Control of Welding Distortion in Thin-Plate Fabrication

Control of Welding Distortion in Thin-Plate Fabrication

Design Support Exploiting Computational Simulation

1st Edition - January 20, 2014

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  • Authors: T Gray, D Camilleri, N McPherson
  • eBook ISBN: 9780857099327
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9780857090478

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The intense temperature fields caused by heat sources in welding frequently lead to distortions and residual stresses in the finished product. Welding distortion is a particular problem in fabricating thin plate structures such as ships. Based on pioneering research by the authors, Control of Welding Distortion in Thin-Plate Fabrication reviews distortion test results from trials and shows how outcomes can be modeled computationally. The book provides readers with an understanding of distortion influences and the means to develop distortion-reducing strategies. The book is structured as an integrated treatment. It opens by reviewing the development of computational welding mechanics approaches to distortion. Following chapters describe the industrial context of stiffened plate fabrication and further chapters provide overviews of distortion mechanics and the modeling approach. A chapter on full-scale welding trials is followed by three chapters that develop modeling strategies through thermal process and thermo-mechanical simulations, based on finite-element analysis. Simplified models are a particular feature of these chapters. A final sequence of chapters explores the simulation of welding distortion in butt welding of thin plates and fillet welding of stiffened plate structures, and shows how these models can be used to optimize design and fabrication methods to control distortion. Control of Welding Distortion in Thin-Plate Fabrication is a comprehensive resource for metal fabricators, engineering companies, welders and welding companies, and practicing engineers and academics with an interest in welding mechanics.

Key Features

  • Allows practitioners in the field to minimize distortion during the welding of thin plates
  • Provides computational tools that can give insight into the effects of welding and fabrication procedures
  • Demonstrates how welding distortion in thin plate fabrications can be minimized through design


Metal fabricators; Forensic engineers; Engineering companies involved in the fabrication and manufacture of metal-end products; Engineers and academics with an interest in metallurgy and welding

Table of Contents

  • Author contact details

    Woodhead Publishing Series in Welding and Other Joining Technologies


    1. Introduction: development of computational welding mechanics approach to welding distortion


    1.1 Background: control of welding distortion in fabrication practice

    1.2 Aims: integrated design approach utilising computational welding mechanics (CWM)

    1.3 Structure of the book

    1.4 Conclusion

    1.5 References

    2. Fabrication of stiffened thin-plate structures and the problem of welding distortion


    2.1 Introduction

    2.2 Welding distortion of stiffened-plate and other fabricated structures

    2.3 Outline of a typical fabrication process

    2.4 Raw materials and primary process factors

    2.5 Management issues relevant to thin-plate distortion

    2.6 Rectification of thin-plate distortion

    2.7 Conclusion

    2.8 References

    3. Tools to deal with welding distortion: predictive modelling and research on in-process techniques


    3.1 Introduction

    3.2 Artificial neural networks (ANNs)

    3.3 Computational simulation

    3.4 Current research on reduction of distortion

    3.5 Conclusion

    3.6 References

    4. Understanding welding distortion: thermal fields thermo-mechanical effects


    4.1 Introduction

    4.2 Thermal fields: dependence on welding parameters and material properties

    4.3 Thermo-mechanical effects

    4.4 Thermo-mechanical treatment based on longitudinal–transverse uncoupling

    4.5 Plane strain strip: longitudinal deformations and forces

    4.6 Transverse welding deformations

    4.7 Residual stress

    4.8 Buckling

    4.9 Conclusion

    4.10 References

    5. Computational simulation of welding distortion: an overview


    5.1 Introduction

    5.2 Multi-physics

    5.3 Thermal property non-linearity

    5.4 Phase change and non-linear thermal dilatation

    5.5 Mechanical property idealisation

    5.6 Thermal computation outline

    5.7 Range of thermo-mechanical approaches available

    5.8 Reduced solutions and their advantages

    5.9 Conclusion

    5.10 References

    6. Experimental investigation of models of welding distortion: methods, results and comparisons


    6.1 Introduction

    6.2 Importance of experimental observations

    6.3 Welding process application in test work

    6.4 Thermocouple arrays

    6.5 Thermography

    6.6 Deformation measurement

    6.7 Completion and smoothing of measured deformation profiles

    6.8 Characterising out-of-plane deformation

    6.9 Conclusion

    6.10 References

    7. Modelling thermal processes in welding


    7.1 Introduction

    7.2 Convection and radiation

    7.3 Heat input modelling

    7.4 Simulation of weld deposition

    7.5 Thermal property non-linearity

    7.6 Three-dimensional transient thermal computation

    7.7 Transient finite-element model based on two-dimensional cross-section

    7.8 Thermal computation in stiffener fillet weld geometries

    7.9 Welding efficiency

    7.10 Thermal cutting

    7.11 Conclusion

    7.12 References

    8. Computationally efficient methods for modelling welding processes


    8.1 Introduction

    8.2 Computationally efficient methods based on algorithms

    8.3 Hybrid stepwise solution methods

    8.4 Conclusion

    8.5 References

    9. Finite-element thermo-mechanical techniques for welding distortion prediction


    9.1 Introduction

    9.2 Formulation of thermo-mechanical finite-element model

    9.3 Case study: influence of tacking procedures on butt-weld distortion

    9.4 Case study: fillet-welded stiffened plate

    9.5 Conclusion

    9.6 References

    10. Simulating welding distortion in butt welding of thin plates


    10.1 Introduction

    10.2 Plate support and out-of-flatness influences

    10.3 Effects of tacking

    10.4 Clamping effects

    10.5 Residual stress in butt welds

    10.6 Multiple butt welds

    10.7 Conclusion

    10.8 References

    11. Simulating welding distortion in fillet welding of stiffened plate structures


    11.1 Introduction

    11.2 Plates with double-sided continuous fillet-welded single stiffeners: thermal aspects

    11.3 Plates with double-sided continuous fillet-welded single stiffeners: computationally efficient thermomechanical treatment

    11.4 Multiply-stiffened plates: case study on welding sequence

    11.5 Conclusion

    11.6 References

    12. Exploiting welding distortion models: examples of design and manufacturing strategies to optimise fabrication


    12.1 Introduction

    12.2 Optimising multi-stiffener configuration

    12.3 Optimising the design in terms of weld position

    12.4 Limiting heat input to avoid buckling

    12.5 Simulation of transient thermal tensioning: fabrication-related distortion reduction study

    12.6 Simulated use of low-transformation-temperature filler material to reduce distortion

    12.7 Simulated use of weld-trailing cryogenic cooling process to reduce distortion

    12.8 Conclusion

    12.9 References


Product details

  • No. of pages: 352
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Woodhead Publishing 2014
  • Published: January 20, 2014
  • Imprint: Woodhead Publishing
  • eBook ISBN: 9780857099327
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9780857090478

About the Authors

T Gray

Tom Gray is a Professor at the University of Strathclyde, UK.

Affiliations and Expertise

University of Strathclyde, UK

D Camilleri

Duncan Camilleri is a Senior Lecturer at the University of Malta, Malta.

Affiliations and Expertise

University of Malta, Malta

N McPherson

Norman McPherson is a Welding Manager at BAE Systems, Surface Ships, UK.

Affiliations and Expertise

BAE Systems, UK

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