Contemporary Research Methods in Pharmacy and Health Services

Contemporary Research Methods in Pharmacy and Health Services

1st Edition - May 10, 2022

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  • Editors: Shane Desselle, Victoria Garcia Cardenas, Claire Anderson, Parisa Aslani, Aleda Chen, Timothy Chen
  • Paperback ISBN: 9780323918886
  • eBook ISBN: 9780323914260

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Description

Emerging methods, as well as best practices in well-used methods, in pharmacy are of great benefit to researchers, graduate students, graduate programs, residents and fellows also in other health science areas. Researchers require a text to assist in the design of experiments to address seemingly age-old problems. New interventions are needed to improve medication adherence, patients’ lived experiences in health care, provider-patient relationships, and even various facets of pharmacogenomics. Advances in systems re-engineering can optimize health care practitioners’ roles. Contemporary Research Methods in Pharmacy and Health Services includes multi-authored chapters by renowned experts in their field. Chapters cover examples in pharmacy, health services and others transcendent of medical care, following a standardized format, including key research points; valid and invalid assumptions; pitfalls to avoid; applications; and further inquiry. This is a valuable resource for researchers both in academia and corporate R&D, primarily in pharmacy but also in health services, and other health disciplines. Social science researchers and government scientists can also benefit from the reading.

Key Features

  • Provides multi-authored chapters by renowned experts in their field
  • Includes examples for pharmacy and health services and others that are transcendent of medical care
  • Covers key research points, valid and invalid assumptions, pitfalls to avoid, applications, and further inquiry

Readership

Academicians and researchers in pharmacy and health services as well as other health disciplines; social science researchers. Government scientists, such as from AHRQ, NICE, FIMEA, and other

Table of Contents

  • Cover
  • Title page
  • Table of Contents
  • Copyright
  • Dedication
  • Contributors
  • About the Editors
  • Preface
  • Historical underpinnings and growth of pharmacy and health services research
  • Why we created this textbook
  • How the book is organized and its contents
  • What we hope you will gain from this book
  • Section I: Overarching Design and Reviews Considerations
  • Chapter 1: Applying human factors and ergonomics methods to pharmaceutical health services research
  • Abstract
  • Acknowledgments
  • Opportunities for HFE in pharmacy
  • HFE methods for pharmacy research and clinical practice
  • Comprehensive application of HFE methods in pharmacy research and practice
  • Case 1: Medication package, label, and information design
  • Case 2: Human-centered design of a digital decision aid for medication safety
  • Case 3: Clinic and pharmacy work system analysis of a medication cancellation health IT functionality
  • Conclusions and considerations
  • Questions for further discussion
  • Application exercise/scenario
  • References
  • Chapter 2: Designing complex health interventions using experience-based co-design
  • Abstract
  • Acknowledgments
  • Introduction
  • Interventions to improve the safety of medication management
  • What is co-design?
  • What is experience-based co-design?
  • Harnessing EBCD in wider health research processes
  • What are the stages of EBCD?
  • Adapting EBCD for intervention development and testing as part of a multiphase project
  • Methodological considerations
  • Ethical considerations
  • Accommodating local variation
  • Combining EBCD with behavior change theories and methods for intervention development
  • Skills needed for successful intervention development using EBCD
  • Summary
  • Questions for further discussion
  • Application exercise/scenario
  • References
  • Chapter 3: Use of common models to inform and design pharmacy and health services research
  • Abstract
  • Define the terms theory, framework, and model within health care research
  • Describe various theories, models, and frameworks that have been used and tested in health care research
  • Describe the steps in developing an idea to operationalization, implementation, testing, and analyzing results; on the springboard of a theory, framework, or model
  • Explain the conversion of results into meaningful applications for patient care, behavioral change, practice advancement, policy, and future research
  • Describe common pitfalls during the process and pearls for success
  • Summary
  • Questions for further discussion
  • Application exercise/scenario
  • References
  • Bibliography for each model in social and administrative sciences research (in primary journals RSAP and JAPhA) in the past 5 years
  • Chapter 4: Implementation science to guide pharmacy and health services research
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • An overview of implementation science
  • Theories, models, and frameworks in implementation research
  • Implementation strategies in health services research
  • Implementation research designs
  • Standards for reporting implementation research
  • Overall recommendations for conducting implementation research
  • Questions for further discussion
  • Application exercise/scenario
  • References
  • Chapter 5: CFIR framework in pharmacy and health services research
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • The consolidated framework for implementation research
  • Use of the consolidated framework for implementation research
  • Sample pharmacy studies using the consolidated framework for implementation research
  • Sample review applying and tailoring the CFIR framework to pharmacy services
  • Application of CFIR to a systematic review of factors influencing national implementation of innovations in community pharmacy
  • Conclusion
  • Questions for further discussion
  • Application exercise/scenario
  • References
  • Chapter 6: Principles and applications of metaresearch
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Historical overview
  • Thematic areas within metaresearch
  • Metaresearch methods and techniques
  • Importance of metaresearch
  • Getting involved in metaresearch
  • Conclusion
  • Questions for further discussion
  • Application exercise/scenario
  • References
  • Chapter 7: Best practices when conducting and reporting a meta-analysis
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Meta-analysis: Main concepts
  • Guidelines for conducting and reporting a meta-analysis
  • Meta-analysis components
  • Overall recommendations for reporting metaanalytical parameters
  • Benefits and limitations of meta-analyses
  • Meta-analyses on pharmacy services: Where do we stand?
  • Conclusions
  • Questions for further discussion
  • Application exercise/scenario
  • References
  • Chapter 8: Using methods from human-centered design in health research: An introduction for pharmacy and health services researchers
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • What is design?
  • Key design approaches
  • Human-centered design and health services research methods
  • Working collaboratively
  • Conclusion
  • Questions for further discussion
  • Application exercise/scenario
  • References
  • Section II: Emerging Methodological Approaches and Updates
  • Chapter 9: Applying action research in social pharmacy and health services research: An overview
  • Abstract
  • Acknowledgment
  • Introduction
  • Brief history
  • Definition
  • Types of action research
  • Spiral process and research methods used for data collection
  • Key characteristics
  • Quality criteria
  • Common limitations
  • Recommendations to pharmacy practice and health service research
  • Writing an action research report
  • Summary
  • Questions for further discussion
  • Application exercise/scenario
  • References
  • Chapter 10: Q methodology in pharmacy and health services research
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Origins
  • Principles
  • Rationale for Q methodology
  • Procedure
  • Conclusion
  • Questions for further discussion
  • Application exercise/scenario
  • References
  • Chapter 11: Medicines optimization and illness management research using dyads
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Key considerations when utilizing dyads in medicines optimization and illness management research
  • Conclusion
  • Questions for further discussion
  • Application exercise/scenario
  • References
  • Chapter 12: Using network analysis in pharmacy and health services research
  • Abstract
  • Acknowledgments
  • What is a network?
  • What is network analysis (NA)?
  • A brief introduction to the historical background of networks and network analysis
  • How has network analysis been used in public health?
  • The introduction of network analysis in drug utilization studies
  • How to create a medication use network?
  • Example data sources and the created networks
  • Examples of software to use for creating and studying networks
  • Terminology of network analysis and examples of applied measures
  • Conclusion
  • Questions for further discussion
  • Application exercise/scenario
  • References
  • Chapter 13: Designing, evaluating and applying pictograms in pharmacy practice research
  • Abstract
  • Overview of health-related pictograms
  • Current status of pictogram-related research
  • Insight into pictograms and their interpretation
  • Designing and/or modifying pictograms and reporting the process
  • Methods used to evaluate pictogram comprehension and recall
  • Comments on pictogram-based intervention studies
  • Study details often inadequately reported/absent103
  • Aspects to consider in future research
  • Questions for further discussion
  • Application exercise/scenario
  • References
  • Chapter 14: Application of photovoice in pharmacy and health services research
  • Abstract
  • What is photovoice?
  • Background
  • Guidelines to implement photovoice within pharmacy and health services research
  • The ethics of photovoice
  • Considerations for data analysis
  • Best practices for reporting research studies that implemented photovoice
  • Examples of photovoice projects relevant for pharmacy and health services research
  • Conclusion
  • Questions for further discussion
  • Application exercise/scenario
  • References
  • Chapter 15: The draw and write technique to uncover nuance in pharmacy and health services delivery
  • Abstract
  • Arts-informed research
  • Public perceptions of community pharmacy services
  • Methods
  • Results
  • Discussion
  • Conclusion
  • Questions for further discussion
  • Application exercise/scenario
  • References
  • Chapter 16: The use of art to analyze learning practices in pharmacy and to inform assessment and intervention practices
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Methods
  • Results and discussion
  • Reflections and conclusions
  • Questions for further discussion
  • Application exercise/scenario
  • Appendix: Assessment practices
  • References
  • Chapter 17: Evaluating benefits and harms of deprescribing using routinely collected data
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Emulating a target trial
  • Active comparator, new user design
  • Prior event rate ratio
  • Propensity score approaches
  • Self-controlled designs
  • Instrumental variables
  • Discussion
  • Questions for further discussion
  • Application exercise/scenario
  • References
  • Chapter 18: Understanding and addressing the observer effect in observation studies
  • Abstract
  • Acknowledgments
  • The observer effect
  • Exploring the observer effect in a specific study
  • Following up an observation study regarding the observer effect
  • Following up your observation study
  • Questions for further discussion
  • Application exercise/scenario
  • References
  • Chapter 19: An introduction to how realist research can inform pharmacy practice and policy
  • Abstract
  • Outline
  • Background
  • Case studies
  • Discussion
  • Conclusion
  • References
  • Chapter 20: Application of process philosophy with organization and management science in pharmacy and health services research
  • Abstract
  • Objectives
  • Introduction
  • How can the theory-practice “gap” be better explained and understood?
  • How can pharmacy practice be understood in a more practically rational way?
  • How can (re)organizing mentalities be better understood?
  • Methodological considerations: How can “the doing” of practice be explored?
  • Conclusion
  • Questions for further discussion
  • Application exercise/scenario
  • References
  • Chapter 21: Design and application of the simulated patient method in pharmacy and health services research
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Study design and application of the simulated patient method
  • Questions for further discussion
  • Application exercise/scenario
  • Appendix
  • References
  • Section III: Qualitative, Hybrid, and Consensus-Gathering Approaches
  • Chapter 22: Moderation analysis with binary outcomes: Interactions on additive and multiplicative scales
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Review of statistical models with binary outcomes
  • Review of the linear moderation model
  • Interactions in logistic regression: Two examples
  • The scale of interaction: Additive and multiplicative interactions
  • Conclusions
  • Questions for further discussion
  • Application exercise/scenario
  • References
  • Chapter 23: The use of ethnography in social pharmacy and health services research
  • Abstract
  • Introduction: Why ethnography?
  • Ethnography at a glance
  • Ethnographic epistemology
  • Doing ethnography
  • Ethics
  • Is ethnography right for me—And how to go forward?
  • Questions for further discussion
  • Application exercises/scenarios
  • References
  • Chapter 24: Video-reflexive ethnography applications in pharmacy and health services research
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • The potential for VRE applications in pharmacy practice research
  • Discussion: Using VRE in the community pharmacy setting
  • Conclusions
  • Questions for further discussion
  • Application exercise/scenario
  • Appendix
  • References
  • Chapter 25: Reflexivity practice during ethnographic informed fieldwork
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Importance and challenges with rapport building
  • Positionality and intersectionality
  • Discussion
  • Questions for further discussion
  • Application exercise/scenario
  • References
  • Chapter 26: Utilizing a cognitive engineering approach to conduct a hierarchical task analysis to understand complex patient decision making
  • Abstract
  • Introduction: Hierarchical task analysis
  • A framework for conducting hierarchical task analysis
  • A case study: Understanding how older adults select over-the-counter medications from their community pharmacy using hierarchical task analysis
  • Conclusion
  • Questions for further discussion
  • Application exercise/scenario
  • References
  • Chapter 27: Rapid turn-around qualitative analysis applications in pharmacy and health services research
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Rapid assessment procedures
  • Application of rapid assessment procedures in the healthcare setting
  • Application of rapid assessment procedures in pharmacy practice
  • Future use of RAP
  • Conclusion
  • Questions for further discussion
  • Application exercise/scenario
  • References
  • Chapter 28: Best practices in mixed methods for pharmacy and health services research
  • Abstract
  • Introduction to mixed methods
  • Methodological limitations in social pharmacy research and corresponding solutions
  • Tools and techniques in mixed methods research
  • Publishing and reviewing mixed method studies
  • Recommendations for mixed methods research in social pharmacy
  • Conclusion
  • Questions for further discussion
  • Application exercise/scenario
  • References
  • Chapter 29: Using textual data in qualitative pharmacy and health services research
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Benefits and challenges of using existing textual data
  • Collecting existing textual data
  • Data analysis
  • Examples of work
  • Reflections from the examples of work
  • Conclusion
  • Questions for further discussion
  • Application exercise/scenario
  • References
  • Chapter 30: Online focus group methodology: Recruitment, facilitation, and reimbursement
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Methods
  • Additional observations and important considerations of online facilitation
  • Potential advantages and limitations of online focus groups
  • Summary
  • Questions for further discussion
  • Application exercise/scenario
  • References
  • Chapter 31: Consensus development methods: Use in the production of national and international frameworks and tools in health systems and policy making
  • Abstract
  • Ethics
  • Declaration of interest
  • Author contributions
  • Introduction
  • What are consensus development methods?
  • How have CDMs been used at national and international levels?
  • Discussion
  • Conclusion
  • Questions for further discussion
  • Application exercise/scenario
  • References
  • Chapter 32: An overview of the Delphi technique in social pharmacy and health services research
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Mechanics of the Delphi
  • Origins of the Delphi
  • Advantages and disadvantages
  • Conclusion
  • Questions for further discussion
  • Application exercise/scenario
  • References
  • Chapter 33: Applying the Delphi technique in pharmacy and health services research
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Review of pharmacy practice Delphi technique studies
  • Important highlights from the review
  • An exemplary case study
  • Recommendations for researchers thinking about using Delphi in their research
  • Questions for further discussion
  • Application exercise/scenario
  • References
  • Section IV: Quantitative Approaches and Analytical Considerations
  • Chapter 34: Using prescription drug databases for comorbidity adjustment: A remedy for disaster or a prescription for improved model fit?
  • Abstract
  • Methods
  • Review of Charlson comorbidity index
  • Review of Elixhauser comorbidity index
  • Charlson comorbidity index vs. Elixhauser comorbidity index
  • Review of pharmacy measures
  • Advantages of prescription measures
  • Disadvantages of prescription measures
  • Pharmacy vs. diagnostic measures
  • Combining diagnostic and prescription
  • Future of prescription measures
  • Current recommendations
  • Questions for further discussion
  • Application exercise/scenario
  • References
  • Chapter 35: Handling missing data in surveys—Concepts, approaches, and applications in pharmacy and health services research
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Planning for missing data
  • Analyzing data with missing values
  • Missing data in special circumstances
  • Reporting on missing data
  • Summary
  • Questions for further discussion
  • Application exercise/scenario
  • References
  • Chapter 36: Use of national databases and surveys to evaluate prescribing patterns and medication use
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Scope of the NAMCS and NHAMCS
  • Sample design in the NAMCS and NHAMCS
  • Data collection for the NAMCS and NHAMCS
  • Processing of the NAMCS/NHAMCS data
  • Strengths of the NAMCS/NHAMCS
  • Analytical considerations of the NAMCS/NHAMCS
  • Common challenges with the NAMCS/NHAMCS
  • Evaluating prescribing practices with the NAMCS/NHAMCS
  • Approaches for evaluating prescribing practicing
  • Conclusions
  • Questions for further discussion
  • Application exercise/scenario
  • References
  • Chapter 37: Latent class and latent class regression
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • LCA
  • Example LCA analysis
  • LC-regression
  • Summary
  • Questions for further discussion
  • Application exercise/scenario
  • References
  • Chapter 38: Guidelines and standards in medication adherence research
  • Abstract
  • Medication adherence guidelines
  • Recommendations to improve research on medication adherence
  • Types of medication adherence measures
  • Conclusions
  • Questions for further discussion
  • Application exercise/scenario
  • References
  • Chapter 39: Methodological and disciplinary competence and insecurity in qualitative research
  • Abstract
  • Qualitative research within social pharmacy
  • Underlying understanding of epistemology
  • Methodological and disciplinary competence and insecurity
  • Reflexivity
  • Transparency and checklists
  • Quality criteria
  • Sample size, saturation and information power
  • Going forward
  • Questions for further discussion
  • Application exercise/scenario
  • References
  • Chapter 40: Contemporary conceptualization of measurement validity
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • What is validity?
  • Historical overview of the concept of validity
  • Discussing validity when reporting research
  • Conclusions
  • Discussion questions
  • Application exercise/scenario
  • References
  • Chapter 41: A practical approach to the assessment and quantification of content validity
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Components of content validity
  • Assessment of the content validity
  • Conclusion
  • Questions for further discussion
  • Application exercises/scenarios
  • References
  • Chapter 42: Key processes and popular analyses in the SEM family of techniques
  • Abstract
  • Objectives
  • Introduction
  • Mathematical overview
  • Analytic process
  • Interpreting and reporting
  • Popular analyses
  • Bayesian SEM
  • Conclusion
  • Questions for further discussion
  • References
  • Chapter 43: Statistical considerations when making potential multiple comparisons
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Type-I and Type-II error
  • Arguments for and against making adjustments
  • Conclusion
  • Questions for further discussion
  • Application exercise/scenario
  • References
  • Index

Product details

  • No. of pages: 670
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Academic Press 2022
  • Published: May 10, 2022
  • Imprint: Academic Press
  • Paperback ISBN: 9780323918886
  • eBook ISBN: 9780323914260

About the Editors

Shane Desselle

Shane Desselle is a Professor at Touro University California and president of Applied Pharmacy Solutions. His research skills include psychometric scaling, including the use of interval and ratio scaling procedures; competency in the use of instruments to measure quality-of-life and outcomes, including the SF-36 and Asthma Quality of Life Questionnaire; secondary data analysis-including NAMCS and state Medicaid; a wide variety of methodologies including unobtrusive observation, content analysis, survey questionnaires, and personal interview.

Affiliations and Expertise

Professor of Social/Behavior Pharmacy, Touro University California, USA

Victoria Garcia Cardenas

Victoria Garcia Cardenas is a Senior Lecturer in Pharmacy at the University of Technology Sydney. Her teaching and research interests encompass different aspects of pharmacy practice such as medication adherence, the evaluation and implementation of professional pharmacy services and practice change in community pharmacy. She has published over 40 papers in refereed journals, six major research reports and presented and co-authored 40 conference presentations. Victoria is currently involved in five national and international research projects for the evaluation and implementation of professional services in community pharmacy.

Affiliations and Expertise

Senior Lecturer in Pharmacy, University of Technology Sydney, Australia

Claire Anderson

Claire Anderson is a Professor of Social Pharmacy, School of Pharmacy, University of Nottingham. Her current research areas include people’s experiences of using of medicines; pharmacy education development and pharmacy workforce; medicines at the end of life; pharmacy services e.g. immunisation, services for cancer survivors and osteoporosis.

Affiliations and Expertise

Professor of Social Pharmacy, School of Pharmacy, University of Nottingham, UK

Parisa Aslani

Professor Parisa Aslani, Professor in Medicines Use Optimisation, The University of Sydney, NSW 2006. She is a co-chair of Curriculum Review for the BPharm and MPharm degrees. Expert advisor to staff regarding teaching and learning matters. For example, the development of oral examination rubrics for MPharm UoS PHAR5716 and PHAR5717. Director of Academic Career Development (School of Pharmacy), Faculty of Medicine and Health (0.5 FTE). Vice-President, International Pharmaceutical Federation (FIP) (since 2020).

Affiliations and Expertise

Professor in Medicines Use Optimisation, The University of Sydney, Australia

Aleda Chen

Aleda M. H. Chen, PharmD, MS, PhD, FAPhA, Professor and Associate Dean at Cedarville University, Cedarville, OH. Dual-Title Doctor of Philosophy in Pharmacy Practice and Gerontology, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN, Aug 2011.

Affiliations and Expertise

Professor and Associate Dean, Cedarville University, Cedarville, OH, USA

Timothy Chen

Timothy Chen is a Professor of Medication Management at The University of Sydney, Australia. Professor Timothy Chen is nationally and internationally renowned for his research in medication review and strategies to reduce medication related harm. His research has informed significant practice change, through the implementation of the Commonwealth Government funded Home Medicines Review (HMR) program, provided by pharmacists and GPs. He currently leads a large and productive research team including supervision of PhD, Masters and Honours candidates.

Affiliations and Expertise

Professor of Medication Management, The University of Sydney, Australia

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