LabVIEW

Readership

Mechanical, electrical and industrial design engineers, and students preparing to enter these disciplines

Table of Contents

  • Dedication
    Praise for the new edition
    Preface

    Section I Applied Principles of Controls
    Important Safety Guidelines for Readers 

    1. Introduction to Controls
    1.1 Visual ModelQ Simulation Environment
    1.2 The Control System
    1.3 The Controls Engineer

    2. The Frequency Domain
    2.1 The Laplace Transform
    2.2 Transfer Functions
    2.3 Examples of Transfer Functions
    2.4 Block Diagrams
    2.5 Phase and Gain
    2.6 Measuring Performance

    3. Tuning a Control System
    3.1 Closing Loops
    3.2 A Detailed Review of the Model
    3.3 The Open-Loop Method
    3.4 Margins of Stability
    3.5 A Zone-Based Tuning Procedure
    3.6 Variation in Plant Gain
    3.7 Multiple (Cascaded) Loops
    3.8 Power Converter Saturation and Synchronization
    3.9 Phase vs. Gain Plots

    4. Delay in Digital Controllers
    4.1 How Sampling Works
    4.2 Sources of Delay in Digital Systems
    4.3 Experiment 4A: Understanding Delay in Digital Control
    4.4 Selecting the Sample Time

    5. The -Domain
    5.1 Introduction to the z-Domain
    5.2 z Phasors
    5.3 Aliasing
    5.4 Experiment 5A: Aliasing
    5.5 From Transfer Function to Algorithm
    5.6 Functions for Digital Systems
    5.7 Reducing the Calculation Delay
    5.8 Quantization

    6. Four Types of Controllers
    6.1 Tuning in this Chapter
    6.2 Using the Proportional Gain
    6.3 Using the Integral Gain
    6.4 Using the Differential Gain
    6.5 PD Control
    6.6 Choosing the Controller
    6.7 Experiments 6A–6D 

    7. Disturbance Response
    7.1 Disturbances
    7.2 Disturbance Response of a Velocity Controller
    7.3 Disturbance Decoupling

    8. Feed-Forward
    8.1 Plant-Based Feed-Forward
    8.2 Feed-Forward and the Power Converter
    8.3 Delaying the Command Signal
    8.4 Variation in Plant and Power Converter Operation
    8.5 Feed-Forward for the Double-Integrating Plant

    9. Filters in Control Systems
    9.1 Filters in Control Systems
    9.2 Filter Passband
    9.3 Implementation of Filters

    10. Introduction to Observers in Control Systems
    10.1 Overview of Observers
    10.2 Experiments 10A–10C: Enhancing Stability with an Observer
    10.3 Filter Form of the Luenberger Observer
    10.4 Designing a Luenberger Observer
    10.5 Introduction to Tuning an Observer Compensator

    Section II Modeling

    11. Introduction to Modeling
    11.1 What is a Model?
    11.2 Frequency-Domain Modeling
    11.3 Time-Domain Modeling

    12. Nonlinear Behavior and Time Variation
    12.1 LTI Versus Non-LTI
    12.2 Non-LTI Behavior
    12.3 Dealing with Nonlinear Behavior
    12.4 Ten Examples of Nonlinear Behavior

    13. Model Development and Verification
    13.1 Seven-Step Process to Develop a Model
    13.2 From Simulation to Deployment: RCP and HIL1
    Section III Motion Control

    14. Encoders and Resolvers
    14.1 Accuracy, Resolution, and Response
    14.2 Encoders
    14.3 Resolvers
    14.4 Position Resolution, Velocity Estimation, and Noise
    14.5 Alternatives for Increasing Resolution
    14.6 Cyclic Error and Torque/Velocity Ripple
    14.7 Experiment 14B: Cyclical Errors and Torque Ripple
    14.8 Choosing a Feedback Device

    15. Basics of the Electric Servomotor and Drive
    15.1 Definition of a Drive
    15.2 Definition of a Servo System
    15.3 Basic Magnetics
    15.4 Electric Servomotors
    15.5 Permanent-Magnet (PM) Brush Motors
    15.6 Brushless PM Motors
    15.7 Six-Step Control of Brushless PM Motor
    15.8 Induction and Reluctance Motors

    16. Compliance and Resonance
    16.1 Equations of Resonance
    16.2 Tuned Resonance vs. Inertial-Reduction Instability
    16.3 Curing Resonance

    17. Position-Control Loops
    17.1 P/PI Position Control
    17.2 PI/P Position Control
    17.3 PID Position Control
    17.4 Comparison of Position Loops
    17.5 Position Profile Generation
    17.6 Bode Plots for Positioning Systems

    18. Using the Luenberger Observer in Motion Control
    18.1 Applications Likely to Benefit from Observers
    18.2 Observing Velocity to Reduce Phase Lag
    18.3 Acceleration Feedback

    19. Rapid Control Prototyping (RCP) for a Motion System
    19.1 Why Use RCP?
    19.2 Servo System with Rigidly-Coupled Load
    19.3 Servo System with Compliantly-Coupled Load

    APPENDIX A. Active Analog Implementation of Controller Elements
    Integrator
    Differentiator
    Lag Compensator
    Lead Compensator
    Lead-Lag Compensator
    Sallen-and-Key Low-Pass Filter
    Adjustable Notch Filter
    APPENDIX B. European Symbols for Block Diagrams
    Part I. Linear Functions
    Part II. Nonlinear Functions
    APPENDIX C. The Runge—Kutta Method
    The Runge–Kutta Algorithm
    Basic Version of the Runge–Kutta Algorithm
    C Programming Language Version of the Runge–Kutta Algorithm
    H-File for C Programming Language Version
    APPENDIX D. Development of the Bilinear Transformation
    Bilinear Transformation
    Prewarping
    Factoring Polynomials
    Phase Advancing
    APPENDIX E. The Parallel Form of Digital Algorithms
    APPENDIX F. Answers to End-of-Chapter Questions
    Chapter 2
    Chapter 3
    Chapter 4
    Chapter 5
    Chapter 6
    Chapter 7
    Chapter 8
    Chapter 9
    Chapter 10
    Chapter 11
    Chapter 12
    Chapter 14
    Chapter 15
    Chapter 16
    Chapter 17
    Chapter 18
    References
    Index

Product details

  • No. of pages: 520
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Butterworth-Heinemann 2012
  • Published: May 15, 2012
  • Imprint: Butterworth-Heinemann
  • eBook ISBN: 9780123859211
  • Paperback ISBN: 9780128102411

About the Author

George Ellis

George Ellis has worked in product development for 35 years. He first experienced the concept of continuous improvement two decades ago through the Danaher Corporation, one of the world’s foremost lean thinking companies. Danaher transformed itself in the 1980s, modeling its Danaher Business System (DBS) on the Toyota Production System. Ellis has had numerous leadership roles at Danaher, including Vice President of Global Engineering for X-Rite from 2015 to 2018. In 2019, Ellis joined Envista Holdings Corporation, a new spin-off from Danaher for the dental industry, as Vice President of Innovation. There he spends every day immersed in lean knowledge work, deploying, improving, and sustaining new product development workflows in EBS, Envista’s brand of lean knowledge. He also wrote Project Management for Product Development, Control System Design Guide (4th edition), and Observers in Control Systems, all from Elsevier.

Affiliations and Expertise

Vice President Innovation, Envista Business System Office Envista Holdings Corporation, Brea, CA, United States

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