Control of Animal Cell Proliferation - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780121230616, 9781483277417

Control of Animal Cell Proliferation

1st Edition

Volume I

Editors: Alton L. Boynton Hyam L. Leffert
eBook ISBN: 9781483277417
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 28th January 1985
Page Count: 576
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Description

Control of Animal Cell Proliferation, Volume I presents how animals regulate their proliferation activity and how cells become proliferatively autonomous resulting in malignant behavior. This book provides an understanding of mechanisms that control animal cell proliferation. Organized into five parts encompassing 17 chapters, this volume begins with an overview of the efforts to elucidate he genetic alterations that lead normal cells to become cancer cells, which have been aided considerably by the investigation of acute retroviruses. This text then examines the factors involved in growth control. Other chapters describe in detail the biology and biochemistry of epidermal growth factor (EGF), which have been elucidated through the study of cultured human fibroblasts. This book discusses as well the protein kinases with specificity for tyrosine. The final chapter deals with regulation of initiation of eukaryotic protein synthesis by phosphorylation. This book is a valuable resource for scientists as well as cellular and molecular biologists.

Table of Contents


Contributors

Preface

I. Trends and Issues

1 Oncogenes and Pathways to Malignancy

I. Acute Transforming Retroviruses

II. Assignment of a Normal Function to a Proto-Oncogene

III. Specific Proto-Oncogene Rearrangements in Human Tumors

IV. Proto-Oncogene Amplification in Tumor Cells

V. DNA Insertion Can Lead to Oncogene Activation

VI. Oncogenes Demonstrated by Transfection of Human Tumor DNA

VII. Point Mutations Are Responsible for Activation of ras Oncogenes

VIII. Implications

References

2 The Role of Stem Cells in Normal and Malignant Tissue

I. Introduction

II. Stem Cell Renewal in Normal Tissues

III. Myelopoiesis

IV. Stem Cells in Tumors

V. The Clonal Hemopathies

VI. Lymphopoiesis and Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia

VII. Heterogeneity

VIII. Molecular Considerations

IX. Treatment Goals

X. Conclusions

References

II. Growth Factors

3 Epidermal and Fibroblastic Growth Factor

I. Introduction

II. Epidermal Growth Factor

III. Fibroblast Growth Factor

IV. Conclusion

References

4 Insulin-Like Growth Factors

I. Introduction

II. Background

III. IGF Structure

IV. Biological Activity of Insulin-Like Growth Factors

V. Circulating and Secreted Forms of the IGFs

VI. Measurement of Insulin-Like Growth Factors

VII. Physiological Control of IGF Secretion

VIII. Unresolved Questions

References

5 Cyclic AMP Elevators Stimulate the Initiation of DNA Synthesis by Calcium-Deprived Rat Liver Cells

I. Introduction

II. Model System: The Ca2+-Deprived T51B Rat Liver Cell

III. Mechanism of Induction of DNA Synthesis by Ca2+

IV. Mechanism of Induction of DNA Synthesis by Tumor Promoters

V. Induction of DNA Synthesis by Other Cyclic AMP Elevators

VI. Stimulation of Cell Surface Protein Kinases

VII. Summary and Conclusions

References

6 Platelet Growth Factors: Presence and Biological Significance

I. Introduction

II. Platelet-Derived Growth Factor for Mesenchymal Cells

III. Growth Factors for Tumor Cells

IV. Concluding Remarks

References

III. Receptors

7 The EGF Receptor

I. Identification of the EGF Receptor

II. EGF-Induced Receptor Loss: Down-Regulation of the EGF Receptor

III. The Pathway of EGF-Induced Receptor Internalization

IV. A Cell Line Enriched in EGF Receptors

V. Tyrosine Kinase and the EGF Receptor

VI. Purification and Characterization of the EGF Receptor

VII. The EGF Receptor as Substrate

VIII. DNA Nicking Activity of the EGF Receptor

IX. Postulated Causal EGF-Mediated Response(s) in Stimulation of Cell Division

X. Modulation of the EGF Receptor by Endogenous and Exogenous Agents

XI. Sequence Homology between the EGF Receptor and the Avian Erythroblastosis Virus v-erb-B Oncogene Product

XII. The EGF Receptor Gene

XIII. The Future

References

8 Effect of Insulin on Growth in Vivo and Cells in Culture

I. Introduction

II. Insulin Growth Effects in Vivo

III. Insulin Growth Effects on Cells in Culture

IV. Mechanism of Insulin's Growth-Promoting Action

V. Post-Receptor Steps of Insulin's Growth Effects

VI. Summary

References

9 Glucagon Receptors and Their Functions

I. Introduction

II. General Characteristics of Glucagon Interaction with Its Receptors

III. Regulation of Adenylate Cyclase Activation by Glucagon

IV. Glucagon Structure-Function Relationships

V. Isolation and Purification of Glucagon Receptors

VI. Glucagon Interactions with Hormone-Sensitive Cells

VII. Concluding Remarks

References

10 The Platelet-Derived Growth Factor Receptor

I. Introduction

II. Specific and Nonspecific Binding

III. Basic Binding Properties of the PDGF Receptor

IV. The PDGF Binding Site Is a Functional Receptor

V. Variables Which Affect Expression or Properties of PDGF Receptors

VI. Physical and Biochemical Properties of the PDGF Receptor

VII. Subcellular Localization and Fate of Bound PDGF

References

IV. Transduction Mechanisms

11 The Role of Tyrosine Protein Kinases in the Action of Growth Factors

I. Introduction and Background

II. Substrates of the Growth-Factor Receptors

III. Methods of Detection

IV. Studies with Cell Cultures

V. p42

VI. Important Questions

References

12 The Control of Cell Proliferation by Calcium, Ca2+-Calmodulin, and Cyclic AMP

I. Introduction

II. Calcium, the Transitory Triggerer

III. The Cell Cycle—An Overview

IV. The Prereplicative Period

V. Conclusions

Addendum

References

13 Growth Regulation by Sodium Ion Influxes

I. Introduction

II. Experimental Aspects

III. Phenomenology of Growth-Related Sodium Influxes

IV. Evidence for Cause and Effect

V. Flux-Mediating Structures

VI. Functional Changes Linked to Sodium Influxes

VII. Conclusions

References

V. Regulation

14 Structural Heterogeneity of Duplex DNA

I. Introduction

II. Right-Handed Duplex DNA

III. Left-Handed Duplex DNA

IV. Cruciforms at Inverted Repeats

V. Summary

References

15 Initiation of DNA Replication in Eukaryotes

I. Introduction

II. Origins of DNA Replication

III. Replication Forks

IV. Extensive Single-Stranded Regions

V. DNA Polymerase-Primase Complexes

VI. Strand Separation Mechanism

VII. Replication and the Nuclear Matrix

VIII. Conclusion

References

16 Role of Phosphorylation of Nonhistone Proteins in the Regulation of Mitosis

I. Introduction

II. Role of Protein and RNA Synthesis in the Entry of Cells into Mitosis

III. The Induction of Germinal Vesicle Breakdown and Chromosome Condensation in Xenopus Oocytes by Mitotic Factors

IV. Role of Protein Phosphorylation during Mitosis and Meiosis

V. Concluding Remarks

References

17 Translational Regulation of Eukaryotic Protein Synthesis by Phosphorylation of eIF-2α

I. Introduction

II. Function of the Reversing Factor

III. Mechanism of Diminution of RF Activity by eIF-2α Phosphorylation

IV. Localization and Composition of the Sequestered RF Complex in Reticulocyte Lysates

V. Correlation between RF Activity and Protein Synthesis in Reticulocyte Lysates

VI. Double-Stranded RNA-Dependent eIF-2α Kinase

VII. Activation of dsI

VIII. Biological Significance of dsI

IX. Regulation of Protein Synthesis by Protein Phosphatases

X. Concluding Remarks

References

Index

Details

No. of pages:
576
Language:
English
Copyright:
© Academic Press 1985
Published:
Imprint:
Academic Press
eBook ISBN:
9781483277417

About the Editor

Alton L. Boynton

Hyam L. Leffert

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